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(TK()K(iK OTIS SMITH, Director



COOPERATION



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BETWEEN THE



UNITED STATES AND VARIOUS STATES



IN



TOPOGRAPHIC, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND
GEOLOGIC WORK




WASHIiNGTON

GOVERNMENT P K I N T I N (} OFFICE

11)10



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

UNITED STATES GEOLOCHCAL SURVEY

GEORGE OTIS SMITH, Director



COOPERATION



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BETWEEN THE



UNITED STATES AND VARIOUS STATES



IN



TOPOGRAPHIC, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND
GEOLOGIC WORK




WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT TRINTING OFFICE

1910



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COOPERATION m TOPOGRAPHIC, HYDROGRAPHIC, AND
GEOLOGIC WORK.



INTRODUCTION.

Cooperation in scientific work may consist in an exchange of
information between two or more parties or in the expenditure by
them of money for investigation or work in which they are mutually
interested.

The United States Geological Survey has for many years cooperated
in this way with other bureaus of the Federal Government, par-
ticularly the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the General Land Office,
the Reclamation Service, the Bureau of Soils, the Forest Service,
the Weather Bureau, and the Corps of Engineers of the Army, thus
avoiding much expensive duplication of work. It has also received
each year assistance in various forms from many individuals and
corporations, and has thus acquired much valuable information which
otherwise could not have been readily obtained. In return for this
aid it has furnished maps and other publications to those assisting.

Cooperation to promote the common purpose of advancing knowl-
edge and aiding development has existed between state geologists
and the Federal Survey since the latter was organized. The results
of the Survey's work have always been at the disposal of state officials
at proper times and under reasonable conditions relating to publi-
cation, and the courtesies thus extended have generally been returned
in kind.

Some more definite agreements were entered into early in the his-
tory of the Federal Survey. Thus in 1884 it was agreed between the
Director of the Survey and the board of commissioners of the State
of Massachusetts that the topographic work in the State should be
divided; that the State should pay one-half the expense of field
work and the Federal Survey one-half, the latter to engrave the
maps and give transfers of the plates to the state commissioners.

Under terms varied to suit the conditions of each special case, agree-
ments involving cooperation of some sort have been made between the
Director of the United States Geological Survey and state officials of
Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut,

3



203 ^fi^



4 COOPERATION IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND OTHER WORK.

Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana,
Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi,
Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island,
South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West
Virginia, and Wisconsin.

The object of the State in these agreements was to direct and pro-
mote topographic mapping, geologic investigations, and study of
water resources, to procure scientific information which it was not
equipped to obtain, to insure completion of work at an earlier date
than would be possible with the federal or state appropriations
alone, or to avail itself in some other way of the special facilities of
the Federal Survey; the object of the Director was to maintain
cordial relations among organizations having an essentially common
purpose, to encourage the development of scientific work of value
to the people of the country, and to expedite the work and carry
it on with more detail in areas where the public interest was greatest.

The States benefit by cooperation in geologic investigation and
allied scientific activities by the resulting reduction in expense of
administration and the possibility of a specialization in detail other-
wise unobtainable. In order that the economic resources of each
State may be kept as prominently as possible before the eyes of its
citizens and the industrial world, a number of States have provided
their owti bureaus for such purposes. On the other hand, inasmuch
as such resources are not limited by state boundaries, and as the
broader geologic facts on which the development of economic prob-
lems is necessarily based must be looked for and studied through a
number of States, each State has an interest in knowing what its
neighbors possess, and such knowledge will enable the different
States to avoid duplication of research into fundamental facts.
Each State possesses a considerable range of natural resources, and
it is usually impossible for. the state geologists to discuss all of these
resources in the most full and satisfactory manner. The best work
results from the investigations of specialists, and few of the indi-
vidual States can afford to obtain the services of a considerable
number of experienced and high-priced experts. By the method
of cooperation in geologic work which these conditions have developed
the States have devoted their energies to the exploitation of such
economic resources as might prove of greatest immediate benefit
to their citizens, while the United States Geological Survey has
been employed in general areal mapping and in studying the special
problems whose solution has had to be sought by work in several
States.

On the completion of the field investigations or surveys, for which
alone cooperation is accepted by the Federal Survey, the resulting



COOPERATION IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND OTHER WORK. 5

reports and maps are published by the Government and thus become
available to the State. If, for example, the cooperation covers even
no more than the preparation of a topographic map, the State bene-
fits by the fact that this will surely be followed more promptly than
otherwise would be the case by the geologic investigations and map-
ping, and by the study of mineral, water, and timber resources, fci-
which the topographic maps are primarily prepared ;.s bases.

The Federal Survey benefits by the extension of its leguunate oner-
ations made possible through cooperation with the States. This Sur-
vey is charged with the duty of making a topographic and geologic
map of the entire area of the United States, as well as of studying its
water resources and reporting on its other economic products. The
area that can be covered within a given time is increased by means of
the greater funds available through cooperation, and the completion
of the work is thereby hastened. This advantage is of especial
importance in the work on the topographic map, which forms the
base for the studies of economic resources, geology and hydrography,
and the classification of lands.

GENERAL POLICY IN COOPERATIVE WORK.

From the experience gained, certain conditions essential to the
success of cooperation have been established. All work which is in
part paid for by the Federal Survey* and whose results may be pub-
lished by it or on its authority must be controlled by the Director.
He selects assistants to perform such work, or approves their selec-
tion. In its execution the work is subject to the supervision and
approval of the appropriate chief of branch of the Federal Survey.
Payments for continuous service on account of state cooperation can,
under civil service rules, be made to a state official only in case he also
receives a federal appointment. Each year plans and estimates for
the season are mutually prepared, and a report of operations and re-
sults is submitted to the state officials as well as to the United States
Survey. All agreements for cooperation are drawn in such manner
as not to conflict with the organic law of the Survey in regard to
making or disposing of collections, furnishing information, or giving
expert testimony.

One important point to be considered in all such work is that the
general plans and methods of the Federal Survey can not be set aside
on account of state cooperation. It is against the policy of the Sur-
vey to stop work on important areas or subjects in order that coop-
eration with individual States may be extended. The Director is
willing to enter into a cooperative agreement only when the interests
of the country as a whole will be benefited. In the execution of the
work intrusted to the Survey certain features must necessarily be
taken up first, and if the desires of the State fall into agreement with



6 COOPEEATION IN TOPOGBAPHIC AND OTHER WORK.

this order cooperation may be had with the greatest advantage both
to the State and to the Federal Government.

For several years after the adoption of the plan of cooperation, it
was the general policy of the Federal Survey to meet whatever
amounts were offered by the various States with equal amounts from
the Survey's funds, so far as was consistent with an equitable distri-
bution of the federal appropriation over the entire country. The
number of States offering funds for cooperation, especially in topo-
graphic mapping, has steadily increased until at the present time it
is found that the funds of the Federal Survey are inadequate to fully
meet the amounts offered and at the same time preserve a just dis-
tribution of work in the various portions of the United States. It
has therefore become necessary to fix upon a plan of apportionment
for topographic work that will best serve the interests of the Federal
Survey and the cooperating States, to be in force until specific pro-
vision for cooperative work is made in the federal appropriation.
Two general factors have been adopted as furnishing a basis for this
plan of apportionment, as follows:

First, the special claims of the public-land States, where the federal
interest in adequate mapping is paramount by reason of public own-
ership of land.

Second, the progress of the topographic map of the United States
as a whole. In this connection* it is to be noted that the percentage
of area surveyed in the States offering cooperation is already higher
than that in noncooperating States — 40 per cent as contrasted with
32 per cent — and this difference is by no means wholly due to the
amount of work done under cooperation.

The policy which has been determined upon will fix maxima for
cooperative allotments and grade such allotments on the basis of per-
centage of area already surveyed.

A maximum of $20,000 will be permissible for cooperative allot-
ments in States of which less than 35 per cent has been surveyed, this
being the percentage for the whole United States. For States 35 to
70 per cent of whose area has been already surveyed $15,000 will be
the maximum amount permissible, and for States with over 70 per
cent surveyed $10,000 will be the maximum. In States where the
cooperative surveys are made on a larger scale than is necessary for
the topographic map of the United States, the federal allotments will
be adjusted on a basis other than that stated above. Even under this
arrangement the cooperative allotments by the Federal Survey in
1909 aggregated over $160,000.

The federal allotments to meet state cooperation will bear their
proportionate share of the expenses necessary in connection with
the proper execution of the field and office work, namely, charge
for maintenance of the building occupied by the Geological Survey!



COOPERATION IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND OTHER WOEK. 7

exclusive of rent; for use of the library; for correspondence and
records; for disbursements and accounts; for distribution of maps;
for internal administration of the topograpliic branch; for repair (but
not for purchase) of instruments; for map editiug; and for stationery,
including field notebooks — a total charge of 12^ per cent. It is to
be noted, however, that the assessments for these expenses are
levied on only the federal allotment for the cooperative work, although
it is obvious that the field work paid for by the state funds neces-
sitates a corresponding increase in most of these administrative
expenses.

METHODS OF COOPERATION.

In the establishment and conduct of cooperative surveys certain
methods which have been developed through an experience of over
twenty years are followed.

The Director is requested by citizens of a State that may be inter-
ested in procuring topograpliic, geologic, or hydrographic surveys to
inform them as to his ability to accept such offers of cooperation as
the State may be prepared to make, it being understood that efforts
to secure cooperation must originate with the residents of the State.
This Survey furnishes such information concerning the details of pre-
vious cooperative arrangements as may be sought. The object
desired is usually attained by the introduction in the state legislature
of a special bill or an item in the general appropriation bill providing
for a cooperative survey to be conducted under the supervision of a
state official or commission, who shall (1) have control of the expendi-
ture of the money appropriated, (2) make agreements with the
United States Geological Survey as to the methods of conducting
the work, and (3) recommend the order in which various portions of
the State shall be surveyed. It is invariably stipulated that the
field operations shall be conducted under the supervision of the
Director of the Geological Survey. This Survey furnishes expert
assistants, who take charge of the work and who discuss the results
for pubHcation or draft the manuscript maps. All details of the
work are performed under rules and by methods which experience
has shown to be the most economical and judicious and which tend
at all times to maintain a uniformity of treatment for the whole
United States. The Federal Survey accepts the recommendations
of the state officials for the employment of such temporary assistants
as may prove qualified for the work, thus insuring the employment
of residents of the State so far as practicable. The law usually
specifies that a sum equal to that appropriated by the State shall be
expended in the same time by the United States Geological Survey.

Neither time nor money is wasted in preliminaries. There is no
organization to create. Immediately after the appropriation is made



8 COOPERATION IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND OTHER WORK.

and the contract is signed work is commenced along the desired lines,
without the delays consequent on procuring men and determining
upon methods and machinery.

The following sample legislative act, passed by the legislature of
Washington at its session of 1909, provides a lump appropriation for
the complete topographic map of a State:

An act to provide for the making of topographic maps within the State of Washington
and the investigation of its water resources in cooperation with the United States
Government; also for geologic investigations within the State of Washington, and
appropriating moneys therefor.

Be it enacted by the legislature of the State of Washingt07i:

Section 1. In order to complete the topographic map of the State of Washington,
and for the purpose of making more extensive stream measurements and otherwise
investigating and determining the water supply of the State, there is hereby appro-
priated the sum of thirty thousand dollars ($30,000), for cooperation with those
branches of the United States Geological Survey engaged in this work. This appro-
priation, however, shall be contingent upon, and not become available unless the
United States Government apportion an equal amount to be expended for similar
purposes within the State. The Board of Geological Survey is hereby authorized
and directed to enter into such agreements with the Director of the United States
Geological Survey as will insure that the said surveys and investigations be carried
on in the most economical manner and that the maps and data be available for the
use of the public as quickly as possible.

Sec. 2. In order to enable the Board of Geological Survey to carry on investigations
authorized by law, there is hereby appropriated the sum of twenty thousand dollars
($20,000) for the use of said board in the geologic and other investigations provided for
in chapter 165 of the session laws of the State of Washington for 1901, and as amended
in chapter 157 of the session laws of 1903.

Sec. 3. In order to carry out the purposes of this act, all persons employed hereunder
are authorized to enter and cross all lands within the State: Provided, That in so doing
no damage is done to private property.

Sec. 4. The sum of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) herein appropriated for the
purposes specified in this act shall be available in the following manner: One-half
during the first twelve months after this act takes effect, and the unexpended bal-
ance during the second twelve months after this act takes effect.

An example of a law to secure cooperation with this Survey in a
State where there was an existing official who could be charged with
the work, and' where the appropriations could be provided only for
each legislative session, is the following:

LAWS OF NEW YORK. ,

Chapter 96. An act authorizing the state engineer and surveyor to continue to
cooperate with the Director of the United States Geological Survey in making a topo-
graphic survey and map of the State of New York, and making an appropriation
therefor.

Became a law March 17, 1899, with the approval of the governor.

Passed, three-fifths being present.

The people of the State of New York, represented in senate and assembly, do enact as
follows:

Section 1. In order to continue the execution and speedy completion of a topo-
graphic survey and map of this State the state engineer and surveyor is hereby author-



COOPERATION IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND OTHER WORK. . 9

ized to confer with the Director of the United States Geological Survey and to accept
the cooperation of the United States with this State in the execution of a topographic
survey and map of this State, which is hereby authorized to be made; and that said
state engineer and surveyor shall have the power to arrange with said Director or other
authorized representative of the United States Geological Survey concerning the
details of such work, the method of its execution, and the order in point of time in
which these surveys and maps of different parts of the State shall be completed:
Provided, That the said Director of the United States Geological Survey shall agree
to expend on the part of the United States upon said work a sum equal to that hereby
appropriated for this purpose. In arranging details heretofore referred to, the state
engineer and surveyor shall, in addition to such other provisions as he may deem wise,
require that the maps resulting from this survey shall be similar in general design to
the West Point sheet, edition of October, eighteen hundred and ninety-two, made by
the United States Geological Survey, and shall show the outlines of all counties,
towns, and extensive wooded areas, as existing on the ground at the time of the execu-
tion of the survey; the location of all roads, streams, canals, lakes, and rivers, and
shall contain contour lines showing the elevation and depression for every twenty feet
in vertical interval of the surface of the country; that the resulting map shall wholly
recognize the cooperation of the State of New York, and that as each manuscript sheet
of the map is completed the state engineer and surveyor shall be furnished by the
United States Geological Survey with photographic copies of the same, and as the
engraving on each sheet is completed the state engineer and surveyor shall be furnished
by said Director with transfers from the copperplates of the same.

Sec. 2. The sum of twenty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary,
is hereby appropriated for the purposes specified in this act out of any moneys in the
treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be paid by the treasurer upon the warrant of
the comptroller to the order of the state engineer and surveyor.

Sec. 3. This act shall take effect immediately.

State of New York,

Office of the secretary of state, ss:

I have compared the preceding with the original law on file in this office, and do

hereby certify that the same is a correct transcript therefrom and of the whole of said

original law.

John T. McDonough,

Secretary of State.
In some States an item in the general appropriation bill similar to
the following was considered sufficient:

For cooperation with the United States Geological Survey in the preparation and
completion of a contour topographic survey and map of this State, to be paid upon
vouchers approved by the governor, the governor is hereby authorized to arrange with
the Director or representative of the United States Geological Survey concerning this
survey and map, its scale, method of execution, form, and all details of the work in
behalf of this State, and may accept or reject the work executed by the United States
Geological Survey, the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars.

It is hereby provided that said map shall accurately show the outlines of all town-
ships, counties, and extensive wooded areas in this State as existing on the ground at
the time of the execution of these surveys; the location of all roads, railroads, streams,
canals, lakes, and rivers, and shall show by contour lines the elevation and depression
of the surface of the country: Provided further , That the State shall pay not to exceed
one-half of the cost of survey as completed.

In Connecticut the governor of the State appointed a commission
on the passage of such an act, June 19, 1889. An agreement was

33757—10 2



10 COOPEEATION IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND OTHER WORK.

signed and field work was immediately commenced. The report of
the commission to, the governor, dated January, 1893, four years
later, contains the following statements:

The maps are now practically finished; the copperplates are engraved and the atlas
sheets are all printed and in the hands of the commissioners. * * * The area of
the State is 4,674 square miles * * * and the total expenditure on behalf of the
State was $24,599.21. * * * It will be perceived that the cost of the survey to the
State is at an average of a little less than $5 per square mile.

In other States cooperation is arranged through some bureau
having specific authority from the legislature, as shown in the
Illinois law:

An act to establish and create, at the University of Illinois, the bureau to be known
as a State Geological Survey, defining its duties and providing for the preparation
and publication of its reports and maps to illustrate the natural resources of the
State, and making appropriation therefor.

Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the general
assembly, That there be, and is hereby, created and established at the University
of Illinois a bureau, to be known a? a State Geological Survey, which shall be under
the direction of a commission, to be known as a State Geological Commission, com-
posed of the governor, who shall be ex officio chairman of said commission, the president
of the University of Illinois, and one other competent person to be appointed by the
governor, who shall hold office for the term of four years and until his successor is

appointed and qualified.

*******

10. The said commissioners are hereby authorized to arrange with the Director or
the representative of the United States Geological Survey in regard to cooperation
between the said United States Geological Survey and the said Geological Commis-
sion in the preparation and completion of a contour topographic survey and map or
maps of this State, and said commission may accept or reject the work of the United
States Geological Survey.

11. In order to carry out the provisions of this act it shall be lawful for any person or
persons employed hereunder to enter and cross all lands within this State, provided
in so doing no damage is done to private property.

12. The commission may expend in the prosecution of such cooperative work a sum
equal to that which shall be expended thereon by the United States Geological Survey:
Provided, That not more than ten thousand ($10,000) dollars be expended in this work
in one year.

In Pennsylvania the appropriation act provided for cooperation
in making geologic as well as topographic surveys and in determining
"the location of the coal, oil, natural gas, clay bearing, and other


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Online LibraryAnthony William MargraffCooperation between the United States in topographic → online text (page 1 of 4)