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or even more, of coarse linen duck, or carpet, and stuff this full of
bran, sawdust, or sand, sew up the end, and use this the same as the
twigs. It forms an excellent extemporaneous splint. Another good plan
is to get a hat-box made of chip, and cut it into suitable lengths; or
for want of all these, take some bones out of a pair of stays, and run
them through a stout piece of rug, protecting the leg with a fold of
rug, linen, &c. A still better splint or set of splints can be
extemporized by cutting a sheet of thick pasteboard into proper sized
slips, then passing each piece through a basin of hot water to soften
it. It is then applied to the fractured limb like an ordinary splint,
when it hardens as it dries, taking the exact shape of the part to
which it is applied.


837. Applying Dry Warmth.

When dry warmth is required to be applied to any part of the body, fry
a flour pancake and lay it over the part; or warm some sand and place
in the patient's socks, and lay it to the part; salt put into a paper
bag does as well; or warm water put into a stone jar, and rolled up in

838. Minor Operations.

839. Bleeding

Bleeding is sometimes necessary at once in certain accidents, such as
concussion, and therefore it is well to know how to do this. First of
all, bind up the arm above the elbow with a piece of bandage or a
handkerchief pretty firmly, then place your finger over one of the
veins at the bend of the arm, and feel if there is any pulsation; if
there is, try another vein, and if it does not pulsate or beat, choose
that one. Now rub the arm from the wrist towards the elbow, place the
left thumb upon the vein, and hold the lancet as you would a pen, and
nearly at right angles to the vein, taking care to prevent its going
in too far, by keeping the thumb near to the point, and resting the
hand upon the little finger. Now place the point of the lancet on the
vein, push it suddenly inwards, depress the elbow, and raise the hand
upwards and outwards, so as to _cut obliquely across_ the vein.

When sufficient blood is drawn off, which is known by feeling the
pulse at the wrist, and near the thumb, bandage the arm. If the pulse
feel like a piece of cord, more blood should be taken away, but if it
is soft, and can be easily pressed, the bleeding should be stopped.
When you bandage the arm, place a piece of lint over the opening made
by the lancet, and pass a bandage lightly but firmly around the arm,
so as to cross it over the bend of the elbow, in form of a figure 8.

840. Dry Cupping

Dry cupping is performed by throwing a piece of paper dipped into
spirit of wine, and ignited, into a wineglass, and placing it over the
part, such as the neck, temples, &c. It thus draws the flesh into the
glass, and causes a determination of blood to the part, which is
useful in headache, and many other complaints. This is an excellent
method of extracting the poison from wounds made by adders, mad dogs,
fish, &c.

841. Ordinary Cupping

Ordinary Cupping is performed the same as dry cupping, with this
exception, that the part is scarified or scratched with a lancet, so
as to cause the blood to flow; or by the application of a
scarificator, which makes by one action from seven to twenty-one light
superficial cuts. Then the glass is placed over it again with the
lighted paper in it, and when sufficient blood has been taken away,
the parts are then sponged, and a piece of sticking plaster placed
over them.

842. Leeches and their Application.

The leech used for medical purposes is called the _hirudo medicinalis_
to distinguish it from other varieties, such as the horse-leech and
the Lisbon leech. It varies from two to four inches in length, and is
of a blackish brown colour, marked on the back with six yellow spots,
and edged with a yellow line on each side. Formerly leeches were
supplied by Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and other fenny countries, but
latterly most of the leeches are procured from France, where they are
now becoming scarce.

843. When Leeches are Applied

When leeches are applied to a part, it should be thoroughly freed from
down or hair by shaving, and all liniments, &c., carefully and
effectually cleaned away by washing. If the leech is hungry it will
soon bite, but sometimes great difficulty is experienced in getting
them to fasten. When this is the case, roll the leech into a little
porter, or moisten the surface with a little blood, or milk, or sugar
and water. Leeches may be applied by holding them over the part with a
piece of linen cloth, or by means of an inverted glass, under which
they must be placed.

844. When applied to the Gums

When applied to the gums, care should be taken to use a leech glass,
as they are apt to creep down the patient's throat: a large swan's
quill will answer the purpose of a leech glass. When leeches are
gorged they will drop off themselves; never _tear_ them off from a
person, but just dip the point of a moistened finger into some salt
and touch them with it.


845. Quantity Removed.

Leeches are supposed to abstract about two drachms of blood, or six
leeches draw about an ounce; but this is independent of the bleeding
after they have come off, and more blood generally flows then than
during the time they are sucking. The total amount of blood drawn and
subsequently lost by each leech-bite, is nearly half an ounce.

846. After Leeches Come Away,

After leeches come away, encourage the bleeding by flannels dipped in
hot water and wrung out dry, and then apply a warm spongiopiline
poultice. If the bleeding is not to be encouraged, cover the bites
with a rag dipped in olive oil, or spread with spermaceti ointment,
having previously sponged the parts clean.

847. When Bleeding Continues

When bleeding continues from leech-bites, and it is desirable to stop
it, apply pressure with the fingers over the part, or dip a rag in a
strong solution of alum and lay over them, or use the tincture of
sesquichloride of iron, or apply a leaf of matico to them, placing the
under surface of the leaf next to the skin, or touch each bite with a
finely-pointed piece of lunar caustic, or lay a piece of lint soaked
in the extract of lead over the bites; and if all these tried in
succession fail, pass a fine needle through a fold of the skin so as
to include the bite, and twist a piece of thread round it. Be sure
never to allow any one to go to sleep with leech-bites bleeding,
without watching them carefully; and never apply too many to children;
or place them where their bites can be compressed if necessary. In
other words, _never apply leeches to children except over a bone_.

848. After Leeches have been Used

After leeches have been used they should be placed in water containing
sixteen per cent. of salt, which facilitates the removal of the blood
they contain; and they should afterwards be placed one by one in warm
water, and the blood forced out by _gentle_ pressure. The leeches
should then be thrown into fresh water, which is to be renewed every
twenty-four hours: they may then be re-applied after an interval of
eight or ten days, and be disgorged a second time. The best plan,
however, is to empty the leech by drawing the thumb and forefinger of
the right hand along its body from the tail to the mouth, the leech
being firmly held at the sucker extremity by the fingers of the left
hand. By this means, with a few minutes' rest between each
application, the same leech may be used four or five times in

849. If a Leech be Accidentally Swallowed,

If a leech be accidentally swallowed, or by any means should get into
the body, employ an emetic, or enema of salt and water.

850. Scarification

Scarification is useful in severe contusions, and inflammation of
parts. It is performed by scratching or slightly cutting through the
skin with a lancet, holding the lancet as you would a pen when you are
ruling lines on paper.

851. Terms used to express the Properties of Medicines.

852. Absorbents

Absorbents are medicines which destroy acidity in the stomach and
bowels, such as magnesia, prepared chalk, &c.

853. Alteratives

Alteratives are medicines which restore health to the constitution,
without producing any sensible effect, such as sarsaparilla, sulphur,

854. Analeptics

Analeptics are medicines that restore the strength which has been lost
by sickness, such as gentian, bark, &c.

855. Anodynes

Anodynes are medicines which relieve pain, and they are divided into
three kinds, _sedatives, hypnotics,_ and _narcotics_ (see these
terms); camphor is anodyne as well as narcotic.

856. Antacids

Antacids are medicines which destroy acidity, such as lime, magnesia,
soda, &c.


857. Antalkalies

Antalkalies are medicines given to neutralize alkalies in the system,
such as citric, nitric, and sulphuric, acids, &c.

858. Anthelmintics

Anthelmintics are medicines used to expel and destroy worms from the
stomach and intestines, such as turpentine, cowhage, male fern, &c.

859. Antibilious

Antibilious are medicines which are useful in bilious affections, such
as calomel, &c.

860. Antirheumatics

Antirheumatics are medicines used for the cure of rheumatism, such as
colchicum, iodide of potash, &c.

861. Antiscorbutics

Antiscorbutics are medicines against scurvy, such as citric acid, &c.

862. Antiseptics

Antiseptics are substances used to correct putrefaction, such as bark,
camphor, charcoal, vinegar, and creosote.

863. Antispasmodics

Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming
spasms of the muscles, or allaying severe pain from any cause
unconnected with inflammation, such as valerian, ammonia, opium, and

864. Aperients

Aperients are medicines which move the bowels gently, such as rhubarb,
manna, and grey powder.

865. Aromatics

Aromatics are cordial, spicy, and agreeably-flavoured, medicines, such
as cardamoms, cinnamon, &c.

866. Astringents

Astringents are medicines which contract the fibres of the body,
diminish excessive discharges, and act indirectly as tonics, such as
oak bark, galls, &c.

867. Attenuants

Attenuants are medicines which are supposed to thin the blood, such as
ammoniated iron, &c.

868. Balsamics

Balsamics are medicines of a soothing kind, such as tolu, Peruvian
balsam, &c.

869. Carminatives

Carminatives are medicines which allay pain in the stomach and bowels,
and expel flatulence, such as aniseed water, &c.

870. Cathartics

Cathartics are strong purgative medicines, such as jalap, &c.

871. Cordials

Cordials are exhilarating and warming medicines, such as aromatic
confection, &c.

872. Corroborants

Corroborants are medicines and food which increase the strength, such
as iron, gentian, meat, and wine.

873. Demulcents

Demulcents correct acrimony, diminish irritation, and soften parts by
covering their surfaces with a mild and viscid matter, such as
linseed-tea, gum, mucilage, honey, and marsh-mallow.

874. Deobstruents

Deobstruents are medicines which remove obstructions, such as iodide
of potash, &c.

875. Detergents

Detergents clean the surfaces over which they pass, such as soap, &c.

876. Diaphoretics

Diaphoretics produce perspiration, such as tartrate of antimony,
James's powder, and camphor.

877. Digestives

Digestives are remedies applied to ulcers or wounds, to promote the
formation of matter, such as resin, ointments, warm poultices, &c.

878. Discutients

Discutients possess the power of repelling or resolving tumours, such
as galbanum, mercury, and iodine.

879. Diuretics

Diuretics act upon the kidneys and bladder, and increase the flow of
urine, such as nitre, squills, cantharides, camphor, antimony, and

880. Drastics

Drastics are violent purgatives, such as gamboge, &c.

881. Emetics

Emetics produce vomiting, or the discharge of the contents of the
stomach, such as mustard and hot water, tartar-emetic, ipecacuanha,
sulphate of zinc, and sulphate of copper.

882. Emmenagogues

Emmenagogues are medicines which exercise a direct action on the
uterus or womb, provoking the natural periodical secretion, such as
castor, asafoetida, galbanum, iron, mercury, aloes, hellebore, savine,
ergot of rye, juniper, and pennyroyal.

883. Emollients

Emollients are remedies used externally to soften the parts they are
applied to, such as spermaceti, palm oil, &c.

884. Epispastics

Epispastics are medicines which blister or cause effusion of serum
under the cuticle, such as Spanish flies, Burgundy pitch, rosin, and

885. Errhines

Errhines are medicines which produce sneezing, such as tobacco, &c.

886. Escharotics

Escharotics are medicines which corrode or destroy the vitality of the
part to which they are applied, such as lunar caustic, &c.


887. Expectorants

Expectorants are medicines which increase expectoration, or the
discharge from the bronchial tubes, such as ipecacuanha, squills,
opium, ammoniacum.

888. Febrifuges

Febrifuges are remedies used in fevers, such as all the antimonials,
bark, quinine, mineral acids, arsenic.

889. Hydragogues

Hydragogues are medicines which have the effect of removing the fluid
of dropsy, by producing watery evacuations, such as gamboge, calomel,

890. Hypnotics

Hypnotics are medicines that relieve pain by procuring sleep, such as
hops, henbane, morphia, poppy.

891. Laxatives

Laxatives are medicines which cause the bowels to act rather more than
natural, such as manna, &c.

892. Narcotics

Narcotics are medicines which cause sleep or stupor, and allay pain,
such as opium, &c.

893. Nutrients

Nutrients are remedies that nourish the body, such as sugar, sago, &c.

894. Paregorics

Paregorics are medicines which actually assuage pain, such as compound
tincture of camphor, henbane, hops, opium.

895. Prophylactics

Prophylactics are remedies employed to prevent the attack of any
particular disease, such as quinine, &c.

896. Purgatives

Purgatives are medicines that promote the evacuation of the bowels,
such as senna, aloes, jalap, salts.

897. Refrigerants

Refrigerants are medicines which suppress an unusual heat of the body,
such as wood-sorrel, tamarind, &c.

898. Rubefacients

Rubefacients are medicaments which cause redness of the skin, such as
mustard, &c.

899. Sedatives

Sedatives are medicines which depress the nervous energy, and destroy
sensation, so as to compose, such as foxglove. (_See_ Paregorics.)

900. Sialogogues

Sialogogues are medicines which promote the flow of saliva or spittle,
such as salt, calomel, &c.

901. Soporifics

Soporifics are medicines which induce sleep, such as hops, &c.

902. Stimulants

Stimulants are remedies which increase the action of the heart and
arteries, or the energy of the part to which they are applied, such as
food, wine, spirits, ether, sassafras, which is an internal stimulant,
and savine, which is an external one.

903. Stomachics

Stomachics restore the tone of the stomach, such as gentian, &c.

904. Styptics

Styptics are medicines which constrict the surface of a part, and
prevent the effusion of blood, such as kino, Friar's balsam, extract
of lead, and ice.

905. Sudorifics

Sudorifics promote profuse perspiration or sweating, such as
ipecacuanha, antimony, James's powder, ammonia.

906. Tonics

Tonics give general strength to the constitution, restore the natural
energies, and improve the tone of the system, such as all the
vegetable bitters, most of the minerals, also some kinds of food,
wine, and beer.

907. Vesicants

Vesicants are medicines which blister, such as strong liquid ammonia,

908. Special Rules for the Prevention of Cholera.

i. It is impossible to urge too strongly the necessity, in all cases
of cholera, of instant recourse to medical aid, and also in every form
and variety of indisposition; for all disorders are found to merge in
the dominant disease.

ii. Let immediate Relief be sought under disorder of the bowels
especially, however slight. The invasion of cholera may thus be
readily prevented.

iii. Let every Impurity, animal and vegetable, be quickly removed to a
distance from the habitation, such as slaughterhouses, pig-sties,
cesspools, necessaries, and all other domestic nuisances.

iv. Let all Uncovered Drains be carefully and frequently cleansed.

v. Let the Grounds in and around the habitation be drained, so as
effectually to carry off moisture of every kind.

vi. Let all Partitions he removed from within and without habitations,
which unnecessarily impede ventilation.

vii. Let every Room be daily thrown open for the admission of fresh
air; this should be done about noon, when the atmosphere is most
likely to be dry.

viii. Let Dry Scrubbing be used in domestic cleansing in place of
water cleansing.

ix. Let excessive Fatigue, and exposure to damp and cold, especially
during the night, be avoided.

x. Let the Use of Cold Drinks and acid liquors, especially under
fatigue, be avoided, or when the body is heated.

xi. Let the Use of Cold Acid Fruits and vegetables be avoided.

xii. Let Excess in the use of ardent and fermented liquors and tobacco
be avoided.

xiii. Let a Poor Diet, and the use of impure water in cooking, or for
drinking, be avoided.

xiv. Let the Wearing of wet and insufficient clothes be avoided.

xv. Let a Flannel or woollen belt be worn round the belly.

xvi. Let Personal Cleanliness be carefully observed.

xvii. Let every cause tending to depress the moral and physical
energies be carefully avoided. Let exposure to extremes of heat and
cold be avoided.

xviii. Let Crowding of persons within houses and apartments be

xix. Let Sleeping in low or damp rooms be avoided.

xx. Let Fires be kept up during the night in sleeping or adjoining
apartments, the night being the period of most danger from attack,
especially under exposure to cold or damp.

xxi. Let all Bedding and clothing be daily exposed during winter and
spring to the fire, and in summer to the heat of the sun.

xxii. Let the Dead be buried in places remote from the habitations of
the living. By the timely adoption of simple means such as these,
cholera, or other epidemic, will be made to lose its venom.


909. Rules for the Preservation of Health.

910. Fresh Air.

Pure atmospheric air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and a _very_
small proportion of carbonic acid gas. Air once breathed has lost the
chief part of its oxygen, and acquired a proportionate increase of
carbonic acid gas.

_Therefore_, health requires that we breathe the same air once only.

911. Diet and Exercise.

The solid part of our Bodies is continually wasting, and requires to
be repaired by fresh substances.

_Therefore_, food which is to repair the loss, should be taken with
due regard to the exercise and waste of the body.

912. Water.

The fluid part of our bodies also wastes constantly; there is but one
fluid in animals, which is water.

_Therefore_, water only is necessary, and no artifice can produce a
better drink.

913. Proportion of Food and Drink.

The fluid of our bodies is to the solid in proportion as nine to one.

_Therefore_, a like proportion should prevail in the total amount of
food taken.

914. Sunshine.

Light exercises an important influence upon the growth and vigour of
animals and plants.

_Therefore_, our dwellings should freely admit the solar rays.

915. Bad Odours.

Decomposing animal and vegetable substances yield various noxious
gases which enter the lungs and corrupt the blood.

_Therefore_, all impurities should be kept away from our abodes, and
every precaution be observed to secure a pure atmosphere.

916. Warmth.

Warmth is essential to all the bodily functions.

_Therefore_, an equal bodily temperature should be maintained by
exercise, by clothing, or by fire.

917. Exercise and Clothing.

Exercise warms, invigorates and purifies the body; clothing preserves
the warmth the body generates; fire imparts warmth externally.

_Therefore_, to obtain and preserve warmth, exercise and clothing are
preferable to fire.

918. Ventilation.

Fire consumes the Oxygen of the air, and produces noxious gases.

_Therefore_, the air is less pure in the presence of candles, gas, or
coal fire, than otherwise, and the deterioration should be repaired by
increased ventilation.


919. Clean Skin.

The skin is a highly-organized membrane, full of minute pores, cells,
bloodvessels, and nerves; it imbibes moisture or throws it off,
according to the state of the atmosphere and the temperature of the
body. It also "breathes," as do the lungs (though less actively). All
the internal organs sympathize with the skin.

_Therefore,_ it should be repeatedly cleansed.

920. Over-Work.

Late hours and anxious pursuits exhaust the nervous system, and produce
disease and premature death.

_Therefore_, the hours of labour and study should be short.

921. Body and Mind.

Mental and bodily exercise are equally essential to the general health
and happiness.

_Therefore_, labour and study should succeed each other.

922. Over-Indulgence.

Man will live most healthily upon simple solids and fluids, of which a
sufficient but temperate quantity should be taken.

_Therefore_, over indulgence in strong drinks, tobacco, snuff, opium,
and all mere indulgences, should be avoided.

923. Moderate Temperature.

Sudden alternations of heat and cold are dangerous (especially to the
young and the aged).

_Therefore_, clothing, in quantity and quality, should be adapted to the
alternations of night and day, and of the seasons; and drinking cold
water when the body is hot, and hot tea and soups when cold, are
productive of many evils.

924. Summary.

Moderation in eating and drinking, short hours of labour and study,
regularity in exercise, recreation, and rest, cleanliness, equanimity
of temper and equality of temperature, - these are the great
essentials to that which surpasses all wealth, _health of mind and

925. Homoeopathy.

926. Principle of Homoeopathy.

As homoeopathy is now practised so widely and, indeed, preferred to
the older system in many families, the Domestic Pharmacopoeia could
scarcely lay claim to be considered complete without a brief mention
of the principal remedies used and recommended by homoeopathic
practitioners, and the disorders for which these remedies are
specially applicable. The principle of homoeopathy is set forth in the
Latin words "_similia similibus curantur_," the meaning of which is
"likes are cured by likes."

The meaning of this is simply that the homoeopathist in order to cure
a disease, administers a medicine which would produce in a perfectly
healthy subject, symptoms _like_, but not _identical_ with or the
_same_ as, the symptoms to counteract which the medicine is given. The
homoeopathic practitioner, therefore, first makes himself thoroughly
acquainted with the symptoms that are exhibited by the sufferer;
having ascertained these, in order to neutralize them and restore the
state of the patient's health to a state of equilibrium, so to speak,
he administers preparations that would produce symptoms of a like
character in persons in good health.

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