Compendium of philosophy, being a translation now made for the first time from the original Pali of the Abhidhammattha-sangaha; online

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^ A sankhat aij. This word is explained in the Ceylon com-
mentaries by paccayehi asankhatatta (so-called) because of
not being subject to further causation and conditioning. Ledi Sadaw
writes sankharanakiccarahitatta (so-called) because it is
devoid of the function of causing, or conditioning well.

- The word Nibbana is, in spite of the exegetical derivation above,
as doubtful in its etymological history as is our own Heaven, and as
vague in meaning. The Translator was willing to let it be rendered
by Nirvana, just as we have let Karma replace Kamma. But whereas
only an ItaUan would rightly pronounce Kam'ma, Nibbana goes of
itself on any tongue that will make the a long and open. Besides this
it is a Buddhist term, belonging to Buddhist doctrine, while Nirvana
is associated with Pantheistic eschatology, and, moreover, has now
become hopelessly vulgarized. Once Europeanized, the accent in
Nibbana will become supertluous, hence I have omitted it. — Ed.


§ 1. Introductory.

'Neath two and seventy heads have been set forth
Distinctive kinds of states, each with its mark.
These will T now duly categorize.

§ 2. Of Categories of Evil.

This compendium of categories must be understood as
fourfold, to wit :

1. A compendium of evil categories.
II. A compendium of [ethically] mixed categories.

III. A compendium of what pertains to enlightenment.

IV. x\ compendium of the whole.

How [are they composed] ?

(I.) In the compendium of evil, there are, in the first

{a) the four A s a v a ' s ^ :

1. sense-desires ;-

2. becoming ; '

^ A s a V is derived from a ^/ s u = ' to flow,' and the Ceylon com-
mentaries, among others, explain the term as that which flows right
up to the topmost plane of existence or right up to the moment of
Gotrabhu (Bhavato abhavaggar) dhammato agotra-
bhur) savautiti asava). See Appendix, Asa v a. On this and
the following 'evil categories,' cf. B. Psy., pp. 291, 304, 308, 310, 323.

2 Kamasavo. Kama may mean either that which desires
(k a m e 1 1 1 i) or that which is desired (k a m i y a t i t i) . But the
Commentaries say that here tan ha (craving) for objects of sense-
experience, including the pleasures of the five senses, is meant.

^ Bhaviisavo. Bhava is either k a m m a - b h a v a or u p a -
patti-bhava (Introd. Essay, 42/.). It in&y be either Kama-


TT. VI i] Categories of Evil 171

3. error ;

4. ignorance.

{})] the four Floods^ : — {^mur as 1-4) ;
{(•) the four Bonds-: — {scnxc as 1-4) ;
{(1) the four Ties : — the ties, physical and mental,-' of

1. covetousness ;

2. ill-will ;

3. practice of mere rite and ritual f

4. adherence to one's dogmas ;^

((') the four Graspings^ : — the grasping after
1. sense-desires ;
'2. error ;

bhava, Rupa-bhava, or Arupa-bhava. The Commentaries
say that by Bhava here is intended the same craving, this time, for
any one of the forms of existence. The psychological factor in the two
modes of craving is the Cetasika of greed.

^ Ogha. The Commentaries explain that these four are so termed
because they kill the creatures who have fallen into them by drowning
them (lit., ' overwhelming and suffocating them '). Anassasikag
katva ajjhottharanto hanatiti vattasmiij osida-
p e n t a v i y a h o n t i t i. — Ceylon Cy.

- Yog a. The Ceylon Cy. explains this term as that which yokes
the creatures to the rounds (of misery), or that which by way of cause
and effect (k a m m a - v i p a k e n a), yokes the creatvires to other
rebirths, etc., in the machine of existence (bha vay ant ake), or in
the round of existence (vattasmiij). Vattasmir) va bhava-
y an take va satte yojentit i.— Ledi Sadaw.

^ The Commentaries explain that k a y a here includes both r u p a -
k a y a and namakaya.

■* Silabbataparamaso. The Ceylon Cy. explains this term by
'GosIIadisTlena vatena tad-ubhayena suddhiti evag
parato asabhavato amasanaij' — the practice (lit., 'the hand-
ling') with an incorrect view (lit., ' the opposite or contrary view ') that
one becomes pure by bovine and canine morality or conduct, or by both.
Ledi Sadaw explains 'parato' as 'by way of the view opposed to
the truth ' (Etthac a parato 'ti bhuta-sabhava-pacca-
nikato' ti attho). Cf. B. Psij., p. 260, n. 4.

" Idatj-saccabhiniveso. The Ceylon Cy. explains this term
by ' I d a ij e v a s a c c a m m o g h a m a n n a n t i a b h i n i v e s a n a ij
dalhagaho. The firm belief (lit., 'hold') that this (view) is true,
and the other futile.

" Upadanani. The Ceylon Cy. explains this term to mean that
which tenaciously or firmly grasps the object as a snake does a frog.

172 Of Categories [vt. vti

3. mere rite and ritualism ;

4. a theory of soul ;
(/') the six Hindrances^ : —

1. sensual passion ;

2. ill-will;

3. sloth-and-torpor ;

4. flurry-and-worry ;

5. perplexity ;

6. ignorance ;

(r/) the seven forms of Latent Bias- : — the bias of

1. sensual passion ;

2. lust after life ;

3. aversion ;

4. conceit ;

5. error ;

6. perplexity ;

7. ignorance;

(//a) the ten Fetters '^ of the S u 1 1 a n t a'* : — the fetters

1. lust after [life in the] Kamaloka^;

2. lust after [life in the] R u p a 1 o k a ;

3. lust after [life in the] A r il p a 1 o k a ;

4. aversion ;

^ N 1 V a r a n a n i (Burm. MSS. n i v -). The Ceylon Cy. explains this
term as that which prevents the arising of good thoughts by way of
j h a n a , etc. ; or as that which prevents the j h ;1 n a itself ; or as that
which obstructs the eye of wisdom (p a ii h a - c a k k h u n o v a a v a r a-
1 1 h e n a). Ledi Sadaw explains the same to be that which hinders all
that is good in human nature by preventing the good which has not
arisen from arising, or the good which has arisen from being repeated.

- An us ay a from anu Ayseti = 'to sleep,' lit., ' that which hes
dormant or remains latent.'

^ Both the Ceylon and the Burmese Commentators explain S a m o-
janas, as 'those which bind' (Sa ihy o j en ti, bandhantiti
sam y j anani), i.e., bind creatures in the rounds of misery
(va tt asmii]).

^ Sutta-Pitaka.

^ 'Kama,' when opposed to 'rupa,' and 'arupa,' has either
'bhava' or 'loka' understood after it.

J'T. \'ii] Categories of Evil 173

5. conceit ;

6. error ;

7. practice of rite and ritual ;

8. perplexity ;

9. distraction ;
10. ignorance ;

(//b) the other ten Fetters of the Abhidhamma, viz., of

1. sensual passion^ ;

2. lust after life ;

3. aversion ;

4. conceit ;

5. error ;

G. practice of rite and ritual ;

7. perplexity ;

8. envy ;

9. selfishness ;
10. ignorance.

(0 The ten Torments ^ are : —

1. greed ;

2. hate ;

3. dulness ;

4. conceit ;

5. error ;

6. perplexity ;

7. sloth;

8. distraction ;

9. impudence;

10. fearlessness of consequence.

1 Here 'kaina' is opposed to 'bhava,' and is restricted to
objects of sensual desire.'

- The Ceylon Cy. explains k i 1 e s fl as those by which the mind is
defiled (kilissati), burnt (u p a t ap pa t i), or afHicted (bfidhi-
yati). Ledi Sadavv of Burma adopts the same explanation, but adds
that k i 1 e s a ' s are those by which creatures are defiled, or by which
they (the creatures) arrive either at the state of being defiled
(malina- bhavai]) or at the state of being debased (nihina-
bhavaij). See B. Psu.,321 ff.

174 Of Categories [pt. vii

Now in the A s a v a - category, under the terms ' sense-
desires,' and ' becoming,' is implied the Craving which has
them as its objects. In the same wa}^ it is just the
erroneous opinion that occurs under different conditions,
which is described as ' practice of rite and ritual,' ' ten-
dency to dogmatism,' and grasping after a theory of soul.

§ 3. Mnemonic. .^ —

The A s a va s, the Floods, Bonds, Ties, root in the three-
fold base •} ^^ ^

The Graspings have a twofold source ■} but eightfold is
the case

With Hindrances, with Bias, six, with Fetters, nine, we

With Torments, ten : — thus Evil's List is reckoned as

§ 4. Of Mixed Catefiorics.

IT. — In the compendium of mixed categories there are
the following :

(a) The Six Hetu's (root-conditions)"^ : —

1. greed ;

2. hate;

3. dulness ;

4. disinterestedness ;

5. amity ;

6. intelligence.

^ Vatthuto is explained by the Ceylon Cy. to mean
' ilham mat o,' and by Ledi Sadaw of Burma, 'sabhava-
dhammato,' The psychological ultimates described in Part II. as
mental properties or concomitants are here intended.

2 Mata.

3 See above, Part III., § 4.

1-r. VI i] Jlid'cd Categories 175

[h) The Seven Constituents of J h A n a : —

1. initial application (v i t a k k a) }
'2. sustained application (v i c a r a) ;^

3. pleasurable interest ;

4. individualization '}

6. grief r

7. hedonic indifference -^

(c) the Twelve Path-Constituents'* : —

1. right views ;

2. right aspiration f

3. right language ;

4. right action ;

5. right livelihood ;

6. right endeavour ;

7. right mindfulness ;

8. right concentration ;

9. wrong views ;

10. wrong aspiration ;

11. wrong endeavour ;

12. wrong concentration.

{(l) the Twenty-two Controlling^ Powers : — the controlling
power of

1. the eye f
"2. the ear ;

1 See Parts I. and II.

- The mention of grief here shows that j h a n a is liable to abuse in
the hands of unprincipled persons.

^ The intellectual t a t r a m a j j h a 1 1 a t a, ' balance of mind," is not
meant here. See p. 14.

* M a g g a here includes both the noble and the ignoble path, the
last four constituents leading to the planes of miserable existence.
Cf. S. v., 18, 23 ; Vibhanga, p. 373.

= The psychological ultimate of s a m m a s a n k a p p a is v i t a k k a,
which, in the present case, directs the mind towards the right object —
viz., the higher ideal.

*< On Indriya. See supra, p. 159, n. 2. It must be borne in
mind that it is the eye that controls sight and so on for the other four
senses. See also below, Part VIII., § 10 (6), n. 2.

170 Of Categories [pt. vji

3. the nose ;

4. the tongue ;

5. the body {i.e., the skin) ; ,

6. female sex •}

7. male sex -}

8. Hfe;

9. mind ;^

10. pleasure ;

11. pain ;

12. joy;
L3. grief ;

14. hedonic indifference ;

15. faith;

16. energy ;

17. mindfulness ;

18. concentration ;

19. reason ;

20 the thought : — ' I shall come to know the
unknown ';

21. gnosis ;^

22. one who knows.

[e] the Nine Forces : — the force of

1. faith ;

2. energy ;

3. mindfulness ;^

4. concentration ;

5. reason ;

^ Lit., ' womanhood and manhood.' Sex controls the primary and
the secondary characters of sex described in the Commentaries under
ling a, nimitta, kutta, and akappa.

- Mind (ma no) is called an indriya because it controls or
governs its concomitant mental properties.

3 A h fi a may be differentiated from h il n a, as the Christian might
distinguish ' saving knowledge ' from knowledge in general, including
knowledge of matters of mere sense-experience. See the eight moral
thoughts of the sense-world. Part I., § 6. English is poor beside
Pali in such terminology. B. Pt>i/., xci. — Ed.

^ Omitted in J.P.T.S.— Ed.

I'T. vii] MU'cil Categories 177

6. modesty ;

7. discretion;

8. impudence ;

9. fearlessness of consequences.

(/■) the Four Dominant Influences^ : — namely of

1. intention ;

2. energy ;

3. thought ;2

4. investigation.^

(//) the Four Foods : —

1. edible food ;

2. contact ;

3. volitional activity of mind f

4. rebirth-consciousness.^

Now, with reference to the ' Controlling Powers ' {d),
the power called the thought, ' I shall come to know the
unknown,' is that Path-knowledge possessed by one who
has ' arrived at the stream '; the power called that 'of one
who knows,' is the knowledge involved in the Fruit of
Arahantship ; and by the power of gnosis is meant the six

1 Adhipati. See Dhs., j§ 269, 1034. B. Psy., pp. 77, 269.— Ed.
A d h i p a t i differs from I n d r i y a in that the former is supreme,
while the latter has its equals. See the text below : Only one domi-
nant influence, etc. (adhipati eko va labbhati).

2 C i 1 1 a here denotes javana-cittuppada, while the other
three dominant influences refer to the respective concomitants of this
state of apperception.

3 Vimamsa (in Sinh. MSS. vim-). The psychological ultimate
of this is pahhindriya-cetasika. The category of dominant
influences shows that when a man acts, either intention, eft'ort, know-
ledge, or reason, may predominate. Cf. Criminal Law, in which no
responsibilitj' is attached to an act without one or other of the fore-
going three dominant factors.

* ]M a n s a h c e t a n a h a r a - s a n k h a t a ij k u s a 1 a k u s a 1 a -
k a m m a g (Ceylon Cy.).

•'' V i n h a n a h a r a - s a n k h a t a ij p a t i s a n d h i - v i ii h a n a r)


178 Of Categories [pt. vii

intermediate knowledges.^ Again, the ' vital power ' is two-
fold, consisting of physical and psychical life.^

The ' Constituents of j h a n a ' are not acquired in the
five kinds of sense-cognition,^ nor are the 'forces,'* in
effortless states, nor the 'constituents of the Path,' in
[states] not accompanied by their hetu's. Likewise, in
perplexed thought, individualization cannot attain to the
state of a Path-constituent,^ a controlling power, or a
force. Only one 'Dominant Influence' obtains at one
time, according to circumstances, and that only in such
apperceptions as are accompanied by two or three [good]

§ 5. 2Inentonic.

What are the factors of life we know ?

These in sevenfold mixed category go.

Of good and bad, six 'Hetu's' at the base f

' Factors of j h a n a,' five ; but nine^ we trace

Paving the [good, or evil] ' Path.' Of powers,

' I n d r iy a ' s,' sixteen, ' Forces,' nine are ours.

' Dominant influences,' are four, 'tis said.

And four the ' Nutriments.' Told is each head.

1 C h a n a n a n i, the knowledge[s] belonging to the three higher
Paths and the three lower Fruition[s] . These, together with the two
foregoing, are the same Pafihindriya-cetasika cultivated and
developed in different degrees, and are collectively known as s a m m a -
d i 1 1 h i.

2 Eiiparupavasena.

3 That is, at the moment of the operation of any one of the five
senses in a process of sense-cognition. See Introd. Essay, p. 54.

4 Bead balani for phalani in J.P.T.S. text.— Ed.

■"' Though ekaggata is synonymous with s a m a d h i (the eighth
Path-constituent), that property by which the mind necessarily
regards its object as an individual, does not amount to, or is not raised
to the dignity of, samadhi, when the mind is perplexed. Hence
ekaggata cannot always be rendered by ' concentration.'

GVatthuto. See p. 174, r(. 1.

" Navaka, not twelve as named in the Category, nor the usual
eight. Note the other discrepancies in the Mnemonic. — Ed.

PT. vii] Factors of Euliglitcnmcut 179

vj ('). Of that irhicli pertains to Enlifjlitcniitciit.

III. — In the compendium of the parts^ of Enhghtenment
we have the following : —

(a) The Four kinds of Earnest Applications ^ in Mind-
fulness : —

(1) contemplation of the body ;

(2) contemplation of the feelings ;

(3) contemplation of consciousness ;

(4) contemplation of [particular] mental states f

(h) the Four Supreme Efforts * : —

(1) the endeavour to put away evils that have

arisen ;

(2) the endeavour to prevent the arising of unrisen

evils ;

1 The fear of being fanciful restrains from rendering ' p a k k h i y il '
by either ' facets ' or ' wings.' It means ' sides,' but is used for a
' bird.' On the growth of this designation for the thirty-seven, see my
preface to the Viblianga, xv., xvi. Cf. also JdtaJia, i. 275. — Ed.

2 S a t i - p a 1 1 h a n a ij is the s a t i which is established on its
object, by penetration, so to speak, into it (a n u p a v i s i t v a il 1 a ui -
bane pavattatiti attho. — Ceylon Cy.). Hence close applica-
tion of the mind. Patthanaij has here a different import from
that which it bears in Part YIII.

^ In ' d h a m m a n u p a s s a n a,' the word ' d h a m m a," according
to the Ceylon Cy., refers to the fifty-one mental properties, or factors,
exclusive of 'feeling ' (vedana), and the rendering of it by 'law,' or
any other term, would be quite wide of the mark; for these contem-
plation-exercises are with reference to one's own mind and body, and
not with reference to any extra-personal object. But Ledi Sadaw of
Burma takes exception to the above universally accepted view, and
says that ' d h a m m a " here refers to (1) six Nibbana's ; (2) five
khandha's; (3) twelve ayatana's; (4) seven bojjhanga's;
and (5) four ariya-sacca's. He bases his view on the fact that
the Buddha himself spoke of these five categories as d h a m m a, but
never of the s a h ii a k k h a n d h a and the s a n k h a r a k k h a n d li a

* The modifying ' s a m m a ' signifies no ordinary efforts, but the
unfaltering concentrated assay of one who vows : ' Let me be reduced
to skin and bone ; let my blood dry up^ but I'll not stop till I succeed !'
Hence the word ' right,' if not inaccurate, is scarcely adequate. {Cf.
M. i. 480 ; S. ii. 28; A. I 50.)

180 Of Categories [pt. vii

(3) the endeavour to bring about the arising of

unrisen good ;

(4) the endeavour to further arisen good.

(c) The Four Steps to the I d d h i - Potency^ : —

(1) desire to act ;

(2) energy ;

(3) thought ;

(4) investigation.

id) The Five Faculties :—

(1) faith;

(2) energy ;

(3) mindf uhiess ;

(4) concentration ;

(5) reason.

(e) The Five Forces :—

Ah in (d).^

if) The Seven Factors of Enhghtenment : —

(1) mindfuhiess ;

(2) searching the truth ;^

(3) energy;

(4) pleasurable interest ;^

1 See this term discussed in Rhys Davids's Dialogues of the Buddha,
I., 272. Cf. also definition of Iddhi in Vibhanga, p. 217. Ledi
Sadaw writes (p. 314): 'Iddhi is accomplishment. The meaning
is "accomplishment pf such and such effort." And pado is "the
means by which one arrives at," "attains to" (iddhi). On the
ten ... [as above]. The "potency" is of will (cetana), not of
insight ( V i p a s s a n a).'

- Commentators distinguish, in the Bala's, a more positive and
militant aspect of these five instruments of restraint or control
(Indriy a's).

^ ' Searching the truth ' is paraphrased bj^ v i p a s s a n a - p a h fi a
(Ceylon Cy.).

* If there is any truth in the Hamiltonian law of the inverse ratio
of feeling and intellection, piti cannot be rendered by 'joy,' since
the hedonic element varies i7iversely with 'bodhi.' Besides, the
intellectual piti has always a reference to its object, whilst the
edonic joy is more or less subj ective. See Appendix, Piti.

PT. vii] Factors of Enli^Jitonnoit 181

(5) serenity ;

(6) concentration ;

(7) equanimity.-^

(//) The Eight factors of the Path : —

(1) right views ;

(2) right aspiration ;

(3) right language ;

(4) right action ;

(5) right livehhood ;

(6) right endeavour ;

(7) right mindfulness ;

(8) right concentration.

Now in these categories, mindfulness, as four earnest
applications, is described as one in ' right mindfulness ';
and so are the four supreme efforts in ' right endeavour.'

^ 7. Mnemonic.

Desire to do, thought, equanimity

And faith, together with serenity,

And zest, right views and aspiration.

Endeavour, also abstinence threefold,

Right mindfulness and concentration :

Fourteen according to their nature here are told,

But seven and thirty 'neath seven heads the lists unfold.

Conception and serenit3%

Interest, and the balanced mind,

Intent, thought, threefold sanity,

EeveaFd, nine in one way,"- you find.

Energy works in ninefold guise,

And in eight, mindfulness,

1 Here, according to the comments, the intellectual "tatra-
m aj i hat tatupekkh a, and not the hedonic upekkhii, is in-

'-' In J.P.T.S. text read nav'ekatthana.

182 Of Categories [pt. vii

Concentration in four, and reason^ wise
In five, faith, two. Peerless
These seven and thirty members stand,
[In Wisdom's kingdom] noblest band.
All, save sometimes the first and third in [consciousness]

transcendent lie.
In mundane thought as well, if fit, in course of sixfold

§ 8. yl Compendium of ' the Whole.'

IV. — In the compendium of ' the whole ' we have the
following : —

{a) The Five Aggregates : —

(1) material body ;

(2) feeling;

(3) perception ;

(4) s an kh a r a's ;^

(5) consciousness.

{h) The Five Aggregates as Objects of Grasping^: —
as in (a).

^ Pafica pan 11 a. Paiifia shines in (1) v Tm aij siddhi-
piido; (2) paiiiiindriy aij ; (3) p an fia - b ala :] ; (4) dham-
mavicaya-sambojjhanga; and (5) sammaditthi.

^ Here sanlthara is a label given to the fifty mental properties
other than v e d a n a and s a ii ii a, but this label derives its title
from c e t a n a, chief of these fifty, and determinant of action . S a n -
khara and kamma are derived from the same root 'kar,' 'to
do.' (Abhisankhatar) sankharotiti sankhar o — that which
makes the made. This is the k a ttu sadh an a - definition of san-
khar a, and is applied to kamma as in sankhara-paccaya
vinuanar) (Part VIII., § 1). See Appendix, San khara. San-
khariyatlti sankhar o — ' that which is made, this kamma-
s a dh ana - definition refers to the conditioned, 'the world,' as in
sabbe sankhara a nice a.

3 This category serves to show that the k h a n d h a ' s are generall}'
grasped by erring people as atta, the metaphysical ego-entity.

PT. vii] All-we-know Conipcndiiim 188

(r) The Twelve A y a t a n a ' s ^ :—

TJic S oise -())•(! an H.

(1) the eye ;

(2) the ear ;

(3) the nose ;

(4) the tongue ;

(5) the body {i.e., the skin) ;
(()) the mind ;

The SenHe-OhjecU.

(7) the visible object ;

(8) sound ;

(9) odour ;

(10) taste;

(11) tangible object ;

(12) cognizable object.

{d) The Eighteen Elements 2;—

the subjective elements, to wit :

(1) eye;

(2) ear;

(3) nose ;

(4) tongue ;

1 Ayafiina cannot here be rendered by a single English word
to cover both sense-organs (the mind being regarded as the sixth
sense) and sense-objects.

In commenting on the 'chahi phassayatanehi phussa,'
D., i. 45, § 71, Buddhaghosa defines ay at ana to mean 'simply
place of prodnctioai, of resort, opportunity (or ground), range (or
genus).' In the Atthasalini (p. 140), he gives definitions 1,2,
and 3, and adds place of abode, and species or mode, as fourth and
fifth. See also Appendix, A y a t a n a. — Ed.

2 This triple distinction rests on the conception of any complete
sense-impression being tlireefold.

' On contact between eye (organ of sight) and the visible object there
arises visual cognition,' M. i., Ill ; S. ii. 72. On the force of D hat u,
see Part VI., and B. Psi/., Ixxvi., and cf. the striking passage in Suin.
Vil, i., 193-196. See also Appendix, Dhatu.— Ed.

184 Of Categories [pt. vii

(5) body {i.e., skin) ;

(6) mind ;^

the objective elements, to wit :

(7) sights;

(8) sounds ;

(9) odours ;

(10) tastes ;

(11) touches ;

(12) cognizables •,^

the intellectual elements, to wit :

(13) visual cognition ;

(14) auditory cognition ;

(15) olfactory cognition ;

(16) gustatory cognition ;

(17) tactile cognition ;

(18) mind-cognition.^

{e) The Four Ariyan^ Truths : —

(1) the Ariyan Truth about 111 ;

(2) the Ariyan Truth about the origin of 111 ;

(3) the Ariyan Truth about the cessation of 111 ;

(4) the Ariyan Truth about the Path leading to

the cessation of 111.

Now, here there are sixty-nine principles,^ consisting
of mental concomitants, subtle material qualities, and

^ Manodhatu. See Appendix, Dhatu.

^ D ham ma dhatu, synonymous with dh am may a tan a. See
infra. These differ from d h a m m a r a m m a n a, in excluding e i 1 1 a,
and paiiiiatti, and pasadariipa.

^ Manovifinanadhatu is a collective term given to seventy-six
classes of consciousness, omitting the twice-fivefold sense (d v i p a n c a-
vinhanadhcitu), and the triple element of mind (man o dha-
tu ttika). These seventy-six classes are not confined to processes of
representative cognition. See Appendix, Dhatu.

* See p. 135, n. 2.

s Dhamm a.

PT. vii] ^I//-ivc-/inozL' Compciidifini 185

Nibbana, which are reckoned collectively as the sphere of
cognizable object,^ or the objective element of the cog-
nizable.^ The sphere of mind^ alone is broken up into
seven -^ elements of cognition.

^ 9. M)iei)io)iic.

Body, feeling, and perception, and the rest that go with

Fifthly, consciousness : — these Five as Aggregates have

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