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marvellous bronze vase was discovered standing under heavy stones and richly decorated. It
was fotmd to contain the charred and burned remains of a human body. Near the vase were
various brooches, bronze objects, a horseshoe, a day vessel and part of a wheel, probably the
remains of the Chief's own war chariot.*'

No real explanation, it will be seen — nothing but a catalogue of objects, all of which is most
unsatisfactory to the curiosity of a prowler, who continues to delve. Aid she has lately sttunbled
on the following paragraph which has suggested to her a romantic solution :

"Livy tells us that the year 400 B. C. saw the Celts in Switzerland suffering from overpopu-
lation. The king, Ambiatus, therefore sent out his two nephews, Segovesus and Bellovesus,
with vast armies to find new countries where they could plant colonies. Segovesus led his army
over the Rhine into Southern Germany. But Bellovesus took his men over the Alps into upper
Italy, where he drove out the Etruscans and settled down with his army in the vicinity of Milan."

With these facts and shadows of facts whirling through her mind the prowler stands before
the glass case of the Mystery of Berne and asks herself why the following should not be a per-
fectty plausible answer to her questions:

Bellovjesus and his men doubtless made rich booty when they drove out the Etruscans. Why
should not this vase have been among the booty, a piece of antiquity, perhaps even an heirloom
belonging to one of the Etruscan families that had been driven out? It doubtless accompanied
a great chief back to Switzerland when he went to make his report on the new lands won for
the Celtic colony, and was used according to his own instructions to enclose his ashes after his
death. Did they bum his war horse too — and his war chariot, nothing remaining of them but
one horseshoe and one iron tire? At all events the vase and the other relics were carefully cov-
ered with slabs of stone and a tumulus raised over them.

Centuries passed and the Celts were driven out of Switzerland by the Alemans. More cen-
turies passed and then a certain Alemanic chief, sensing that below the old tumulus lay one
equal to himself in rank and prowess, had himself buried on top of the mound which was thus
further covered with stones and earth.

Still more centuries have passed and now here stands the vase in the Historical Museum of
Berne, ever a mystery in spite of fancies woven round it by a prowler who demands solutions.
It is doomed to remain a mystery imtil the silent earth gives up a sufficient niunber of fiui±Ler
reHcs of the past still hidden in the soil of Switzerland for scientists to fix with certainty the reason
why an old Greek vase should be found in a pre-Roman grave ttunulus near the city of Berne.

Ethel Hugu Camp.

Berne, Switzerland.

The Etruscan Tomb of the Volumni near Perugia

This subterranean sepulchre was discovered about seven or eight yards below the surface,
its one entrance sealed closely with a huge flat stone. The staircase which had led down to the
door had entirely disappeared, when the contadini struck the spot during their agricultural

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ART AND ARCHAEOLCX3Y

labor, and removed the stone of travertine rock which constituted the door of entrance. The
tomb was fomid in as perfect condition as when hermetically sealed some 2,200 centuries ago.
Many objects of art in metals, marble, and terra-cotta were discovered, several of which are
dispersed and lost. The more important and larger masses, however, were left as they were
found. The tomb was hollowed in the tufa rock by the chisel; the entrance had an architrave
and jambs of stone. On the right doorpost are Etruscan inscriptions in three distinct rows,
cut probably to warn those entering that this place was sacred, and to indicate the name of
the family owning the Sepulchre, ** Volumnia.'*

Just inside the tomb, on the wall over the door, is a rayed disc sculptured in the rock, the sun
flanked by two dolphins, used to signify the sea; symboHc of the ocean which spirits had to cross
ere approaching Elysium, while the sun symbolized the sojoiun of the happy souls in the place
where, as Pindar says, "night prolongs not the obscurity with its veil." This sepulchre was
planned with perfect correspondence of parts in a Latin cross, with six little rooms, three on
either side. The larger arm stretched some fourteen yards long and six wide, the smaller nine
by two. Two doorways at the sides led to cells equal in size like arms opened, the extremities
of the smaller leading into similar cells. The tomb was beautifully cut, though the implement
used seems to have been nothing larger than a chisel. The roof was formed to simulate beams
with ornaments such as were used in dwellings.

The head of a dragon in terra-cotta which thrusts out a tongue of colored metal projects
from every cell about mid-way on the wall. Other symbolic animals were also found in the
tomb. Benches were cut in the rock walls to receive the bodies preparatory to incineration,
others were prepared for the tuns. In the tribune at the head of the nave are distributed seven
sepulchral tuns in beautiful order on stone benches cut in the tufa. The entrance to the tribtme
is flanked by two projections of tufa, which reunite in the form of an arch, and are surmounted
by a sculptured tympantun. One half is occupied by a beautiful shield or round buckler on
which a youthful head larger than life in high relief, an image of Apollo, is represented, protector
of the tomb.

At the side of the shield are two swords on which were placed offerings to Apollo. Other
adornments of the tympanum are distributed in symmetrical forms. To the right of the shield
is the bust of a man on whose shoulders is tied a basket to a shepherd's staff; to the left is a
similar figure.

From the centre of the archivolt a metal rod descends which it seems ought to support a
lamp; to this is suspended a graceful winged figure in terra-cotta in the act of sustainmg the
hem of a doth floating behind her. A similar figure hangs from the centre of the vestibule.
The vault (arch of the ceiling of the tribune) is adorned with a most beautiful head, sculptured
in the tufa, a work of great majesty. This vault, like all other sculptures of the tomb, announces
the epoch as the fourt±i or third centiuy B. C, in which time Etruscan art rivalled that of the
Greek.

The tribune was, one might say, the sanctuary, the most important part of the tomb. The
seven tuns placed there are embellished with superb sculptured reliefs and with Etruscan in-
scriptions.

The urn which holds the ashes of the Volumnia, head of the family, is the finest of all. In
the front part of this urn an arch was painted from which foiu- figures of women projected. These
figures had been painted, but the color is almost gone. By the side of the door or arch are carved
two winged women in high relief, who at first sight suggest the fiuies of the Etruscan Tartarus.

Volumnia, the head of the family, reposes on his pedestal in sculptured peace. His left hand
holds the patera, his right a necklace. The coverlet hangs in beautiful folds about the greater
part of his person.

Of the other urns the third one is perhaps of most elegant workmanship. It is ornamented
with reliefs on all sides.

Such in brief are some of the interests of this wonderful tomb of the Volumni, which the
travelling public can see at cost of some little trouble on their way from Perugia to Assisi.

Ada M. Trotter.

The Potted Gold of Croesus

A Tiu'kish laborer, working cautiously with a pick and shovel on April 13 of this year on a
hill in Asia Minor where some fragments of pottery and worked stone had been noticed, dug

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ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY

out bones, fragments of masonry, broken pieces of baked clay and then a large earthen pot.
The pot was mtact. It was not sealed, but its mouth was stopped with dirt.

The laborer called to some of the group of American scientists organized by Dr. Howard
Crosby Butler and financed by the American Society for the Excavation of Sardis. They began
cautiously to remove the dirt from the jar. For fear of injuring delicate gold jewelry or otiier
fine artistic work, archaeologists work at close quarters with a tooth brush, the finger or the
point of a knife blade. The earth thus removed is sifted by hand.

There was a gleam of yellow metal. With emotions like those of *' Stout Cortez" or the
** watcher of the skies" in the sonnet of Keats, the archaeologists saw that they had discovered
a potful of ** staters,*' the first gold coins ever minted. Thirty in all were soon removed from
the pot. With the dirt rubbed oflf, some were as bright as if they had been minted that day,
the purity of the gold being a perfect defense against the chemical action which would have eaten
into the surface of any other metal exposed so long to water and the minerals of the soil.

They were the ** staters'* of the Lydian King, Croesus, whose name is a synonym for riches
and who, if history is to be trusted, introduced the use of solid gold for coins. Of these coins
only one good specimen had been previously known to be in existence, with four badly worn
ones. Lumps of gold, weighing about a quarter of an ounce, roughly oval in shape, they were
stamped on one side with the head of a lion and of a bull, a combination familiar in Lydian
decorations. The lion's head was the fable of the killing of the lion by Heracles, or Hercules,
the mythical founder of the royal house of Lydia. What the bull's head stands for is unknown.

To a private collector a single "stater" might be worth hundreds of thousands of dollars.
A Turkish workman, by slipping one in his pocket, might make himself one of the wealthiest
men in Asia Minor. The whole thirty, however, were placed in the hands of the Greek authorities
at Smyrna for future disposition.

The pot was found on a small hill which had probably been a cemetery in the time of Croesus,
and the ruling conjectiu-e at the present time is that the gold pieces were hidden there during
the foiuteen-diy siege of the city by Cyrus, the Persian King, in 546 B. C.

The lucky discovery was made, according to Dr. T. Leslie Shear of New York, one of the party,
because the scientists were ** prospecting," the systematic excavation of the site being prevented
by the damaged condition of their machinery as the result of successive invasions of the region
by Turkish and Greek armies.

Alva Johnston, in N. Y. Times.

The XX International Congress of Americanists at Rio de Janeiro

The American delegates to the XX International Congress of Americanists to be held at Rio
de Janeiro August 20-30 in connection with the Centennial Celebration of Brazil, are as follows:
Ales Hrdlicka and Walter Hough, Smithsonian Institution ; Marshall H. Saville, American Museum
of Natural History; Sylvanus G. Morley, Carnegie Institution of Washington; Gilbert Grosvenor,
National Geographic Society; William P. Wilson, Commercial Museum, Philadelphia; P. H.
Goldsmith, American Association for International ConciUation; Herbert J. Spinden, Harvard
University; D. C. Collier, School of American Research; and Mitchell Carroll, representing the
Archaeological Institute of America, Archaeological Society of Washington, and the School of
American Research. The proceedings of the Congress will be reported in a future number of
Art and Archaeology.

Announcement

The September issue of Art and Archaeology will be an American Archaeology Number and
will contain illustrated articles by E. L. Hewett on **The Chaco Canyon in 192 1 "; Lula Wade
Wetherill and Byron Cummings on **A Navaho Folk Tale of Pueblo Bonito**; Marsden Hartley
on "The Fiesta of San Geronimo at Taos *' ; and William Edward Myer on " Recent Archaeological
Discoveries in Tennessee.*'



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BOOK CRITIQUES



A Text- Book of European Archaeology, By
R.A.S, Macalisier, Litt. D., F,S.A, Professor
of Celtic Archaeology J University College, Dublin,
Volume /, The Palaeolithic Period, Cam-
bridge University Press, iq2i, Pp, xiv+ 6io;
with 184 figures in the text.

Not since 1900 with the publishing ot Le
Prehistorique by the two de Mortillets, and 1908
with the apperance of the Manuel d* Arche-
ologie Prihistorique by the lamented Deche-
lette, has there been printed so important a
volume on palaeolithic man as the recent work
of Professor Macalister.

Attractive in appearance and logical in
arrangement it appeals both to the technical
student and to the "average reader." Begin-
ning with an excursus on the fundamental
facts of geology, palaeontology and anthro-
pology, which should be known by the student
of the Old Stone Age, the author takes up suc-
cessively the theories of very early man, ter-
tiary man, "eoHthic man,'* if you will; then
the three palaeolithic periods, and last the
mesoHthic **lacuna" leading to the neoHthic.
(This will be treated of in the next voliune of
the series.)

His three divisions of palaeolithic man are
(i) the Chelleo-AcheuUan (River-Drift), (2)
the Mousterian (first cave-man), (3) lie
Aurignacian, Solutrian and Magdalenian
(second, third and foiuth cave-man).

His mesolithic is specially characterized by the
Campignyan, and Azilian, and the Scandi-
navian peat-bogs and shell-heaps (Magelmose
and kjoekkingmoeddinger).

The last chapter is an iUimiinating setting
forth of the general problems of the periods and
of their attempted solutions. Professor Mac-
alister places Mousterian man, with his skele-
tons predominantly Neanderthaloid, at about
the time of the last great glaciation (the
Wurm) ; the disappearance of this physical type
and the appearance of the Aurignacian Cro-
Magnon race he accepts, but finds it impossible
to fill in all the details of the process. A quasi-
mixture of the two types may have succeeded
in Solutrian times, to be followed in Magda-
lenian by a recrudescence of the Cro-Magnon.

The exposition of palaeolithic art and the
chapters on the psychology of the artists are
well done and not too abstruse; the author
belongs rather strongly to the school which
attributes the animad sculptures and paint-
ings of the caves to sympathetic magic. His
treatment of the eolithic question is so volumi-

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nous and his references so abundant, that it is
a pity they should be weakened by a semi-
humorous skepticism.

No one can cavil at his refusal to accept
theories themselves some times fantastic,
sometimes quite the contrary, but it would
have enlightened his text had he seen fit to
discuss fiuther, for instance, the question
whether the flaked stones claimed as pre-
palaeohthic are or are not exactly what we
should expect in the predecessors of the first
tools fashioned with a preconceived idea of
form. The Belgian quaternary eoliths, the Fox-
hall flints, the rostrocarinates demand serious
judgment if for no other reason, simply because
serious scientific scholars believe in them.

The proof-reader is responsible for a number of
slips, and the book would have been wonder-
fully aided by a table of contents raisonnie
at the beginning and a bigger bibliography in
one place by subjects. Tlie one outstanding
quality of the book is the very method so un-
successful in the treatment of the eolithic
question; strange to say it works enormously
well in dealing with disputed later discoveries;
a dogmatism which does not hesitate, after
presenting the facts, to cut out many. claims
and to reduce the niunber of accredited dis-
coveries and phenomena helps the casual
searcher who may use the book as a work of
reference. We are thus grateful for this
**magnum opus," inclusive, authoritative and
interesting. Chari^s Peahody.

The Enjoyment off Architecture. By Talbot
F. Hamlin, New Edition. Profusely illus-
trated. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1Q21. $3.00.

** There is one enormous source of artistic
pleasure of which too few are as yet aware;
there is one art whose works confront us wher-
ever man lives, which all too many of us daily
pass blindly by. That som-ce is to be found in
the buildings all arotmd us; that art is the art
of architecture.'* These words from the first
chapter on **The Enjoyment of Architecture"
strike the keynote of this interesting volume.
Mr. Hamlin, who is a practicing architect
himself, inducts the reader into the mysteries
of architecture as a living art, and setting aside
purely technical details, shows him what are the
sources of enjoyment in the intelligent inspec-
tion of the buildings he passes every day, and
how much satisfaction may be derived from an
acquaintance with the elements and underlying
principles of architecture. M. C.



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ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY



Figurative Terra-cotta Revetments in Etruria
and Latium in the VI and V Centuries B, C.
By E. Douglas Van Buren. London: John
Murray. New York: E. P. Dutton 6* Company,
1 92 1. Pp. XX74. $7-00.

An Introduction to the Study of Terra Sigillata
Treated from a Chronological Standpoint. By
Felix Oswald and T. Davies Pryce. London:
Longmans, Green and Co., 1920. Pp. xiiX
271 and 83 plates. $16.50.

Mrs. Van Buren's book is the outcome of ten
years' study and travel and fills a long-felt
want, since it makes accessible the results of
recent excavations which, if published at all,
have appeared in periodicals, some of them
inaccessible to the ordinary student. There
was great need of a sjmthetic treatment and
classification of this scattered material, and
Mrs. Van Buren modestly ventures to hope
that this simple catalogue may be found use-
ful. As a matter of fact the book will prove
indispensable to every student of Etruscan
archaeology, and especially of Etruscan terra-
cottas. Mrs. Van Biu-en by her many articles,
particularly in the Journal of Roman Studies,
has made herself a great authority in this
field, and her collation of ntunerous duplicate
examples of t)rpes, shows her extensive knowl-
edge of the collections of Etruscan architec-
tural terra-cottas. This handy collection will
rank favorably with Koch's Dachterrakotten
aus Campanien.

The illustrations are reproduced on thirty-
two plates from good photographs, and the
voliune is attractively bound in terra-cotta
doth with title in gold on the back. The text
is printed in large dear type on excellent paper
with broad margins.

The subject matter is grouped in three
sections, Antefixae, Akroteria, and Friezes,
with a careful index. The first is divided into
divisions and these subdivided into types, but
the last two are divided only into types. Each
is preceded by a short introduction. This
gives the impression of three separate articles
and the book would have had more unity if
there had been a general introduction with
all this material together. There are some
features that would make the book still more
useful and we hope they will be found in a
more final and completer catalogue which will
indude the terra-cotta revetments of later
times. There should be references in the text
to the plates. Dimensions of examples and
the scale of illustrations should always be given.
The niunber of examples of each type should



be stated. The plates should tell where the
examples now are.

It would have been less confusing to scholars
if Mrs. Van Buren had included an introduction
on chronology and had told us why she dates
certain terra-cottas as she does.

Mrs. Van Buren's book is an important
. piece of research and the minor defects do not
impair the scholarship of a very attractive
book. It should interest every student of art
with the profuse illustrations of these predous
Etruscan terra-cottas, which show a quaint
charm and a skilful use of both modelling and
color.

Another very important recent book on
terra-cottas is that of Oswald and Pryce on
An Introduction to the Study of Terra Sigillata,
the most important book on this subject.

At an early date of the excavations at the
Roman station of Margiduntmi in Notting-
hamshire the excavators were struck by the
difficulties inherent in the study of Terra
Sigillata (the so-called Samian ware), and
espedally by the necessity of laboriously col-
lating inntunerable references to scattered
memoirs in many languages besides our own.
It seemed, therefore, that a real need existed
for a work in the English language, which
would present in a systematic and compre-
hensive manner all the chief points in con-
nection with Terra Sigillata.

The importance of a careful study of this
red glazed ware, which is so abtmdantly found
on Roman sites, lies in the historical evidence
it affords, for, apart from datable inscriptions,
there is perhaps no relic of the Imperial period
of greater value for dating purposes.

The method, by means of which a chrono-
logical estimate of Sigillata evidence is arrived
at, is based on its essentials on the determi-
nation of ** site-values.*' Thus the exdusive
or predominant occurrence of certain types
on properly excavated sites such as Haltem,
Hofheim, Newstead and Niederbieber, which
can be dated by external historical evidence,
affords a valuable aid to the determination of
the period and distribution of these particular
forms of Sigillata. Light is also thrown in
this way on the limits of activity of the potters
whose names are fotmd stamped on these
wares as well as on the period when certain
modes of decoration were in vogue.

Owing to the fact that early Gaulish Sigillata
is essentially a development of Italian or
Arretine fabric a short descriptive section re-
lating to this ware has been included. In a
ftuther chapter the evolution of Terra Sigillata

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is treated on broad lines and the more ultimate
sources of inspiration are discussed, stress being
laid more especially upon the continuity of
certain ornamental motifs in ancient ceramic
art.

Throughout the work a definite statement
in the text has been fortified by reference to
some potter of well-attested date or to a datable
site or to both. In like manner the illustrations
for the most part are taken either from bowls
of well-known potters or from vessels and
sherds found on sites, the periods of which
can be assigned with a fair degree of acciu-acy
to a definite date.

In this way it has been the endeavor to
produce a reasonably concise and reliable guide
to the study of provincial Sigillata. Particular
care has been taken to draw all the figures to
scale so as to permit of exact comparison.

David M. Robinson.

The Johns Hopkins University.

The A ft of Drawing in Lead Pencil. By Jasper
Sdwey. New York: Charles Scribnet's Sons,
ig2i.' $3.75.

Mr. Salwey in his delightful book makes one
feel that the pencil is the most satisfactory
instrument for reproduction. Figures, and
landscape in particular, are given a more perfect
and delicate character. Landscape seems to
take on a softer rendering, trees grow and leaf
and clouds float, in this more subtle medium,
and a charm of depth and clearness is possible.

No more beautiful portraits have ever been
made than those drawn in pencil by the great
artist, Ingres. Mr, Salwey*s treatise on the
methods of obtaining a particular quality in
lead pencil work is very complete. He gives the
laws and rules of the technique and the princi-
ples upon which the methods of building up a
highly finished drawing must be based.

He believes drawing in lead pencil is a means
of expression for both the simplest and the
highest aims of Art. In proof of it, the book
is rich in illustrations, many charming drawings
by the author. Other artists represented are
J. D. Ingres, Sir Charles Holroyd, A. E. New-
combe, Alfred Parsons, J. Constable, F. E.
Georges, Frank Dicksee, J. Walter West — all
showing a great variety of method and subject.

The pencil is a ** vital tool," sympathetic to
the artist's every fancy or requirement; "a
medium capable of rendering not only the most
determined contrasts in light and shade, but
. . . fifty intermediate tones in varying
degree.'*

Mr. Salwey is an Associate of the Royal
Institute of British Architects.

Hj^lbn Wright.



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