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AECH^OLOGICAL INSTITUTE

OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.



OLD LONDON.



PAPERS READ AT THE LONDON CONGRESS,
JULY, 1866.



LONDON :
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1867.



LONDON :
BRADBURY, EVANS, AND CO., PRINTERS, WI1ITEFRIARS.



CONTENTS.



PAGE

PRELIMINARY ADDRESS. BY A. J. B. BERESFORD-HOPE, M.P. v

ARCHEOLOGY IN ITS RELIGIOUS ASPECT. BY DEAN

STANLEY 1

SOME PARTICULARS CONCERNING THE MILITARY ARCHI-
TECTURE OF THE TOWER OF LONDON. BY G. T. CLARK 13

THE CHAPTER-HOUSE OF WESTMINSTER. BY GEORGE

GILBERT SCOTT, R.A. . . . . . . . . 141

ON THE SCULPTURE IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY. BY

PROFESSOR WESTMACOTT, R.A., F.R.S . 159

WESTMINSTER HALL. BY EDWARD Foss, F.S.A. . . .219

PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE. BY JOSEPH BURTT . . . . 241

LONDON AND HER ELECTION OF STEPHEN. BY REV. J. R.

GREEN 261

ROYAL PICTURE GALLERIES. BY GEORGE SCHARF, F.S.A. . 281



LIBRARY



PEELIMINAEY ADDRESS.

MR. BERESFORD HOPE, in taking the chair of the
Architectural Section, began by vindicating for Lon-
don which was too commonly regarded as a mere
modern town of trade and politics the possession of
vast stores of antiquarian treasures, which amply
justified the Archaeological Institute for holding its
congress there. He then called attention to the im-
portance which was currently attributed to London,
in its corporate identity, in the imaginative and
patriotic literature of the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries as the central idealization of that which
made English citizenship precious. The shock of the
Keformation had disturbed the currents of thought
which otherwise might have set in from a more recent
period, and led to the general glorification of Planta-
genet history; so that poetry, pedantry and caution com-
bined to exhume a much earlier symbolism, in reaching
of which no treacherous ground had to be trodden. The
personified " Britannia," though she began to appear
early in the seventeenth century, was not fully ac-
cepted till "La Belle Stuart" sat for her effigy on
our pence in the time of Charles II., while she
attained her greatest glory when Thomson ordered
her to rule the waves. But at an earlier and fresher



vi PEELIMINARY ADDRESS.

period, commencing from the Elizabethan outburst of
literature, the old Trojan story of Geoffrey of Mon-
mouth, with its ingenious metamorphosis of the Tri-
nobantes into Troynovant, was laid hold of by the
poets as their centre of patriotic personification. For
example, Spenser told his readers that

" Noble Britons spronge of Trojans bolde,
And Troynovant was built of old Trove's ashes colde ; "

while Drayton, in his " Polyolbion, " recurs, over and
over again, to the enticing theme in the course of
his stately though it may be somewhat involved flow
of verse. The same impulse of constructing the
myth of a Trojan origin led the imaginative French
chroniclers of the renaissance, to dream of Paris, the
son of Priam, somehow rescued from Achilles' sword,
having been the founder of the chief city of the Isle
of France. But for all this, during the contempora-
neous epoch of French literature, no similar glorifica-
tion of the capital of France could be found. The
cause of this difference was partly political in the
earlier and more complete consolidation of the king-
dom of England but it was also partly physical,
in the commercial importance possessed by London,
with its unequalled river and port, while Paris was,
after all, only a great residenz. No doubt in the third
place the " Paris " invention was rather recent and
scholastic, while the Brutian e'pope'e was already an-
cient at the invention of printing ; but, per contra,
this fact proved that the circumstances of England
were more opportune for the development of the feel-



PRELIMINARY ADDRESS. vii

ing of embodied pride in the capital than those of
France. Expressive, therefore, as the Elizabethan
poetry was of the growing consciousness on the part
of Englishmen of the commercial and constitutional
future of the country, it was natural that the re-
cognized eponymus of the realm should be rather
found in the city planted on the great and still un-
sullied outlet of its trade, than in a region which, to
the townsmen of these days, comprised not only the
fertile fields of the south and midland, but the wastes
of Dartmoor, the Peak, Yorkshire, and Northumber-
land. It was also natural that with London to be
glorified the poetic elements of its glorification should
be sought in the Trojan legend, so flattering in an
uncritical age to national vanity. They need go no
further than the sixteenth and seventeenth " Songs " of
Drayton, to learn how thoroughly identified were the
ideas of London and of the Thames, for in them they
might see how

" Then Westminster the next great Tames doth entertaine ;
That counts her Palace large, and her most sumptuous Fane :
The Land's Tribunal! seate that challengeth for hers,
The crowning of our Kings, their famous sepulchers.
Then goes he on by that more beautious Strand,
Expressing both the wealth and bravery of the land.
(So many sumptuous Bowres, within so little space,
The All-beholding Sun scarce sees in all his race.)
And on by London leads, which like a Crescent lies,
Whose windowes seem to mock the Star-befreckled skies;
Besides her rising spyres, so thick themselves that show,
As doe the bristling reeds, within his Banks that growe,
There sees his crouded wharves and people-pestred shores,
His Bosome over-spread, with shoales of labouring ores;
With that most costly Bridge, that doth him most renowne,
By which he cleerely puts all other Rivers downe."



viii PEELIMINAEY ADDEESS.

But in the meanwhile he was wandering from his
subject, which was rather that of inviting the ex-
amination of the buildings of old London one by one,
tl^an the realization of the city as a social whole.
In spite of the many writers, Stow, Howell, New-
come, Entick, Pennant, Maitland, Brayley, &c., who
had successively tried their hands upon the topography
and antiquities of the capital, no really complete history
of London and Westminster, in an archaeological sense,
yet existed. He would consider that this Congress
would have more than amply done its work, if it could
only lay the foundations of such a production. Of
course it could not do so directly. The volume which it
would produce would be but at best a series of
detached essays and monographs. Still the stone
might be set rolling for such a complete and exhaus-
tive history as would be worthy of the age, of the
writers, and of the subject he meant, as he hardly need
say, a history which should include the municipal,
the historical, the legal, the social, the biographical,
the picturesque, and the genealogical, as well as the
architectural records of our mighty Troynovant the
work, it must be, of many labouring hands, although
acting under one controlling mind.

There was one incident which he especially com-
mended to the editor of such a history, whenever he
might be found, viz., the analysis of the way in which
the present "town" had been gradually kneaded
together out of or had overrun, to adopt another
metaphor the different villages and estates in the
neighbourhood. The cause of this abnormal lateral



PEELIMINAEY ADDRESS. ix

extension might, lie believed, be found, in the diffe-
rence of the tenures by which house property was held
in London to that which existed in continental cities.
In these, from of old, each house was, generally speak-
ing, a separate freehold, and was therefore piled up as
high as its owner found it possible to do. In London
the system of every Englishman contenting himself
with " his own castle," in the form of a hired house, had
grown up from the development of the system of leases,
into a kind of partnership, most legitimate in its commer-
cial advantages, between the ground landlord and the
speculating builder. The natural result has been, that a
competition of estate-holders has of old been created,
each of them finding it to be his immediate interest
to cover over his whole area with houses before some
rival landowner should press into the field with some
more distant estate. Thus has come into existence
the mighty area cropped with low inadequate houses
which composes that London, of which the veritable
High Street from Netting Hill to Stratford-le-Bow is
a continuous though curved line of houses, or of
town-made park, some ten miles long.

With regard to the architectural department of
topography, the need of a really intelligent and learned
examination, such as London had not yet received,
was particularly crying. To be convinced of this,
they had but to consider the number of buildings of
antiquarian interest which had been swept away
during the course of the present century, of which he
proceeded to give a long and lamentable list, including
both mediaeval remains, and many very curious struc-



x PEELIMINAEY ADDRESS.

tures of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, alms-
houses, etc. To take but a few as examples : at the
commencement of the nineteenth century, remains of
the conventual premises of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate,
were still preserved, and considerable portions existed
of the domestic buildings of the Savoy Palace, all of
which had now been swept away ; the construction of
St. Katharine's Docks had involved the obliteration of
the Collegiate Church and adjunct buildings of St.
Katharine's as lately as 1822, the beautiful Corpora-
tion Chapel attached to Guildhall was still standing ;
all knew how much of Westminster Palace and of St.
Stephen's Chapel, which have now perished, was
revealed after the great fire of 1834; while the re-
storation of the choir of St. Mary Overie (or St.
Saviour's, Southwark,) was followed by the total and
wanton demolition of its nave, and the construction
instead of the most barbarous abortion that ever pre-
tended to be Gothic. Old London Bridge too, a most
picturesque though inconvenient fragment of the
Middle Ages, was still standing when William IV.
ascended the throne.

He did not say that many of these demolitions
were not called for by the course of modern improve-
ment, or from the unhealthfulness of their position, or
their ruinous condition ; but he did say that others
were wanton and barbarous, and that previously to the
buildings having been pulled down, care ought to have
been taken to have had them accurately planned,
drawn, and described.

Those that overthrew them ought at least to have



.PEELIMINABY ADDEESS. xi

made sure that they should leave their memorial
behind them an obligation of which, except in the
case of the Palace of Westminster, they seemed totally
oblivious. Now, as it was almost unnecessary to ob-
serve, that we possess that great instrument of photo-
graphy, of which our fathers were ignorant, any neglect
on this head would, to a tenfold greater degree, become
inexcusable.

With these observations, he declared the section
opened.



HISTORY OF OLD LONDON.



i.

ARCHEOLOGY IN ITS RELIGIOUS ASPECT.

A DISCOURSE, DELIVERED IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY, BY
ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY, D.D., DEAN OF WESTMINSTER,
JULY 22ND, 1866.



" See what manner of stones and what buildings are here !"
Mark xiii. 1.

So spoke the antiquarian architectural spirit of the
first century in the midst of the most venerable
and the most magnificent city of the East, even of
the whole then known world. It reached back to an
antiquity in the presence of which the city of the
Seven Hills was a mere infant. The centre of its
Temple was a relic of the Stone age of mankind
the rocky threshing-floor, with its shaggy cave, in
which Araunah, the last king of the primeval race
of the land, had taken refuge. Its walls, though
thrice destroyed and thrice restored, contained frag-
ments of each succeeding epoch. In Solomon's
cloister, if nowhere else, were to be seen the re-
mains of the first architecture of the Jewish nation.
Its towers and fortresses were raised on the founda-
tions laid perhaps by Melchisedek, certainly by
David. It had shown the effort of the passion for



2 HISTORY OF OLD LONDON.

architectural restoration which characterised that age.
The same impulse throughout the civilised world,
which had caused Augustus Caesar to change Rome
from a city of brick into a city of marble, had pene-
trated to Judea. For the last forty and six years the
restorations of Herod and his family had been con-
ducted with a splendour which almost outshone that of
Solomon. Corinthian porticoes, gilded gates, carved
portals, made the old Temple of Zorobabel and Ezra
shine like a mountain of snow fretted with gold. And
to enjoy this sight, a new taste had been awakened in
the age, which rendered it keenly alive to the glories
both of the past and the present. When the disciples
broke out with their admiring exclamation, " See what
manner of stones and what buildings are here," they,
the unlettered peasants of Galilee, expressed by an
unconscious impulse the instinct of the nation. They,
as they measured with their hands those stones, which
we can still see, twenty, thirty feet long, they, as they
looked up towards those lofty towers which have long
since perished, were but saying in their brief, simple
fashion Avhat the more highly cultivated intellects
of their countrymen were expressing in well-turned
periods and elaborate treatises. There were, doubtless,
not a few among the doctors of the law who had
pored over the ancient records of the nation : there
was one youth who might have stood by, as the
Apostles wound their way down the Temple hill,
Josephus, warrior, statesman, and writer, all in one.
He must already have begun to lay up the stores
of that Arcliceologia of the Jewish people, which, in



ARCHAEOLOGY IN ITS RELIGIOUS ASPECT. 3

imitation of the Greek work of the Halicarnassian
Dionysius bearing the same name, on the early histoiy
of the Eoman people, was to be his special contribution
to the literature of his country. He must then have
been taking those measurements and making those
observations which, with all their shortcomings, yet
render his account of the Jewish city and Temple the
best antiquarian and architectural description that the
ancient world contains.

And now, is not this the feeling which has called
together so large a portion of my present congregation
and which has occupied so many of us during the past
week ? We have met together, day by day, to " see what
manner of stones and what buildings are here " in this
ancient edifice, and in this great metropolis and its
neighbourhood. We account it an honour and a duty
to trace the records of the successive ages of our
country from the rude fragment of primitive rock,
from the deep dyke, from the Eoman rampart, onwards
through the various forms of grace and beauty by which
Christian architecture has been developed through
Norman vault and Mediaeval arch and Byzantine
dome to our own time. Our lot, too, has fallen in an
age when the passion for adorning and building is as
ardent as it was in the age of Herod and Augustus
when the delight in antiquity and the charm of the
past is more keenly felt than it has perhaps ever been
since the world began ; when the spirit and the beauty
of ancient buildings and ancient history is more fully
appreciated than it was even by the builders and the
actors themselves.

B 2



4 HISTOEY OF OLD LONDON.

Now is this feeling right or wrong ? What are it*
dangers and what its advantages ? What is there in
it of the earth earthy ? and what, of the heavenly and
immortal ? In itself, no one can doubt that the inte-
rest expressed by the earlier disciples in the text is
perfectly innocent. It arose evidently from the first
feeling of a genuine childlike heart. It was the same
feeling as that with which the Psalmist spoke almost
the same words " Walk about Zion, go round about
her, tell the towers thereof, mark well her bulwarks ;"
or, still more pathetically, " Thy servants take pleasure
in her stones, and favour the dust thereof." And
although it is true that the immediate answer of our
Lord on this occasion was one of dark and terrible
import, " Seest thou these stones ? there shall not
be left one stone upon another, that shall not be
thrown down," yet those very buildings which, in one
point of view, called forth the stern malediction, from
a more general point of view called forth His loving
admiration. He was wont to walk to and fro in the
porch or cloister, which was called after the name of
Solomon, and was filled with the relics of olden times.
When, on the Mount of Olives, the unsympathetic
bystanders would have repressed the shouts of the
children who proclaimed His coming, He appealed
from the hard heart of the present to the dead stones
of the past. He reminded them that, " if they should
hold their peace, these stones," the old historic stones of
that sacred hill, which had seen the farewells of David
and the teachings of the Prophets, would immediately
cry out, with a voice of their own, louder than the



ARCHAEOLOGY IN ITS KELIGIOUS ASPECT. 5

acclamations of the multitudes ; and when He ad-
vanced a few steps further, and the sight of that
splendid and venerable city flashed upon him, the
tears of affectionate sympathy rushed into His eyes.
" He wept over the city," and breathed the hope
that even then, at that last moment, she might have
known the things that belonged to her peace, and risen
to a position worthy of her ancient glory and present
splendour. How then are we, who are always saying,
" See what manner of stones and what buildings are
here," to avoid the censure and gain the blessing of
Him who knows what is in man 1 What is the true
religious aspect of Archaeology ?

I. First of all we must profit to the full by that warn-
ing voice which checked for the moment the enthusiasm
of the antiquarian disciple. The admiration for stones
and buildings, however innocent, and good, and useful,
is not religion. The regard for antiquity, the love of
the past, if pushed to excess, may become the ruin of
religion. It might have been supposed, from the
language of some of those who revived these archaeo-
logical studies thirty years ago, that Gothic archi-
tecture was one of the cardinal virtues. It might
be supposed, from the manner in which antiquity
is sometimes extolled, that it is the one test of
truth and excellence of all sorts. Against this our
Lord's warning is decisive. Of the most sacred stones
and buildings that this earth has ever borne, He pro-
nounced, not without exultation, that not one of those
stones should be left upon another. One of the most
venerable relics that has ever been handed down to



6 IIISTOEY OF OLD LONDON.

the guardianship of succeeding ages, the brazen serpent
that Moses made in the wilderness the symbol in
coming times of the future Eedeemer was ruthlessly
destroyed by the most pious of the Jewish kings.
Solomon and Herod, the most munificent of builders,
were not the best of the Jewish kings ; they were
amongst the worst.

In one word, Christianity is not antiquarianism,
and antiquarianism is not Christianity. There are
times, and places, and circumstances, when antiquity
must give way to truth, the beauty of form to the
beauty of holiness, and the delights of poetic and
historic recollections to the stern necessities of fact and
duty. It was well to be reminded, even at Jerusalem,
that there was something more enduring than the
stones of the Temple. It is well, even here, to be
reminded of that often-predicted prospect which future
generations may view from the broken arches of our
stateliest bridges, over the ruin of our noblest churches.

II. But having been thus forewarned, we are fore-
armed. If the text in the first instance suggests the
one correction which is needed, it also suggests, by its
relation to those other passages which I have quoted,
the true lesson to be derived from antiquarian re-
search. Let me describe briefly the important benefits
which it may confer on the world even in a religious
point of view.

1. It awakens that love of the past, which is so ne-
cessary a counterpoise to the excitement of the present
and the future. " I have considered," says the Psalmist
in one of the most philosophic and exalted strains of



AECILZEOLOGY IN ITS EELIQIOUS ASPECT. 7

the Psalter, " I have considered the days of old, the
years of ancient times." He had considered them as a
refuge from the turmoil and distress of the times in
which he lived. They were to him, and they may be
to us, as a cool shade, a calm haven, a sweet repose.
The study of them links the child to the man " the
days of nations each to each by natural piety." And
yet more, it opens to us a new world ; it enlarges our
acquaintance ; it makes us feel that we do not stand
alone on the earth, but that we are what we are,
under God, because of the deeds and thoughts of
those who have lived before us, and to whom we thus
owe a debt which we have constantly to repay to our
posterity. And when we consider how, beyond all
former example, this insight into the past is increased
in our own age, we ought to be thankful for the
merciful provision of God which, by creating this new
gift within us, compensates to us, as it were, for
the continually receding distance of ancient times.
Through this increased insight, whole epochs and races
of mankind have been manifested to us, as they
never have been manifested since they were actually
beheld upon earth. Not only Greeks and Eomans, but
Egyptians and Assyrians, are familiar to the nine-
teenth century, as they have not been to any age since
the fall of Nineveh, and the overthrow of the Pharaohs.
And much more : as we reach our own country, king,
and prelate, and statesman, with all their individual
peculiarities physical and mental, rise before us through
the magic touch of scientific and antiquarian research.
"This only is the witchcraft we have used;" and



8 HISTOEY OF OLD LONDON.

through it we see those venerable figures " ascending
as gods from the earth." They are ours almost for
the first time ours not merely as dead phantoms,
but in their living flesh and blood, "all the kings
of the nations, every one in his own house." What
a grasp of the ages that are dead and gone has
God in His mercy given us by these new powers !
But what a pledge also of the power that may yet be
developed within us, as our race advances as our
mortality puts on immortality !

2. And this leads me to the importance of these
studies in unfolding those rarest of God's gifts to
man a love of truth and a love of justice, the will
and the power to see things as they really are, and
in their just proportion to each other. If some anti-
quarians have been childishly enslaved to the forms of
other days, it is certain that the more profound inves-
tigators have been distinguished by their boldness in
asserting the principles of justice, freedom, and pro-
gress. Such were the two who lie within these walls
Camden and Spelman. Such were and are some of
their most distinguished successors.

To trace the successive stages through which taste,
and custom, and belief have passed to know the
contempt which each age has lavished on that imme-
diately preceding to track to their homely origin the
forms of buildings or of ritual which have since been,
in the eyes of the less instructed, invested with an
exclusive sacredness this, which is the special duty
and delight of the modern antiquarian, is also the best
check to exaggerated and partial veneration. To appre-



AKCH-ZEOLOGY IN ITS EELIGIOUS ASPECT. 9

ciate the truly grand and the truly beautiful in art
or in sentiment to condense within the same view
the beginning and end of great institutions and
edifices has an effect not narrowing or depressing, but
widening and elevating in a high degree. A reverent
admiration for religious art is far more reasonable, far
less superstitious, than an undiscriminating iconoclasm,
whether Byzantine or Puritan. A conscientious search
for truth and for truth only, such as the revival of
archaeology in our times specially encourages, is the
very duty . which we most need to have impressed
upon us in all things. How many is the fable which
the honest explorer of past ages has banished from the
earth ! how many is the illusion which he has cleared
away ! how many the false judgments of characters
and events which have been rectified by the discovery
of a lost letter, or an ancient coin, or a forgotten manu-
script ! Truly in this sense, according to the great



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