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Take hold of one of the folded corners, and draw its point towards the
centre; then do the same with the other, as in making a cocked-hat, or
a boat, of paper. Then take hold of the two remaining corners, and
twisting the hem of the handkerchief, continue to roll it until it
meets the double corners brought to the centre, and catches them up a
little. Lift the whole, and you will see the form of a cap, which,
when applied to the head, will cover the head and ears, and, being
tied under the chin, will not come off. Very little practice will
enable you to regulate the size of the folds so as to fit the head.


2282. Scotch Punch, or Whisky Toddy.

Pour about a wineglassful of _boiling_ water into a half-pint tumbler,
and sweeten according to taste. Stir well up, then put in a
wineglassful of whisky, and add a wineglassful and a half more boiling
water. _Be sure the water _is boiling_. Never put lemon into toddy.
The two in combination, in almost every instance, produce acidity in
the stomach. If possible, store your whisky _in the wood_, not in
bottles as keeping it in the cask mellows it, and dissipates the
coarser particles.


[MAN DOUBLES HIS EVILS BY BROODING UPON THEM.]


2283. Athol Brose.

Put a wineglassful of whisky into a half-pint tumbler; sweeten with a
large teaspoonful of honey, and fill up with milk that has been
_nearly_ brought to boiling over a clear fire. Remember that "milk
boiled is milk spoiled."


2284. Buttered Rum.

Put a wineglassful of good rum into a half-pint tumbler, with a lump
or two of sugar and a piece of butter the size of a filbert. Fill up
with _boiling_ water. This is excellent for hoarseness and husky
condition of the throat.


2285. Raspberry Vinegar.

Put a pound of very fine ripe raspberries in a bowl, _bruise them
well_, and pour upon them a quart of the best white wine vinegar; next
day strain the liquor on a pound of fresh ripe raspberries; bruise
_them_ also, and the following day do the same, _but do not squeeze
the fruit, or it will make it ferment_; only drain the liquor as dry
as you can from it. Finally, pass it through a canvas bag, previously
wet with the vinegar, to prevent waste. Put the juice into a stone
jar, with a _pound of sugar_, broken into lumps, to _every pint of
juice_; stir, and when melted, put the jar into a pan of water; let it
simmer, and skim it; let it cool, then bottle it; when cold it will be
fine, and thick, like strained honey, newly prepared.


2286. Ginger Beer.

The following receipt is taken from the celebrated treatise of Dr.
Pereira on Diet. The honey gives the beverage a peculiar softness, and
from not being fermented with yeast, it is less violent in its action
when opened, but requires to be kept a somewhat longer time before
use. White sugar, five pounds; lemon juice, one quarter of a pint;
honey, one quarter of a pound; ginger, bruised, five ounces; water,
four gallons and a half. Boil the ginger in three quarts of the water
for half an hour, then add the sugar, lemon juice and honey, with the
remainder of the water, and strain through a cloth; when cold add a
quarter of the white of an egg, and a small teaspoonful of essence of
lemon; let the whole stand four days, and bottle; it will keep for
many months. This quantity will make 100 bottles.


2287. Ginger-beer Powders.

_Blue paper_; Carbonate of soda, thirty grains; powdered ginger, five
grains; ground white sugar, one drachm to one drachm and a half;
essence of lemon, one drop. Add the essence to the sugar, then the
other ingredients. A quantity should be mixed and divided, as
recommended for Seidlitz powders. - _White paper_; Tartaric acid,
thirty grains. _Directions_. - Dissolve the contents of the blue paper
in water; stir in the contents of the white paper, and drink during
effervescence. Ginger-beer powders do not meet with such general
acceptation as lemon and kali, the powdered ginger rendering the
liquid slightly turbid.


2288. Lemonade.

Powdered sugar, four pounds; citric or tartaric acid, one ounce;
essence of lemon, two drachms; mix well. Two or three teaspoonfuls
make a very sweet and agreeable glass of extemporaneous lemonade.


2289. Milk Lemonade.

Dissolve three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar in one pint of
boiling water, and mix with them one gill of lemon juice, and one gill
of sherry, then add three gills of cold milk. Stir the whole well
together, and strain it.


2290. Champagne Lemonade.

Champagne Lemonade, composed of two bottles of champagne, one bottle
of seltzer water, three pomegranates, three lemons, and of sugar
sufficient, is a _princely beverage_ in hot weather; only care must be
taken that perspiration is not hereby too much encouraged.


2291. Summer Champagne.

To four parts of seltzer water add one of Moselle wine (or hock), and
put a teaspoonful of powdered sugar into a wineglassful of this
mixture; an effervescence takes place, and the result is a sort of
champagne, which is more wholesome in hot weather than the genuine
wine known by that name.


[THINK OF EASE BUT WORK ON.]


2292. Lemon and Kali, or Sherbet.

Large quantities of this wholesome and refreshing preparation are
manufactured and consumed every summer; it is sold in bottles, and
also as a beverage, made by dissolving a large teaspoonful in a
tumbler two-thirds filled with water. The ingredients are - ground
white sugar, half a pound; tartaric acid and carbonate of soda, of
each a quarter of a pound; essence of lemon, forty drops. All the
powders should be well dried; add the essence to the sugar, then the
other powders; stir all together, and mix by passing twice through a
hair sieve. Must be kept in tightly-corked bottles, into which a damp
spoon must not be inserted. The sugar must be ground, or very finely
pulverized, in a pestle and mortar. The powdered sugar sold for icing
cakes will do.


2293. Soda Water Powders.

One pound of carbonate of soda, and thirteen and a half ounces of
tartaric acid, supply the materials for 256 powders of each sort. Put
into blue papers thirty grains of carbonate of soda, and into white
papers twenty-five grains of tartaric acid.

_Directions_. - Dissolve the contents of the blue paper in half a
tumbler of water, stir in the other powder, and drink during
effervescence. Soda powders furnish a saline beverage which is very
slightly laxative, and well calculated to allay the thirst in hot
weather.


2294. Seidlitz Powders.

Seidlitz powders are usually put up in two papers. The larger blue
paper contains tartarized soda (also called Rochelle salt) two
drachms, and carbonate of soda two scruples; in practice it will he
found more convenient to mix the two materials in larger quantity by
passing them twice through a sieve, and then divide the mixture either
by weight or measure, than to make each powder separately. One pound
of tartarized soda, and five ounces and a half of carbonate of soda,
will make sixty powders. The smaller powder, usually placed in white
paper, consists of tartaric acid, half a drachm.

_Directions for Use_. - Dissolve the contents of blue paper in half a
tumbler of cold water, stir in the other powder, and drink during
effervescence. (_See par_. 2291.)


2295. Economy of Tea.

A given quantity of tea is similar to malt - only imparting strength to
a given quantity of water, therefore any additional quantity is waste.
Two small teaspoonfuls of good black tea and one three parts full of
green, is sufficient to make three teacupfuls agreeable, the water
being put in, in a boiling state, at once; a second addition of water
gives a vapid flavour to tea.


2296. Preparing Tea.

In preparing tea a good economist will be careful to have the best
water, that is, the softest and least impregnated with foreign
mixture; for if tea be infused in hard and in soft water, the latter
will always yield the greatest quantity of the tannin matter, and will
strike the deepest black with sulphate of iron in solution.


2297. Tea-making.

Dr. Kitchiner recommends that all the water necessary should be poured
in at once, as the second drawing is bad. When much tea is wanted, it
is better to have two tea-pots instead of two drawings.


2298. Another Method.

The water should be fresh boiled, not exhausted by long boiling. Scald
the teapot and empty it; then put in as much water as necessary for
the first cups; put the tea on it as in brewing, and close the lid as
quickly as possible. Let it stand three minutes and a half, or, if the
quantity be large, four minutes, then fill the cups. This is greatly
superior to the ordinary method, the aroma being preserved instead of
escaping with the steam, as it does when the water is poured on the
tea.


2299. Substitute for Cream in Tea or Coffee.

Beat the white of an egg to a froth, put to it a very small lump of
butter, and mix well. Then stir it in gradually, so that it may not
curdle. If perfectly mixed, it will be an excellent substitute for
cream.


[PERSEVERANCE IS THE BRIDGE BY WHICH DIFFICULTY IS OVERCOME.]


2300. Making Coffee.

In making Coffee, observe that the broader the bottom and the smaller
the top of the vessel, the better the coffee will be.


2301. Turkish Mode of Making Coffee.

The Turkish way of making coffee produces a very different result from
that to which we are accustomed. A small conical saucepan something
like our beer-warmer, with a long handle, and calculated to hold about
two tablespoonfuls of water, is the vessel used. The fresh roasted
berry is pounded, not ground, and about a dessertspoonful is put into
the minute boiler; it is then nearly filled with water, and thrust
among the embers. A few seconds suffice to make it boil, and the
decoction, grounds and all, is poured out into a small cup, which fits
into a brass socket, much like the cup of an acorn, and holding the
china cup as that does the acorn itself. The Turks seem to drink this
decoction boiling, and swallow the grounds with the liquid. We allow
it to remain a minute, in order to leave the sediment at the bottom.
It is always taken plain; sugar or cream would be thought to spoil it;
and Europeans, after a little practice, are said to prefer it to the
clear infusion drunk in France. In every hut these coffee boilers may
be seen suspended, and the means for pounding the roasted berry are
always at hand.


2302. Coffee Milk.

(FOR THE SICK-ROOM.) - Boil a dessertspoonful of ground coffee, in
nearly a pint of milk, a quarter of an hour, then put into it a
shaving or two of isinglass, and clear it; let it boil a few minutes,
and set it by the side of the fire to clarify. This is a very fine
breakfast beverage; but it should be sweetened with sugar of a good
quality.


2303. Iceland Moss Chocolate

(FOR THE SICK-ROOM). - Iceland moss has been in the highest repute on
the Continent as the most efficacious remedy in incipient pulmonary
complaints; combined with chocolate, it will be found a nutritious
article of diet, and may be taken as a morning and evening beverage.

_Directions_. - Mix a teaspoonful of the chocolate with a teaspoonful
of boiling water or milk, stirring it constantly until it is
completely dissolved.


2304. Alum Whey.

A pint of cow's milk boiled with two drachms of alum, until a curd is
formed. Then strain off the liquor, and add spirit of nutmeg, two
ounces; syrup of cloves, an ounce. It is useful in diabetes, and in
uterine fluxes, &c.


2305. Barley Water.

Pearl barley, two ounces; wash till freed from dust, in cold water.
Boil in a quart of water a few minutes, strain off the liquor, and
throw it away. Then boil the barley in four pints and a-half of water,
until it is reduced one half.


2306. Agreeable Effervescent Drink for Heartburn, &c.

Orange juice (of one orange), water, and lump sugar to flavour, and in
proportion to acidity of orange, bicarbonate of soda about half a
teaspoonful. Mix orange juice, water, and sugar together in a tumbler,
then put in the soda, stir, and the effervescence ensues.


2307. Apple Water.

A tart apple well baked and mashed, on which pour a pint of boiling
water. Beat up, cool, and strain. Add sugar if desired. Cooling drink
for sick persons.


2308. Tincture of Lemon Peel.

A very easy and economical way of obtaining and preserving the flavour
of lemon peel, is to fill a wide-mouthed pint bottle half full of
brandy, or proof spirit; and when you use a lemon pare the rind off
very thin, and put it into the brandy, &c.; in a fortnight it will
impregnate the spirit with the flavour very strongly.


2309. Camomile Tea.

One ounce of the flowers to a quart of water boiling. Simmer for
fifteen minutes and strain. Emetic when taken warm; tonic when cold.

_Dose_, from a wine-glassful to a breakfast cup.


[SOLITUDE IS THE NURSE OF WISDOM.]


2310. Borax and its Uses.

The utility of borax for medicinal purposes, such as relieving
soreness of the throat, and for the cure of thrush in young children,
has long been known, but it is only in the present day that its good
qualities as an antiseptic have become known, and its use in every
kind of domestic work, in the laundry, in the garden, vinery, and
greenhouse, and even for the toilet, under various forms and in
different preparations bearing the general name of "Patent Californian
Borax," specially prepared for all personal and domestic purposes, has
been promoted by its production in small packets, varying in price
from 1d. to 6d., which may be purchased of almost any chemist, oilman,
grocer, or dealer, throughout the world.


2311. Its Antiseptic Qualities.

The Patent Borax, which consists of a combination of boron and sodium,
acts in a marvellous manner as an arrester of decay, and as such is
useful for the preservation of meat, milk, butter, and all articles of
animal food liable to taint and decay, especially in hot weather.
When infused in small quantities in water, it preserves and softens it
for drinking, cooking, washing, and all household purposes; it whitens
linen and cleanses it far better than soda, it kills harmful insect
life, though perfectly harmless to human beings and domestic animals;
it cleanses and heals ulcers, festering wounds, sore throat, &c.; is
useful in the nursery for washing the heads of children, cleans
sponges, destroys unpleasant and unwholesome smells, and is beneficial
to teeth and gums when used as a tooth-powder, or put in water used
for washing the teeth.


2312. Borax as a Disinfectant.

Alone or dissolved in water, and used freely to pour down closets,
sinks, &c., it removes all noisome smells, acting as a purifier, and
rendering even impure water wholesome. It should be used frequently
where sewer gas is suspected.


2313. Borax for Cleansing Purposes.

A solution Patent in hot water, allowed to cool, is useful for washing
any kind of glass or china, imparting a lustre and brightness to them
that they never exhibit when washed in the ordinary way. When it is
put into water used for washing floors it destroys all vermin with
which the solution comes in contact.


2314. Borax as a Vermin Killer.

When sprinkled in the form of powder on places infested with insects,
black beetles, &c., these troublesome pests with soon disappear.


2315. Its use in Cleansing Marble.

Sprinkle some borax on the marble, wherever it is stained or soiled,
and then wash the marble with hot water and a little borax soap
powder, applied with a soft flannel.


2316. Borax in Cookery.

A few grains added to the tea before the water is poured on it greatly
improves the flavour of the infusion. When used instead of soda, or
carbonate of soda, in cooking vegetables, such as greens, peas, beans,
&c., it improves their flavour, preserves their colour, and renders
them tender. Vegetables, eaten in an uncooked state, as, salad, are
rendered more crisp and of better flavour, by steeping them for a
short time before they are brought to table in a solution of borax.


2317. Borax as a Preservative of Meat, &c.

Meat may be preserved, and taint removed by soaking it for a short
time in a solution of Patent Californian Borax, or by sprinkling it
with the dry powder. Game, poultry, hams, bacon, and all kinds of
meat may be thus preserved. Milk cans should be washed with the
solution, and milk itself may be preserved and kept sweet for some
time by adding to each quart about half a thimbleful of this prepared
borax dissolved in a tablespoonful of hot water. Butter may also be
preserved by washing it in a solution of borax, or sprinkling the
powder over it, or the cloths in which it is wrapped.


[JUDGEMENT IS THE THRONE OF PRUDENCE.]


2318. Borax in the Laundry.

For washing add a threepenny packet to every ten gallons of hot water
used; let the clothes soak all night in the solution; in the morning
give them a slight boil, adding a little more Patent Borax, if they be
very greasy or dirty. By this means the clothes are rendered whiter,
soap is saved, and the hands are uninjured. It acts, moreover, as a
disinfectant, if the clothes have been taken from the bed or person of
anyone who is suffering from any infectious disorder. Flannels are
rendered softer, and the appearance of lace, fine articles, coloured
prints, soiled ribbons, &c., greatly improved by washing them in this
solution. A teaspoonful to each pint of starch, when hot, will add to
the stiffness and gloss of linen when ironed.


2319. To Revive Black Lace.

Lay the lace on a piece of clean smooth board, and moisten it all over
with a piece of black silk dipped in a solution of a teaspoonful of
Patent Borax to a pint of warm water. Iron while damp, after covering
the lace with a piece of black silk or cloth.


2320. Borax for the Toilet.

As a wash for the mouth add half a teaspoonful of spirits of camphor,
and a teaspoonful of tincture of myrrh to a pint of hot water, in
which a penny packet of Patent Borax has been dissolved, and use a
wineglassful of this mixture in half a tumbler of water, when brushing
the teeth. When the mouth is washed out with this solution, it removes
the smell of tobacco and any unpleasant odour arising from decayed
teeth. Camphorated chalk dentrifice is improved as a tooth powder by
the addition of a little powdered borax. For washing hair brushes,
sponges, etc., a solution of a small packet in a pint of hot water
should be used.


2321. Borax in the Nursery.

A little borax added to water for bathing infants and children has a
beneficial effect on the skin. For cleaning the hair and removing
scurf or dandruff wash the head with a solution of a small packet of
borax in a pint of hot water, after which the head should be rinsed
with cold water, and carefully dried. This wash may be improved by the
addition of half an ounce of rosemary spirit sold by any chemist.


2322. Borax in the Garden.

A solution made by dissolving borax in hot water in the proportion of
a penny packet of the former to a pint of the latter, will kill the
green fly on roses, and other plants. A weaker solution may be used
for syringing the plants. When applied to the stems of fruit trees,
and other trees, it destroys all insects in and about the bark, and
clears the blight on apple trees. For these purposes the solution
should be applied with a brush. For washing the shelves, boards, and
woodwork of greenhouses, the solution is especially valuable, and when
used for syringing vines in the proportion of a pint of the solution
to ten gallons of water, and half a pound of borax dry soap, as soon
as the grapes have been thinned, it will keep them free from red
spider and all other insects.


2323. Fever or Infection.

In all cases of fever or infectious diseases, it should be freely used
in the room by dusting the dry powder over floors, carpets, mats, &c.
(it will not injure the finest fabrics), and by placing in dishes or
other vehicles, into which hot water should be poured. It has _no
smell_, but quickly removes _all smells_. In cases of death it is most
valuable; the corpse may be kept perfectly sweet by merely dusting
into ears, nose, mouth, under arm-pits, feet, &c., or when any
moisture exudes. It will preserve features and skin fresh as in life
for many weeks, and keep the corpse free from decomposition.


2324. Vaseline.

What it is. - This indispensable household requisite is a product of
petroleum, from which it is obtained by an elaborate system of
nitration, without the addition or aid of any chemical whatever. The
substance thus produced, to which the name of "Vaseline" has been
given, is in the form of a lemon-coloured jelly, completely devoid of
either smell or taste, and of exquisite softness and smoothness to the
touch. This jelly, which is one of the finest emollients known, and is
possessed of healing and other medicinal properties, forms the basis
of many preparations which are now widely used all the world over.


2325. Vaseline for Medicinal Use.

The pure jelly itself, without any addition, is an invaluable family
remedy for burns, chilblains, chapped hands, and skin roughened by
exposure to wind and water in cold weather; as well as for sun-burns,
wounds, sprains, and all diseases of the skin; for inflamed eyelids,
and for preventing pitting in small-pox, when used externally as an
ointment. When taken internally, in doses of half a teaspoonful, or in
smaller quantities, it forms a cure for diseases of the throat, chest,
and stomach, and gives speedy relief in cases of diphtheria, croup,
&c. For convenience in using it, a confection is prepared from it for
complaints of the throat and lungs. No one need fear to use it, for
although it is a product of petroleum, it is the only one that is not
dangerous to use, and is possessed of no poisonous qualities. It may
be procured from or through any chemist and druggist.


2326. Vaseline for the Toilet.

The toilet soap and tar soap made from vaseline are superior in
emollient and healing properties, to similar preparations from
glycerine. For the hair, an excellent hair tonic and pomade are
supplied, which have the effect not only of strengthening, but of
promoting its growth. For the complexion, vaseline cold cream should
be used, and for the lips, when sore and chapped by cold winds or any
other cause, vaseline camphor ice.


2327. Vaseline for the Household.

As time progresses there can be no doubt that this valuable
preparation will be turned to good account for many domestic uses. It
has already been found an excellent anti-corrosive, being an efficient
protection against rust, when smeared over guns, bicycles, arms,
knives, tools, and steel goods, of any kind in general household use.
An excellent boot and shoe paste is prepared from it, which renders
boots and shoes absolutely waterproof, and over which any ordinary
blacking may be used to produce a polish.


2328. Vaseline in the Stable.

When mixed with graphite, vaseline affords a valuable lubricant for
application to the axles of light and heavy carriages of every
description, and for all bearings in machinery of any kind, especially
where great speed is required. A paste is also prepared from it which
renders leather harness soft, pliable, impervious to wet, and free
from any tendency to crack, thus increasing its durability. Another
preparation is found most useful for the cure of injuries and diseases
of cattle and domestic animals. This, which is supplied under the name
of Veterinary Vaseline, has been found to promote the growth of the
hair, unchanged in colour, in the case of broken knees. Its use will
also improve the condition of the coat on horses, and will keep off
the flies, and cure the mange, and all skin diseases commonly met with
in the stable, including injuries to the frogs, hoofs, and fetlocks.



Online LibraryAnonymousEnquire Within Upon Everything The Great Victorian Domestic Standby → online text (page 53 of 75)