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THE LIBRARIES




LIFE OF NAPOLEON



VOLUME III.



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LIFE

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rOT.COI^L



NAPOLEON-



By baron JOMINI,

gen-erai,-1n-cuikp and aid-de-ca.mp to the empebok of russia.



■'Je fus ambitieux; tout liomme l'est, sans doute;
Mais jamais voi, pontife, ou chef, ou citoyon,
Ne conçut un projet aussi grand que le ndcn."

Voi.TAiEE. Jfd/wmet.



TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH.



-WITH ISrOTES,

By H. W. IIALLECK, LL.D.,

MAJOE-GENEP. AL UNITED STATES A P. MY;

iUTUOP. OF "ELEMENTS OF MILITAUY AP.T AND KCIENrK. ;" •' IXTEP.NATIONAI. I,AW,

AND THE LAWS OF WAP.," AC, Ai".



IN FOUR VOLUMES.— WITH AN ATLAS.

VOL. III.



NEW YORK :
D. VAN NOSTRAND, 192 BROADWAY.

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO.
1 8 G 4.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1SG4, by

D. VAN NOSTKAND,

In the Clerk's OfEce of the District Court of the United States for the Southern
District of New York.




Electrotyped by Smith & McDougal, 82 & 84 Beeiiiuaii-street
Printed by C. A. Alvosd, 15 Vandewater-street.



C K T E î\" T S
VOL. III.



C H A P T I'] li XIV.
CAMPAIGN OP 1809 IX AUSTRIA.

FROM THE DECLARATION OP WAR BY AUSTRIA TO THE TREATY OP VIENNA.



Austrian Policy— Character of the Times— Military Preparations of Aus-
tria—She excites Insurrection in Germany— Secret Societies— The State
of Westphalia— Situation of Prussia, and of the other European Powers
—Insurrectionary States of the Tyrol— Austria takes the Initiative in
the War— Her Plan of Operations— Position and Number of her Forces
—The French Army— Relative Numbers of the opposing Forces— Ber-
thier sent to rally the French Army- Advance of the Austrians— Faults
of Berthier— Napoleon arrives at Ingolstadt— DifQculty of forming a
Junction with Davoust— Advance of the Austrian Right toward Ratis-
bon— New Movements of Davoust-Battle of Thann— Junction with
Davoust effected— Dispositions against the Austrian Centre— Affiiir of
Abensberg— Movement of Davoust— Hiller defeated at Landshut— Da-
voust attacks the Austrian Centre— Advance of Napoleon— Battle of
Eckmuhl— Retreat of the Archduke— Remarks— Napoleon marches on
Vienna— Operations in Italy— Continuation of Napoleon's March— Tardy
Projects of Prince Charles to save his Capital— Napoleon's second En-
trance into Vienna— Dispositions for the Passage of the Danube— Motives
of this Undertaking— Difficulties of its Execution— Preparations for
effecting the Passage— Kolowrath's Attack on Lintz— Massena crosses to
the left Bank of the Danube— The Archduke attacks the French— Bat-
tle of Essling— Council of War, and new Projects of Napoleon— Death
of Lannes— Remarks on the new Position of the French— Reply to Rog-
niafs Criticisms on the Battle of Esshng— General Remarks on the Tac-
tics of Battles— Military Operations in Italy— Battle of the Piave— Eu-



13962



1 CONTENTS.

gene pursues the Austrians — Retreat of the Archduke John on Gratz —
Junction of the Armies of Napoleon and Eugene — Insurrection of West-
l^halia and Prussia — Affairs of the Tyrol — Operations in Poland — Situa-
tion of Affairs in Germany — Affairs of Rome — The Pope transferred to
Savona — Measures of Napoleon for repairing the Check received at Ess-
ling — Eugene marches against the Archduke John — Battle of Raab —
Results of this Battle, and Siege of Raab — The Archduke John disobeys
the Orders of the Generalissimo — Bombardment of Presburg — Mai -
raont's March — Operations of Guilay — Combat of Gratz — General Situa-
tion of Military Affairs — New Passage of the Danube — Operations on
the Morning of the fifth (July) — Position of the opposing Forces — Pre-
liminary Attack of the French — Battle of Wagram — Defeat of the Aus-
trians — Remarks on the Battle — Retreat of the Archduke, and Pursuit
of the French — Battle of Znaim — Armistice — Its Conditions — Motives of
-\ustria in ratifying it — Situation of Affairs in the North of Europe —
Operations in Tyrol — Negotiations with Austria and renewed Hostilities
— Maritime Expedition of the English against Rochefort, Naples and
Antwerp — Change of the British Ministry — Stabs' attempt to assassinate
Napoleon — Austria finally decides to make Peace — Treaty of Vienna —
Positive Results of the Peace — Sensation it produces in Russia — The
French destroy the Fortifications of Vienna — Expedition for the Subju-
gation of the Tyrol — Remarks on the Campaign 13



CHAPTER X A' .

CAMPAIGN OF 1809 IN SPAIN.

FROM THE ASSAULT OF Ol'OKTO TO THE SIEGE OF GERONA.

State of Affairs in the Peninsula — First Operations of Soult — Combats of
Chaves and Braga — Assault of Oporto — Soult takes the left Bank of the
Minho — ^Victories of Medellin and Ciudad-Real — DiiBeult Position of
Soult — Combat of Amarante — New Descent of Wellington into Portugal
— He attacks Soult at Oporto — Soult's Retreat — Ney's Operations in the
Asturias — Misunderstanding between Soult and Ney, and the consequent
Evacuation of Galicia — WeUington's Advance on Madrid — Joseph col-
lects his Forces for an Attack — Ilis Dispositions for Battle — "Wellington's
System of Battles — Battle of Talavera — Operations of Soult, Ney, and
Mortier — Retreat of the Allies — Battle of Almonacid — Ney defeats Wilson
— Remarks oa these Operations — Soult succeeds Jourdan as Joseph's
Chief of Staff— Combats of Tamames and Alba do Termes— Arrizaga
beaten at Ocana — Inaction of Wellington — Intrenched Camp of Torres
Vedras — Romana quarrels with the Junta of Seville — Blake's Efforts to
deliver Aragon — Operations of Suchet — Combat of Santa Maria — Combat
of Belchite — St Cyr's Operations in Catalonia — Siege of Gerona — General
Remarks on the Operations of this ('ampaign — Operations of the Rus-
sians against Sweden — War between Russia and Turkey 1-12



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XVI.

CAMPAIGN OF 18ip IN SPAIN.

FROM THE SIEGE OF GERONA TO THE LINES OF TORRES VEDRAS.



Napoleon's Marriage with an Austrian Princess — He again offers Peace to
England — Preparations for a new Campaign in Spain — Napoleon's Plan
of Oi>erations — Soult's Plan — Division of the Army — Invasion of Anda-
lusia — Joseph's fatal Delay — Capture of Seville — Sebastian! takes Gre-
nada and Malaga — Remarks on Joseph's Operations — His Return to
Madrid — Internal Dissensions in Spain — The English Faction triumphs —
ililitary Organization of the Provinces of the North — Soult neglects to
take Badajos — Inaction of WeUington — Soult invests Cadiz — His Occu-
pation of Andalusia — Operations in the North — Chances of Napoleon's
Success — Massena'a Expedition against Portugal — Sieges of Ciudad-
Rodrigo and Almeida — Position of Wellington — Third Invasion of Por-
tugal — Battle of Busaco — Massena turns the Position— Devastating Sys-
tem of the English General — Lines of Torres- Vcdras — Massena's Position
— Sufferings of his Army — Junction with Drouet — Remarks — Suchet's
Success in Catalonia — Combat of Margalef— Sieges of Lerida and Me-
quinenza — Operations of Augereau — Siege of Tortosa — General Remarks
on the War — Bernadette elected Prince-Royal of Sweden — Reunion
of Holland — Consequent Negotiations with England — Annexation
of the Mouths of the Ems, the Elbe, and the Weser — Napoleon's Tour
in Holland — Senatus-consultum on the Reunion of Rome — Council of
Paris — Religious Fanaticism — Continuation of the War between Russia
and Turkey 10-'



CHAPTER XVII.

CAMPAIGN OF 1811 IN SPAIN.

FROM soult's CAPTURE OF BADAJOZ TO ITS RECAPTURE BY WELLINGTON.

General Review of the Foreign Relations of France — Faulty Relations with
Prussia — Proposed Alliance — New Difficulties with Russia— Prospects
of closing the War in Spain — Dissensions between Joseph and my Gen-
erals — New Cortes to be assembled at ]\radrid — Critical Situation of Mas-
sena — Soult marches on Badajoz and Olivenza — Siege of Badajoz —
Remarks on the Operations of Soult — Attempt to raise the Siege of



VUl CONTENTS.

PAGE

Cadiz — ASair of Chiclana — Retreat of the Allies — Soult marches to
the Support of Victor — Massena evacuates Portugal — Battle of Fuente
di Honore — Massena retires to Salamanca — Remarks on Massena's Re-
treat — Beresford threatens Badajoz — He captures Olivenza and lays
Siege to Badajoz — Soult marches to its Succor — Battle of Albuera — Na-
poleon directs the Junction of Soult and Marmont — Wellington renews
the Siege of Badajoz — He is again forced to retire into Portugal — Opera-
tions of the Spaniards in Andalusia — They are defeated by Soult — "Wel-
lington and Marmont near Ciudad-Rodrigo — Hill surprises Girard —
Suchet on the Ebro — Figueras surprised by the Catalans — Suchet pre-
pares to attack Tarragona — Memorable Siege of that City — Further
Operations of Suchet — He prepares to attack Valencia — Siege of Sagun-
tum — Battle of Saguntum — Investment of Valencia — Siege of that Place
— Reduction of Peniscola and Gandia — Remarks on Soult's Operations
in the South — Winter Campaign of Wellington in Estremadura — He cap-
tures Ciudad-Rodrigo and Badajos — Remarks on these Operations —
Insurrection in Spanish America — General State of Affairs in Spain —
Continuation of the War between Russia and Turkey 257



CHAPTER XVIII.
CAMPAIGN OF 1812 IN RUSSIA.

PART I. — ADVANCE TO MOSCOW.

Causes of the War with Russia — Opinions of Napoleon's Counselors — Mili-
tary Chances of Success — Negotiations with Russia — Fruits of the Con-
tinental System — Occupation of Swedish Pomerania — Alliance with
Prussia — Pacific Proposals to the Emperor Alexander — Offensive and
Defensive Alliance with Austria— Result of the Negotiations with Russia
— Proposals of Peace to England — Ultimatum of Russia — Napoleon
repairs to Dresden — Return of Narbonne — Pradt's Mission to Warsaw
— Ligneul's Mission to Sweden — Preparations for opening the Cam-
paign — Diversion of the Turks — Dispositions of the Russian Army — Its
Organization — French and AlUed Army — Plans of Napoleon — Passage
of the Niémen — The Russians retreat on Drissa — Napoleon's Delay at
Wilna — Mission of Balaschof — Reply of Napoleon — Poland — War be-
tween England and the United States — Operations against Bagration —
Napoleon advances on Polotsk — Camp of Drissa — Alexander retires to
St. Petersburg — Operations of Barclay — Combats of Ostrowno — Opera-
tions of Bagration — Affair of Mohilew — Halt at Witepsk — Operations
of Napoleon's Wings — Tormassof defeats the Saxons — Operations of
Oudinot— Turkey. Sweden and England — Council of War — Barclay
takes the Offensive — Napoleon's March on Smolensko — Battles of Smo-
lensko — Retreat of Barclay — Results of the Campaign — Ney passes the



CONTENTS. IX

PAGE

Dnieper — Hazardous irarch of Barclay — Pursuit of Ney and Murât —
Battle of Valoutina — Retreat of the Russians — Position of Napoleon —
Battle of Gorodeczna — Affairs of Polotsk — Napoleon resolves to advance
— Character of the Country — New Generalissimo of the Russian Armies
— Preparations for Battle — Position of the Enemy — Plan of Attack —
Battle of Borodino or tlie Moscowa — Remarks on this Battle — Napoleon
enters Moscow — The Russians burn the City — New Projects of Napo-
leon — The Russians march on Taroutina — Embarrassing Position of the
French 314



LIST OF MAPS



TO ILLUSTEATE



JOMlNrS LIFE OF NAPOLEOiN

VOL. III.

23. MAP OF THE VALLEY OF THE DANUBE, FROM RATISBOxY TO

PRESBTJRG, to illustrate the Campaigns of 1808 and 1809.
2-1. BATTLE OF ABENSBERG, 20th April, 1809.

25. BATTLE OF ECKMUHL, 22(1 April, 1809.

26. BATTLE OF ESSLING, 21st and 22d May, 1809. (Sheet 1.)

27. BATTLE OP ESSLING, 21st and 22d May, 1809. (Sheet 2.)

28. BATFLE OP WAGRAM, 5th and 6th July, 1809. (Sheet 1, 5th July.\

29. BATTLE OF WAGRAM, 5th and 6th July, 1809. (Sheet 2, 6th July.)

30. MAP OF PART OF PORTUGAL, to illustrate the Defense of Lisbou, by
the lines of Torres Vedras, October and November, 1810.

31. MAP QF PART OF RUSSIA, to illustrate the Campaigns of 1812.

32. BATTLES OF SMOLENSKO AND YALTELTNA. 17th, ]Sth and 19th
August, 1812.

33. BATTLE OF BORODINO, 7th September, 1812.



CHAPTER XIV.

WAR OF 1S09 IX GERMANT, OR THE CAMPAIGN OF WAGRAM.

Austrian Policy — Character of the Times — Military Preparations of Austria —
She excites Iiisurrectiou in Germany — Secret Societies — The State of West-
phalia — Situation of Prussia, and of the other P]uropean Powers — Insurrec-
tionary State of the Tyrol — Austria takes the Initiative in the War — Her
Plan of Operations — Position and Number of her Forces — The French Army
— Relative Numbers of the opposing Fo. ces — Berthier sent to rally the French
Army — Advance of the Austrians — Faults of Berthier — Napoleon arrives at
Ingolstadt — Difficulty of forming a Junction with Davoust — Advance of the
Austrian Right toward Ratisbon — New Movements of Davoust — Battle of
Tliaun— Junction with Davoust effected — Dispositions against the Austrian
Centre — Affair of Abensberg — Movement of Davoust — Hiller defeated at
Landshut — Davoust attacks the Austrian Centre — Advance of Napoleon —
Battle of Eckmuhl — Retreat of the Archduke — Remarks — Napoleon marchea
on Vienna — Operations in Italy — Continuation of Napoleon's Marcii — Tardy
Projects of Prince Charles to save his Capital — Napoleon's second Entranc3
into Vienna — Dispositions for the Pass: i go of the Danube — Motives of this
Undertaking— Difficulties of its Execution — Preparations for effecting the
Passage — Kolovvrath's attack on Lintz — Massena crosses the left Bank of
the Danube— The Archduke attacks the French — Battle of Essling — Counc I
of War, and new Projects of Napoleon — Death of Lannes — Remarks on the
new Position of the French — Reply to Rogniat's Criticisms on the Battle of
Essling— General Remarks on the Tactics of Battles— Military Operations in
Italy — Battle of tlie Piave — Eugene pursues the Austrians — Retreat of
the Archduke Jolm on Gratz — Junction of the Armies of Napoleon and
Eugene — Insurrection of Westphalia and Prussia — Affairs of the Tyro! —
Operations in Poland — Situation of Affliirs in Germany — Affairs of Rome —
The Pope transferred to Savona — Measures of Napoleon for repairing the
Check received at Essling — Eugene marches against the Archduke John —
Battle of Raab — Results of this Battle, and Sietre of Raab — The Archduke
John disobeys the Orders of the Generalissimo — Bombardment of Presbourg —
Marmont's March— Operations of Giulay — Combat of Gratz — General Situa-
tion of Military Affliirs — New Passage of the Danube — Operations on the
morning of the fifth (July) — Position of the opposing Forces — Preliminary
Attack of the French — Battle of Wagram — Defeat of the Austrians— Remarks
on the Battle — Retrent of the Archduke, and Pursuit of the French — Battle
of Znaim — Armistice— Its Conditions — Motives of Austria in ratifying it —



14 L I F E O F N A P O L E O X . [Cii XIV.

Situation of Affairs in the Nortli of Europe — Operations in Tyrol— Nego-
tiations with Austria and renewed Hostilities — Maritime Expedition of the
English against Rocliefort, Naples and Antwerp — Cnange of the British
Ministn/ — Stabs' attempt to assassiiiite Napoleon — Austria finally decides
to make Peace — Treaty of Vienna — Positive Results of the Peace— Sensation
it produces in Russia — The French destroy the Fortifications of Vienna —
Expedition for the Subjugation of the Tyrol — Remarks on the Campaign.

Austrian Policy. — I had hoped that the conference of Er-
furth and our success in Spain, would induce Austria to give
up her idea of engaging ahine in a contest against France ;
hut in this I was mistaken. The court of Vienna pursues a
tenacious policy, yielding only when necessary to gather
strength to renew its old purposes. Some have absm'dly
attributed this perseverance to the oligarchic form of its
government ; in reality, nothing is less oligarchic than the
cabinet of Vienna ; the prime ministers, who are changed
with the external policy of thj government, are very fre-
quently plebeians by birth, or nobles from parts of the empire
other than the hereditary states. Some of the emperors
have left the government to be carried on by their council-
lors ; l)ut such was not the case with Maria Theresa, or
with Joseph II. The government of Austria, instead of
being an oligarchy is a mixed monarchy ; in Austria and
Bohemia it is absolute, but limited in Hungary, and almost
republican in the Tyrol.

The decisions of a government are, undoubtedly, very much
influenced by the large landed proprietors and the principal
nobility of the state ; but a government which, in this
nineteenth century, acts only for the interest of a few fami-
lies, will soon be overthrown. In a republic of dema-
gogues, where the rulers are changed every year, there can be
no permanent state policy; but all other forms of govern-
ment are susceptible of pursuing a permanent course, for
there are always precedents in the diplomatic archives of the
state, which serve as guides to the chief of that department,



Cil. XIY.] THE WAR OF 1809 IN GERMANY. 15

both in peace and war. There are always j^ermancnt as well
as temporary views of state policy. It is always an object
for a state to have more real strength than its neighbors, as
this is the best means of preventing an attack. The strength
of a state may be either positive or federative ; it may be
strong in its own positive power, or by its alliances. Where
a single state becomes so great, in its own positive strength,
as to endanger the safety of others, its neighbors resort to
these federative means, either for self-protection, or for ag-
gression against the single positive power. At one time
France was near overthrowing the federative power of the
European sovereigns ; at another, the latter triumphed over
all my efforts. My age loould never understand tJie neces-
sity of uniting loiih me to establish an eqidlihrium against
England. The slavery of the Continent results from the toant
of such an equilihrium. Political preponderance is gained
either by conquest or by family alliance. The results are
not absolutely the same, but the real difference is not im-
portant. From Henry IV. to Louis XV., the Bourbons, who
are not an oligarchy, have pursued a permanent course of
policy ; the means have necessarily varied with the change
of events.

The policy of Austria differs, therefore, in no way from
that of other states. If the monarchy of Francis II. has
been able to resist violent shocks, it is because it has a war-
like people, and a good system of recruiting its forces ; be-
cause its geographical position is singularly favorable for
defense, and lastly, because, in great danger, it is rescued from
shipwreck by Russia or England.

The position of Austria towards us was a false one ; this
was made so, first, by the revolution, which produced the
first coalition ; second, by the invasion of Switzerland, which
produced the second coalition ; and third, by the annexa-
tions of Italy to France, which caused the third coalition.



16 LIFE OF NAPOLEON. [Ch. XIV.

After the second coalition, Austria was constantly in fear
of our jîreponderance ; she seized every occasion to oppose
this preponderance ; in 1809 she did well in seeking to profit
by this opposition. There certainly was nothing of an oli-
garchic character in this opposition. Nor is it necessary in
this jilace to attempt to reconcile the abstractions of writers
who have exhibited talents, but very little knowledge of
national affairs. We will now return to our narrative.

Character of the Timesi — The cabinet of Vienna thought
that however successful we might be in Spain, it would re-
quire two hundred thousand men to occupy a country whose
entire subjugation I had projected. The Austrian govern-
ment, therefore, resolved to profit by this occasion to regain
the sceptre of Italy and Germany ; her armaments were
doubled. England had, this time, no diSiculty in concocting
a new coalition ; the imperial cabinet even anticipated the
wishes of the court of London ; and it must be confessed,
that war, at this crisis, seemed in accordance with the wishes
and interest of the nation. The Austrian army burned to
repair the defeat of Ulm, and the people to regain their
former rank among nations. Moreover, Austria received a
subsidy of at least one hundred millions from the cabinet of
London.

They were not ignorant at Vienna that Prussia was ex-
asperated ; that Westphalia was complaining of grievances ;
that Hanover and the Hanseatic towns, deprived of their
commerce, detested a Continental system which was not
likely to be for their immediate benefit ; that Tyrol, dis-
pleased with the Bavarian rule, was ready to rise. They
thought that the north of Germany would declare against
us the moment the Austrian troops, falling in considerable
numbers on Bavaria, should compel the French array to con-
centrate its forces. The Austrian envoy at Koenigsberg
announced that Prussia desired war, and would vei-y soon



Cil. XIV.] THE W A K OF 1809 IN G E K M A N Y . 17

increase her forces to one hundred thousand, men ; the lienor
and interest of Prussia were too much involved to doubt the
sincerity of her promises. Dalmatia, Italy, the Tyrol, the
Valteline, Piedmont, Naples, and even Sicily, became the
theatre of Austrian intrigue s. Never did a storm seem more
threatening.

My armies at this time were scattered from Naples to
Madrid, from Hamburg to the gates of Lisbon ; I, myself,
was in Spain. Under these circumstances it was ])robabI^
that the Austrians would, in the beginning, be successful,
and that these early victories would insure others ; they
might rouse Germany, tempt Russia, revive the sinking
courage of the Spaniards, and restore to the English ministry
a popularity lost by the defeat of Moore, thus stimulating,
through British resources, the Peninsula to further re-
sistance.

Military Preparation of Austria. — Austria made every ef-
fort to raise a formidable military force. Her active army
was to be increased to three hundred and fifty thousand men ;
one hundred and fifty battalions of militia Qandivehr) were
jirepared for reenforcing it in case of need, and suitable re-
sources were intended to keep up the regular army to its
complement. Th(y imitated our organization by dividin'j
their forces into corps-d\irinée. Six corps of about twenty-
five thousand each, besides the reserve, were assembled in
Bohemia to inundate Bavaria. Fifty thousand regulars, and
twenty-five thousand militia, £M-ming the eighth and ninth
corps, were destined for the ar^^ of Italy, under the Arch-
duke John. Finally, an array of forty thousand men, under
the Archduke Ferdinand, was to invade the Duchy of War-
saw. This division offerees has been deemed objectionable ;
it is said that Poland and Italy were to be conquered in
Germany, for any success on these two points would bo
useless, should I become victorious on the Danube. But it

VAT,. IIT. — 2.



18 LIFEOF NAPOLEON. [Cn. XIV.

cannot "be concealed that Austria had to apprehend an in-
surrection in Galicia, in case Poniatowski appeared there
with forces superior to theirs ; and this motive alone, with-
out any other political considerations, might have justified
a conaiderable secondary detachment in that direction.

This Power incites Insurrection in Germany.— The cabinet
of Vienna, not trusting alone to this great development of its
forces, thought to add the revolutionary measures which had
already been so effective in Spain. Forgetting the just com-
plaints which it had made against the system of propagan-
dism of the French Directory, it scattered through all Ger-
many, an appeal to the people to rise against their existing
governments, that is, against us ; a measure useful, perhaps,
for the success of the Austrian projects, but contrary to its
own rules of jwlitical morality — rules, on which, only a few



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