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During the forty years of its existence
the American School at Athens has
accumulated, through modest buying
and through gifts, a working library of
some 10,000 volumes. Now at a single
stroke it comes into the possession of
what is probably the richest and most
complete collection in the world within
its field, which is precisely the field
which the School was established to
cover, and of a value approaching that
of the present total property and en-
dowment of the School. It is an amaz-
ing piece of good fortune, and an act of
unexampled generosity on the part of
the distinguished Hellene who made
the gift. Through this gift the School
at once enters upon a period of in-
creased usefulness to classical studies.^

The readers of this journal have
already been informed of the generous
grant of $200,000 made by the Carnegie
Corporation to enable the School to
comply with the conditions of the gift
of the Gennadius Library. The Greek

1 For a full description of the Gennadius Library, together with
the correspondence which passed between Mr. Gennadius and
Professor Mitchell Carroll. Secretary of the Washington Archae-
ological Society, Professor Capps. Chairman of the Managing
Committee, and Justice Loring, President of the Trustees of the
School, the reader is referred to the May number of Art and
ArchaSolooy; to the "American School at Athens Notes" in the

iune and July numbers for the announcement of the gift of the
uilding by the Carnegie Corporation; and to these "Notes" in
the September and October numbers for the onrespondence between
Mr. Elihu Root of the Carnegie Corporation and the Prime Minuter
of Greece relative to the whole remarkable transaction.

government has also done its part in
the same spirit of generous rivahy by
recommending to Parliament an act of
expropriation by which a magnificent
plot of land in close proximity to the
present property of the School has
become avaUable, without cost to the
School, for the Gennadeion. The an-
nouncement of the gifts of Dr. Gen-
nadius and the Carnegie Corporation
made to ParUament by the Greek
Minister of Education, when he intro-
duced the bill and read the letter of
Mr. Elihu Root to the Prime Minister,
evoked great enthusiasm; and on all
sides the international significance of
this new foimdation is recognized.
Plans for the building and for the
development of the grounds are al-
ready well advanced; within a short
time the Gennadeion will be open for the
use of scholars of all nations; and a new
era both for the American School and
for the studies fostered by it will begin.


In the earliest years of the School,
the Director was simply an American
college professor who had obtained
leave of absence from his regular work
for the purpose of serving the School.
So Professor Goodwin, of Harvard, was
succeeded by Professor Packard, of
Yale, who was, however, overcome by
illness soon after he reached Athens;
the management of the School was
taken over by Dr. Sterrett, who had
been a member of the School in the
preceding year. In 1 884-1 885 Wes-
leyan University furnished the Direc-
tor, Professor Van Benschoten, who
was followed in succession by Professor
F. D. Allen, of Harvard, Professor
D'Ooge, of the University of Michigan,
and Professor Merriam, of Columbia.
Each of these was an admirable scholar,
but each had to begin as a new man at


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Athens, with no knowledge of local
conditions and often with little or no
information concerning recent discover-
ies or problems in archaeology. There
was no continuity in the work of the
School. Foreign scholars, though they
admired the enterprise and the intelli-
gence of the Americans at Athens, were
perplexed by the instability and ap-
parent lack of serious purpose in the
management, and the friends of the
School in America were convinced that
the time had come for the appointment
of a Director who should hold office for
a term of years. The position of
Director was accordingly offered to Dr.
Charles Waldstein (now Sir Charles
Walston), a graduate of Columbia Uni-
versity and at the time Reader in
Classical Archaeology in Cambridge
University, England. Combining the
two positions and spending a few
months each year in Greece, he retained
the Directorship for four years. The
first permanent resident Director was
Professor Frank Bigelow Tarbell, then
of Harvard, who however resigned after
one year to accept a position in the new
University of Chicago. In 1893 Pro-
fessor Rufus B. Richardson of Dart-
mouth became Director, and to him is
due the present organization of the
work of the School. He was suc-
ceeded in 1903 by Dr.TheodoreWoolsey
Heermance, of Yale, whose untimely
death in 1904 cut off a brilliant career.
In 1905 the present incumbent, Dr.
Bert Hodge Hill, then of the Boston
Musetmi of Art, was appointed.


In the earliest days of the School the
staff at Athens consisted only of the
Director, who was a professor in an
American college and remained at
Athens only eight months. As a per-
manent arrangement this was obviously


imsatisfactory, and a Director with
more lasting tenure was appointed, as
has been said, in 1888. But in the
previous years it had been clear that
the annual directorate was not without
its advantages. Athens is far from
America, and the friends of the School
are not always in touch with foreign
lands. The students, being for the
most part young and without wide
reputation, could not speak with
authority in the United States, but the
Director, a man of some note among
scholars and the friends of scholarship,
could make his voice heard in pubUc
and in private among those whose
interest in the School was of vital im-
portance to its welfare. That the
Director himself, by spending eight
months in Greece, gained a livelier
appreciation of the surroundings of the
ancient Greeks, thereby adding new
life to his teaching after his return, was
also a fact worth considering. More-
over, the presence of an older man, an
American whose permanent work was
in America and who was familiar with
American conditions, tended to keep
the students, especially those who had
been studying in Europe before coming
to the School at Athens, from forgetting
that their own future work would be in
the United States, and from overlook-
ing the difference between European
conditions and those in their own
country. These advantages were
clearly worth retaining, and therefore
there has been, since tiie first appoint-
ment of a more permanent Director, an
Annual Professor whose title has varied
more or less, but who has usually, in
view of the fact that he is Professor of
Greek in America, been called Professor
of the Greek Language and Literature.
The existing arrangement secures for
the School the necessary continuity of
effort and policy through the permanent

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Director and close touch with institu-
tions and conditions at home through
the Annual Professor.


As time went on it became constantly
more evident that the Director, even
with the help of the Annual Professor,
could not be expected to oversee the
care of the grounds, to engage servants
and purchase suppUes, to carry on
negotiations with the Greek government
and with private persons preparatory to
excavations, to conduct excavations, to
entertain distinguished guests, Ameri-
cans and others, to attend court func-
tions, and also to help the students in
their work and do original work of his
own. It was obvious that he must have
assistance, and therefore, for nearly
twenty years, there has been a Secretary
or, as at present, an Assistant Director,
who has always been a past member of
the School, to relieve the Director of
some of his burdens. The present in-
dunbent of this oflBice is Dr. Carl W.
Blegen, whose researches in prehistoric
archaeology have brought him well-
merited distinction.

For many years the subject of Greek
Architecture has engaged the attention
of some of the best minds among both
staflf and students, the opportunities for
research in this field being unusually
attractive both to the practicing archi-
tect and to the archaeologist; and many
of the most brilUant discoveries and
studies which the members of the
School have produced lie in this field.
In recognition of the importance of this
subject for the School a Fellowship in
Architecture was established in 1903,
supported at first by a grant from the
Carnegie Institution, and later taken
into the regular budget. If the incum-
bent remains for a period of years he
becomes a regular member of the staff

with a title appropriate to his rank.* Dr.
Leicester B. Holland, formerly of the
School of Architecture of the University
of Pennsylvania, now holds this posi-
tion, having succeeded Mr. William Bell
Dinsmoor, now of Columbia University.
There is a special fund for the purchase
of books in Architecture, contributed
by friends of Dr. Heermance and bear-
ing his name.


With very few exceptions the stu-
dents are graduates of American col-
leges, and indeed many have been
working for a year or more as graduate
students before coming to Athens.
Until the year 1 886-1 887 no student
had been a member of the School more
than one year, but at that time two
students remained to continue the work
they had begun the year before, and
since that time the usual period of
membership has been two years, though
many still go away after one year at
Athens, and others stay for three
years. There is, then, no prescribed
term of residence, except that a student
who wishes to be rated as a regular
member must study in Greece or Greek
lands for ten months. The only further
requirement is that '* every regular
member of the School shall pursue some
definite subject of study or research in
Classical Literature, Art, or Antiqui-
ties, and shall present a paper embody-
ing the results of some important part
of his year's work, unless for special
reasons he is excused from these obUga-
tions by the Director.**

Since 1895 the nucleus of the student
body has been formed by the two
Fellows selected annually by competi-
tive examination, except that a Fellow
in residence may be reappointed with-
out examination on recommendation of
the Director and the Annual Professor.


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Since 1903, as stated above, the subject
of Architecture has been represented
either by a Fellow or by a more ad-
vanced scholar, who devotes himself
chiefly to research, but may be called
upon to give instruction, and prepares
for pubUcation the drawings of the
buildings and sites uncovered by the
School's excavations. Of the remain-
ing students many are the holders of
fellowships or travelling scholarships
from institutions in the United States.
No distinction is made between men and
women, except that as yet the School is
unable to oflfer lodging to women. This
is a condition that should speedily be
remedied by the erection of the women's
hostel already referred to ; for although
Athens is a congenial place of residence
for women of American social traditions
and training, and they can move about
freely in city or country without the em-
barrassment they would encounter in
Italy or France, for example, yet the
absence of a home for them near the
School, which is at some distance from
the hotels and restaurants of the city,
constitutes a distinct disadvantage for
them as compared with the men.

For such a body of students regular
lessons Uke those of undergraduates are
needless and would be absurd. Never-
theless it has been found well worth
while to conduct courses of lectxu-es and
readings at which all members of the
School are ordinarily expected to be
present. The Director and Assistant
Director lecture at some ancient ruin,
or in a museum, or on some subject
connected with the topography of
Athens; the Annual Professor expounds
some classical author or speaks on some
subject connected with ancient litera-
ture, history, or antiquities, and the
students read papers embodying the
results of researches of their own. In
addition the School holds each year a


few public meeting^s to which scholars
and others who may be interested are
invited, and the members of the Ameri-
can School are, in turn, welcomed at
pubUc meetings held by the schools of
other nations. But most of the time
of the students is spent in their own
studies and investigations, at any rate
after their first year of residence.

Such are the activities of the School
at Athens during the winter, when the
weather makes long trips undesirable.
Yet even in winter short trips are
of frequent occurrence. A Fiat camion
and a Ford car, the School's inheritance
from the American Red Cross, bring
any part of Attica within easy distance
for either large or small parties : Eleusis
can be reached in an hour, or Deceleia,
or Achamae, or Salamis, or Cephissia;
Phyle, Marathon, Suniimi, Aegosthena,
Dionyso, Rhamnus, Vari, Braurium,
the Amphiaraeum at Oropus, can be
comfortably visited in a day; and
Aegina and other sites adjacent to
Attica are also within easy range by car
or steamer. Longer trips are, however,
generally reserved for tiie autumn and
the spring. In the autumn the School
as a whole travels through the Pelo-
ponnese, visiting Corinth, Mycenae,
Tiryns, Argos, Epidaurus, Sparta,
Olympia, and other places, stopping in
each place for hours or days, as may
seem best. In the autumn, too, a trip
is made to Delphi, Thebes, Chalcis,
Thermopylae, the monasteries of
Meteora, and other places in central
and northern Greece. The automobile
has immensely increased the faciUty of
travel and the number of sites visited
each year, since it is quite practicable
to leave Athens in the early morning
and sleep at Delphi or Sparta. And the
Greek government generously allows
our students half fare on the state
railroads. In preparation for these

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journeys the students are expected to
read the descriptions of the various
sites given by ancient and modem
writers and to study the reports of
excavations. Each student is expected
to devote special attention to some one
or two places or some particular monu-
ments, so that he can discuss them on
the spot for the benefit of the rest.

Tins system of student lectures is
often fruitful of discovery. Thus at
Delphi, where the French excavators
have always welcomed our assistance
in the solution of their problems. Wash-
bum discovered the eariier erased in-
scription on the base of the famous
bronze charioteer. And so again Miss
Gardiner (Mrs. Whitmore) and K. K.
Smith investigated the monument of
Daochos the ThessaUan, that contain-
ing the statue of Agias by Lysippus ; and
they found that the group as hitherto
restored included a mediocre Roman
statue, for which must be substituted
a beautiful Lysippean figure recom-
posed from a head exhibited in the
Museum, a leg lying in the basement
storehouse, and a torso opportunely
found at that moment in a modem
stone wall. And once more, on a School
trip, Dinsmoor made the observations
which gave the solution of the Cnidian-
Siphnian problem, for which the French
School offered their Bulletin as the
medium of pubUcation.

For the Cnidian-Siphnian contro-
versy was in full swing in 1909, when
Dinsmoor visited Delphi. The marble
treasury, containing the predecessors of
the Maidens of the Erechtheum, had
been reproduced in two slightly variant
full size plaster models, one in the
Delphi Museum, the other at the head
of the grand stairway of the Louvre
near the Victory of Samothrace; and it
had, after considerable hesitation, been
almost unanimously regarded as Cni-

dian. But the famous sculptured
frieze, which so inspired the sculptor
Paul Manship, was at that very
moment being subdivided and assigned
to three different buildings. In com-
paring the marble architectural frag-
ments with the model, Dinsmoor found
certain discrepancies of measurement
which invalidated the plaster restora-
tion; a careful inventory of all the
marble fragments showed that they
were of three distinct types, of which
one could be identified as Cnidian on
the evidence of inscriptions, the second
could be referred to a foundation at-
tributed with probabiUty to MassiUa,
leaving for the third, which agreed best
with the allusion in Herodotus, the
name Siphnian. Each of these three
buildings was recomposed on paper,
from foundation to roof. The famous
frieze, however, proved to be a unit,
and it was not Cnidian; its members
fitted, stone by stone, the Siphnian
architrave and cornice. The next
problem, that of providing foundations
for the Cnidian and Siphnian treasuries,
led to an investigation of all the treasur-
ies at Delphi; the Siphnian foundation
was clearly that always associated with
the plaster model, but the Cnidians now
received a rapidly disintegrating, and
hitherto nameless, foundation of yellow
limestone, which after this identifica-
tion acquired a protecting tile roof.
Incidental to this investigation was the
location of the two successive treasuries
of Syracuse, and the attribution to the
older one of the pecuUar oblong sculp-
txu-ed metopes hitherto assigned to

In the spring, when the students
have learned enough modem Greek to
enable them to travel easily, the trips
are, as a rule, not organized by the
School, but students travel in conti-
nental Greece, visiting places not


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reached in the autumn or revisiting
those which are of special interest; or
they study the wonderful remains of
pre- Hellenic civiUzation in Crete; or
they cruise among the islands of the
Aegean, inspecting the excavations at
Delos carri^i on by the French School,
the great collection of early vases in
the museum at Mykonos, the ruins of
Phylakopi excavated on the island of
Melos by the British School, and the
relics of ancient civilization at Thera
which were unearthed by the German
Hiller von Gartringen; or they go to
Asia Minor, where the cities of Perga-
mon, Priene,. and Miletus have been
excavated by the Germans, Ephesus
by the Austrians (after EngUshmen had
excavated the great temple of Artemis),
Assos by Americans, and Troy by
Schliemann and Dorpfeld. The im-
portant American excavations at Sardis
are still in progress and oflfer the travel-
ling student much interesting material
for study, and at Colophon work has
been begun. The trip to Asia Minor is
often combined with a visit to Con-
stantinople, where the student of
ancient art finds abundance of material
in the rich museum, the student of less
remote antiquity can devote himself to
Byzantine architecture as seen in St.
Sophia and other buildings, and to
Byzantine painting, decorative sculp-
ture, and mosaics, the last most re-
markably represented in the church —
now mosque — of Kahrie Djami; and
the student of mankind is almost be-
wildered by the mingled mass of dif-
ferent types thronging the narrow
streets and the great Galata bridge.
Some students have extended their
journey to Egypt, whence the ancients
beUeved many elements of civilization

came to Hellas and where Hellenistic
culture had one of its most important
centres. Travel such as this gives the
student a broader outlook on history
and helps him to connect antiquity
with modem times.

During the European War the regular
work of the School was necessarily
suspended, it being impossible to send
either students or professors to Greece
in 1916, 1917, 1918, and 1919. The
services of Mr. Hill and Mr. Blegen
were at first placed at the disposal of
the American Legation; and on the
organization in 191 8 of the American
Red Cross Commission to Greece, the
property of the School and the resident
staff were by formal act of the Trustees
made available for its work. The
School building became the residence of
the higher oflBicers of the Commission,
and Mr. Hill and Mr. Blegen were
detailed to various important duties.
The chief of the conmiission appointed
by President Wilson was the Chairman
of the School's Managing Conmiittee,
Professor Capps, and his successor in
1919-20 was Professor H. B. Dewing,
who was appointed for that year the
Annual Professor. Mr. Blegen also
rendered important services to the
Paris Peace Commission in connection
with the intricate problems of bounda-
ries and race distribution, and Mr. Hill
in helping to put down the typhus
epidemic in Macedonia; while Mr.
Dinsmoor received a commission and
was assigned to the staff of the Ameri-
can Military Attach^ at Athens. Alto-
gether the School did its part in the war
creditably. To commemorate the hos-
pitality of the School the members of
the Red Cross Conmiission contributed
a special fund for excavations.


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It is chiefly in the spring and autumn
that excavations are carried on, though
sometimes work begun in spring is
continued in summer, and sometimes
the work of the autumn does not come
to an end until the rainy season has set
in; but, generally speaking, the Director
and Assistant Director are in Athens
during the winter to conduct the winter
work of the School, and in the summer
months the students are travelling or
studying outside of Greece.

In the paragraph of the Regulations
already quoted, we find, as parts of the
object of the School, "to aid original
research in these subjects (Classical
Literature, Art, and Antiquities); and
to cooperate with the Archaeological
Institute of America .... in conducting
the exploration and excavation of
classic sites.*' This sounds as if the
founders of the School hardly expected
it to conduct excavations independently
of the Institute; but even in the first
year of the School it became evident
that ** original research in these sub-
jects*' might call for excavation. Mr.
Crow, who was investigating the Pnyx,
the great assembling place of the
Athenians, had to obtain the permission
of the Ephor of Antiquities and dig
some rather short and shallow trenches
to isettle questions relating to ancient

Excavation is, then, sometimes a
necessary part of research — of an in-
vestigation which has not the discovery
of new material as its chief end; but
excavation of new sites primarily for the
purpose of finding new material is also a
legitimate part of the work of the
School, not only as a part of the prose-
cution of original research, but also
because excavation offers the students
of the School a kind of training which

cannot be obtained in any other way
and which is invaluable to any one who
is called upon to weigh archaeological
evidence. Excavations have, there-
fore, been carried on by the School, not
only because they increase and main-
tain its reputation alongside of the other
foreign schools at Athens, but partly
because they constitute an important
division of archaeological research and
partly also because the School, as a
teaching institution, must give its
students the opportunity to watch,
take part in, and, in some measure,
direct them.

The first real excavation undertaken
by the School was at Thoricus, in
Attica. It was known that a theatre
existed here in ancient times, and in
the spring of 1886 work was begun,
under the direction of Professor F. D.
Allen, in the hope of finding some evi-
dence either for or against the existence
of a raised stage in the Greek theatre of
classical times; for the belief, founded
on a somewhat perplexing passage in
Vitruvius, that the Greek actors per-
formed on a high stage, had recently
been called in question by Professor
Dorpfeld of the German Institute. The
excavations at Thoricus, though they
failed to settle the question of the
stage — concerning which scholars are
even now not all agreed — ^nevertheless
laid bare remains of the most primitive
type of Greek theatre (pp. 185, 186)
known to us — a building without back-
scene or stage buildings of any kind
— and therefore of considerable import-
ance for the history of the theatre.

In the following year (1887) the
theatre at Sicyon (pp.187, 188), not far
from Corinth, was excavated. Here
the foundations showed that the original
** stage-building** had been altered; a


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