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17. " His queene mother of
Fraunce, done by younge Pur-
bus."

18. "The Duke Charles of
Burbon, done by ."



" In lymninge, as follows " :



19.-20. "The queene of Scot-
Ian d,with the Dolphin of Fraunce,
of Gennetts doeinge." This mi-
niature portrait of Mary Queen
of Scots, by Janet, is still pre-



served in the royal library at
Windsor Castle. It is one of the
most authentic and interesting
among the reliable portraits of
Mary. The companion portrait



Laing, once more been restored to Scotland. After having been
seen at the Manchester Exhibition of Art-Treasures in 1857, the
panels, instead of being sent hack to Hampton Court, were, by her
Majesty's command, transferred to Edinburgh. They are now very
appropriately deposited in the Palace of Holyrood.



IMPORTATION OF PICTUEES, A.D. 1632. 315

of the Dauphin, afterwards in hangeinge hayre, done by y e Charles I.

Frangois II., cannot now be re- old Oliver " (Isaac Olivier),
cognised. They both appear in 22. " The earle of Northum-

the Catalogue of Charles I. berland, done by old Hilliard."
21. " An other gentlewoman's

Both sons of James I. evinced an early interest in
Art. Prince Henry had formed a noble collection
of paintings and statuary, and designed an apartment
at Whitehall expressly for their reception. Charles, even
before his accession to the throne, had distinguished
himself by the possession of paintings of the highest
quality. It was under his authority that the finest
productions of the greatest Italian masters made their
Avay to this country. The collection of Vincenzo, Duke ^ nts

of Mantua, containing some of the choicest works of abroad f
the pur-

Raphael, Correggio, Giulio Romano, and Titian, arrived chase of

in England about the close of 1632.*

Nicholas Lanier conveyed many of the finest pictures
from Venice to Brussels in the beginning of May, 1628,
having laden five horses. He carried with him two
pictures of Correggio, in tempera, and one of Raffaelle,
" the finest pictures in the world," as Daniel Nys writes
to Endymion Porter, " and well worth the money paid
for the whole [collection], both on account of their
rarity and exquisite beauty." f The remainder of the
pictures were consigned to the ship Margaret.
"Among them," Nys continues, in his letter dated
Venice, May 12, 1629, " is the Madonna of Raffaelle

* See Original Papers of Rubens, by Noel Sainsbury. 1859. Pages
327 and 339.

t Ibid., pages 325-327.



316 HISTORY OF OLD LONDON.

ohef-d'- del Canozzo, for which the Duke of Mantua gave a

oeuvres of

Raphael, Marquisate worth 50,000 scudi ; and the late Duke of

Titian, and

Florence would have given the Duke of Mantua for



the said Madonna 25,000 ducatoni in ready money.
The man who negotiated this matter is still alive.
Then there are the twelve Emperors of Titian, a large
picture of Andrea del Sarto, a picture of Michelangelo
di Caravaggio ; other pictures of Titian, Correggio,
Giulio Eomano, Tintoretto, and Guido Eeni, all of
the greatest beauty."
of These passages may suffice to afford a general

works in impression of the tone and spirit in which the royal
acquisitions were made, and of the manner in which
the King's agents worked. It appears, also, that in
1635 the State's Ambassador presented five pictures to
the King at St. James's.

All the choicest productions of art above alluded to
arrived safely in England, and are to be traced in the
catalogue of the collection at Whitehall prepared for
Charles I.

Vander This compilation is by far the most important of all
the records that have hitherto been prepared of the
various works of art belonging to the Crown. It was
drawn up by Vander Doort, who had the charge " of
all the King's Pictures, medals, books, and gems."
The latest date that occurs in the body of the book is
October, 1639. The original MS. of the Catalogue is
still preserved at Oxford, bound in two volumes, which
are stamped on both sides with the royal arms, sur-
mounted by a crown and encircled by the garter.
The letters C. R take the place of the usual heraldic



CATALOGUE OP PICTUEES AT WHITEHALL, A.D. 1639. 317

supporters. Above the crown is the date 1639.
The contents consist partly of fair copies, repeti- 1625 ~ 49 -
tions, rough writings, and hastily-scribbled notes,
all bound together. Many of the pages are covered
with a close, strange handwriting, probably Vander
Doort's own, which presents many gross irregularities
of spelling and curiosities in grammatical construction.
The lists seem to have been prepared for the king's own
revision. These volumes were formerly in the Ashmo- Catalogues
lean Museum at Oxford, and have only within the last
few years (since 1863) been removed to the Bodleian
Library. Vander Doort's position and the nature of Vander
his artistic qualifications will be seen by the following D
account of himself entered in his Catalogue."""

"No. 21. Item. Imbost in coloured wax, so big as the life, "Which
upon a black ebony pedestal, a woman's head laid in with silver
and gold, which was made for the Emperor Rodulphus, who did ham
write divers times for it to be brought to him, but Prince Henry
would, upon no terms or conditions, let the same and the maker given to
thereof go out of England, but promising he would give so good



entertainment as any Emperor should ; whereupon he promised upon con-
him that when the cabinet-room should be done, that he should '



have the keeping of all his medals, &c., and 50 a year for service piece is too
done and to be done, which as yet, by reason of his unseasonable te^>t in fhe

death, was never performed." cupboards

at White-

The Catalogue was, for the first time, printed in a
quarto form by Bathoe, in 1 75 7 ; and taken, as the
title runs, "from an Original Manuscript in the Ash-

* See Walpole's Anecdotes, edited by Dallaway and Wornum,
page 269, for an account of Vander Doort, and of the melancholy
termination of his career. Bathoe's Edition of King Charles' Cata-
logue, page 164, No. 21.



318 HISTOEY OF OLD LONDON.

Catalogues mo l ean Museum at Oxford. Tlie whole transcribed

prepared J

by Vander an( % prepared for the press, and a great part of it
printed, by the late ingenious Mr. Vertue, and now
finished from his papers."

It is, however, much to be regretted that Vertue's
life was not spared to complete the supervision of this
reproduction, as many of the errors, omissions, and
gratuitous insertions which now disfigure the work
would scarcely have been tolerated by so vigilant and
zealous an antiquary.

J^? r- I have, during several visits to Oxford, carefully

published, collated the printed copy with these manuscripts, and
regret to observe how little the former is to be trusted.
In many places words are mis-read and changed ;
punctuation altered, and both dimensions of pictures
and observations upon them, inserted in the text with-
out any shadow of authority from the original, or any
means afforded of distinguishing them. The detection
of these faults has several times enabled me at
once to identify the description of some particular
picture which I had been vainly seeking after.

Troubles The chief perplexities have been caused by stops

caused by

inaccuracy gratuitously foisted in, and by a careless and uncalled
for employment of capital letters.

At present it may be sufficient for me to offer a few
remarks on some of the peculiarities of this catalogue
as compared with the valuable Inventory of Henry
VIII.

In the first place, the plan of Vander Doort's cata-
logue is fuller and more methodised ; he specifies
the apartments which they occupy : in some instances



VANDER DOOBT'S CATALOGUE, A.D. 1639. 319

the writer even advances critical opinions ; whilst the Charles i.
circumstances under which a particular work of art
came into the royal possession are frequently stated
upon the margin with much care. Dimensions in feet
and inches are occasionally given.

There is an occasional naivetd about many of the
expressions used in his descriptions, and most of the
painter's names are loosely spelt. The latter feature
certainly indicates that the Keeper's acquaintance with
foreign names has been derived from hearsay rather
than from books.

Vander Doort uses the word picture, not only for
models painted, as we have already seen in Henry's
Inventory; but for bas-relief representations, and this
when speaking of the effigies on gold coins and like-
wise of a model of King Charles on horseback done by
Le Seur. He uses the word harness for armour, and
whiskers for moustaches. Portraits represented to the

1 Tl 7

nips or elbows, he occasionally designates as to me
shoulders." He adopts one means of distinguishing Catalogue.
portraits that has already proved very serviceable. In
describing separate heads, especially miniatures, Vander
Doort generally commences with " Done upon the right
light" meaning thereby that the light is admitted
on to the subject from the right side ; and, on the
other hand, when intending to express the opposite, he
avoids using the word "left," but invariably says
" Done upon the wrong light."

On testing these expressions, by comparing them
with recognised and well-ascertained pictures, I find
that he always intends the word "right" to imply



320 HISTOKY OF OLD LONDON.



P erson represented, and not of the be-
holder. Thus ; most of the portraits of Henry VIIL,
more especially those attributed to Holbein, have the
light coming in from the spectator's right, a circum-
stance which may have tended in some degree to
establish the tradition that Holbein was left-handed.
These are specified by Vander Doort as "Done upon
the wrong light."

A large amount of space in the catalogue is occupied
by a list of the Miniatures. They are very numerous
and valuable, and it is a great satisfaction to find that
the majority of them can still be identified in the royal
Library at Windsor.
Whitehall Pennant says * that in the time of James I., Whitehall

Palace. . .

A.D. 1620. was in a most ruinous state. He determined to rebuild
it, and began with pulling down the banquetting rooms
built by Elizabeth ; but all that he lived to accomplish
was the present building retaining that name, begun in
1619, from a design of Inigo Jones, and now known as
the Chapel Eoyal, Whitehall.

At Whitehall Palace, soon after his accession to the
throne, Charles I. assembled all the choicest works of
art. The whole number of his pictures amounted to
1,3 87,"|" of which 216 were reckoned first-class paintings,
and 88 chef-d'ceuvres. Some of these were kept also
at St. James's and at Hampton Court. The Sculptures,
amounting to 399, were principally arranged at his
palace at Greenwich. The Miniatures, Books, Medals,
and Gems were kept in an apartment called the

* Page 139, of "London," fifth edition, 1813.
t Mrs. Jameson's Public Galleries, p. 191.



WHITEHALL PALACE IN THE EEIGN OF CHAELES I. 321

Cabinet-room at Whitehall, built by order of Prince The
Henry from a design of Inigo Jones.* It stood on the
west side of the road towards St. James's Park, on the
site of the present Dover House (Lady Clif den's), between
the Horse Guards and the Treasury.

It is remarkable that the locality where the choicest
works of art belonging to the Crown were then con-
centrated, is now occupied by our principal government
offices. Smith, in his Antiquities of Westminster,!
says that the western side of King Street was for-
merly bounded by that open space which afterwards
became enclosed under the name of St. James's Park.
When Henry VIII. had acquired possession of White- Whitehall
hall, he, in 1531, by exchange with the abbot and St. James's

Park.

convent of Westminster, procured to himself this
enclosure, part of which he converted into the before-
mentioned park ; and on the rest he erected a tennis-
court, a cock-pit, a bowling-alley, a long stone gallery.
All these buildings were on the opposite side of the
public street to the original residence. He connected
them by two gateways across the street. That
nearest to Charing Cross was called Holbein's Gate,
and, after serving as the State Paper Office, was demo-
lished in 1750. It crossed the street just below the
Banqueting House, at the point between Gwyder
House and the Chapel Royal.

Some of the largest pictures seem to have been placed
in the Tennis-Court Chamber and the Bear Gallery.

The general arrangement of Whitehall Palace during

* Pennant's London, p. 142.
t Page 20.



322 HISTORY OF OLD LONDON.

Whitehall the first half of the seventeenth century may still be

reign of traced by reference to a curious ground plan * that

A.D. 1670. was taken by John Fisher in the reign of Charles II.,

and engraved by Vertue, who regarded it as belonging

to the year 1680. Cunningham, however, in the

" Handbook to London/' t records his conviction that

a still earlier date, by ten years, might have been

assigned to it.

After so long an interval, many of the names of the
rooms, as well as of the occupants of the apartments,
or " lodgings," as they were then termed, had changed
entirely. The general appearance of the buildings at
Whitehall, at different periods, may be seen in the
Illustrated Pennant in the British Museum Print-
room.

On a wall in the Privy Chamber still remained
Holbein's painting of Henry VII. and Henry VIII.,
with their Queens.J

As not only the pictures themselves, but the manner
in which they were arranged during the prosperous
days of King Charles I., cannot but possess a par-

* Smith's Antiquities of Westminster, p. 19.

t Page 550.

J This picture was destroyed in the fire which broke out April 10th,
1691 ;* but it had fortunately been copied for Charles II. by Kerne
van Leemput, and his performance still exists at Hampton Court
Palace. What yet remained of the old palace was consumed in the
second fire, which began January 4th, 1698, and lasted seventeen
hours. Cunningham's London, p. 550, and Sanderson's Graphice,
p. 24.



* Cunningham, p. 549.



PICTUEES AT WHITEHALL PALACE, A.D. 1639. 323

ticular interest, I will invite a cursory glance at those Charles i.
apartments in the palace which were specially devoted
to works of art, and state as briefly as possible the
nature and character of the principal pictures that
each room contains, following, of course, the arrange-
ment adopted in Vander Doort's Catalogue.

The opening portion of the catalogue does not
specify what apartment the pictures occupied. The first
division comprises eighty-one paintings, which appear
to have been of very various sizes and quality. Their
dimensions are stated in feet and inches. They consist Vander
principally of Italian pictures. The following is a catalogue,
selection of the principal paintings. The numbers in 1
brackets correspond with those introduced in Bathoe's
edition of Vander Doort's catalogue :



CATALOGUE OF THE KING'S PICTUEES BY ABRAHAM
VANDER DOORT.

(4.) Titian's, Lucretia, a small picture (14).t See Henry VIII.'s

whole length. pictures, ante, page 298.

(10.) Raphael's Marquis of Bellini's portrait of a young

Mantua (Frederic, afterwards woman (15), and the Infant

Duke, born 1500).* Christ and St. John embracing,

Raphael's St. George, a little by Parmigiano (26) ; both of

* Now at Charlecote (Mr. Lucy's) in Warwickshire.

t Now at St. Petersburg. To recover this picture Charles I. gave
the volume of Holbein's drawings in exchange. See the engraving
in the Crozat Gallery and in Landon, " CEuvres de Raphael," vol. 6,
pi. 334. Passavant's Rafael, vol. 2, page 57. He describes it as
St. George holding a lance. The painter's name is on the breast of
the horse, and the picture belongs to the year 1506. The garter,
with only the word HONI visible, encircles the plate armour of the left
leg.

T 2



324



HISTORY OF OLD LONDON.



"Whitehall which the King had obtained
Pictures. O f Lord Pembroke in exchange
for a small Raphael picture of
Judith.

A small picture of Mice, by
Kaphael* (32). Presented by
Sir Henry Wootoii.

St. John the Baptist, by Da
Vinci t (71).

Two small pictures, by Man-
tegna, of the Death of the
Virgin (27), and a "Sacred Con-
versation" (33); both crowded
with incidents.

Silver embossed plates, by
Van Vianen (3).

A beautiful little carving in
hone-stone, representing Henry
VIII.,:}: a whole length, in full
relief, about 6 inches high (12).



Holbein's picture of a German
and his wife (22). It bears
date 1512.

Holbein's portrait of a Cornish
Gentleman] | (30).

Holbein's Frobenius the
printer (43). No. 323 of the
Hampton Court Catalogue.

Holbein's portrait of a man
in long beard, "almost side-
faced" (46).

Holbein's Erasmus IT (49),
"fellow" to the Frobenius*
No. 324 of the Hampton Court
Catalogue.

Holbein's Sir Thomas More
(48), in black cap, furred gown,
and red sleeves, on a very small
circular piece of wood.**

A small picture by Paolo



* Such, a picture was left by the Duchess of Portland to Mrs.
Delany, who bequeathed it to Lady Stamford. See Mrs. Delany's
Autobiography, voL 3, Second Series, page 490, and post, page 369.

t A present from the French King, in return for which King
Charles sent a Profile of Erasmus by Holbein, and a Holy Family of
three figures by Titian.

J Probably the work of Nicolas da Modena. Purchased by Mr.
J. Dent, of Sudeley Castle, at the Strawberry Hill sale in 1842. It
had formerly been the property of Lady Elizabeth Germaine.

These figures have been called the parents of Holbein. The
picture is now at Hampton Court, No. 336 of the Catalogue.

|| Called " Reskemeer," on the original drawing for it, at Windsor.
It is now at Hampton Court, No. 325 of the Catalogue. He was
High Sheriff for the county of Cornwall in 1557. See Lodge's Biogra-
phical illustrations of Chamberlaine's 4to edition of Holbein's draw-
ings. London : 1812.

^[ Charles had already parted with an Erasmus, by Holbein, " side-
faced, and looking downwards," to the King of France, in return for
the St. John by Da Vinci, named above on this page (71).

* The frame and picture seem all to have been of one piece.



PICTUEES AT WHITEHALL PALACE, A.D. 1639. 325

Veronese, containing some eleven so many of the finest pictures Charles I.
figures, of the Finding of Moses for the King. 1625-49.
(11), purchased at Venice by Martin Luther (51), painted
Daniel Nys, the French mer- by Cranach, in a small " eight-
chant and agent who procured square " ebony frame.

THE CABINET EOOM. Page 21.* Cabinet

Room.

Thirty-six sculptures in stone, bronze, and wood, are
enumerated as placed round the room and in the
windows. Among them

" The King's own picture on life, being only a head. Done g cu ] ptures

horseback, done by the French- by the Frenchman " (35).
man" (24), apparently a model A little shagged dog, carved

(one foot one inch high) for the in alabaster, scratching his head

statue at Charing Cross. with his left foot (33), being

"The picture of the King done in King Henry VIII.'s time,
himself in brass, so big as the

Next follow a list of bas-reliefs, medallions, and
a series of copies, in miniature, by Peter Olivier,
after Kaphael, Correggio, and Titian, from pictures
already in the King's possession. These were kept
within cupboards, in double-shutting cases, with locks
and keys, and glasses over them.

The fine collection of Miniatures,"]" by Holbein,

* These numbers following the names of the apartments refer to
the pages in Bathoe's edition of the Catalogue.

t These, it is hardly necessary to state, were termed " Limnings"
a word applied to all minute paintings in water-colour (whether
opaque or transparent) upon separate cards, or the parchment leaves
of an ancient manuscript. The word has been used indiscriminately
as a heading throughout Bathoe's edition of this Catalogue. Every
page, whether describing oil pictures, miniatures, or sculptures, com-
mences with " The King's Collection of Limnings." The royal ap-
pointment of painter to the crown in Scotland, is traditionally made
at the present time under the title of " Limner"



326



HISTOEY OF OLD LONDON.



in the



Janet, Hilliard, Isaac Olivier, and Hoskins, were all
Cabinet arranged within square frames. These "Limnings"

Koom at .. _

Whitehall, amounted altogether to seventy-five in number.



LIMNINGS OE MINIATURES. Page 32.
The most important among them are :



Miniatures. Four Miniatures of Queen
Henrietta-Maria (11) (14).

Four Miniatures of Henry
VIII. (4548).

Three Miniatures of Queen
Elizabeth (31), (40), (41).

Isaac Olivier's portrait of
Prince Henry (17), of consider-
able size.

Mary Queen of Scots, as



Dauphine (33), by Janet. See
ante, p. 314.

Eight Miniatures in one frame
(24) (31),* including Henry
VIII., Catharine of Arragon,
Anne Boleyn, Queen Mary, and
Elizabeth. The miniature of
Queen Mary, painted in oil on
metal, is especially beautiful.



Many of the above miniatures had been presented
to the King by the Earl of Suffolk, the Earl of Pem-
broke (Lord Steward), Sir H. Vane, Lord Feilding.



Books,
gems, and
medals.



BOOKS, GEMS, MEDALS, AND DEAWINGS. Page 56.



A collection of fifty- four books
of prints, drawings, &c., includ-
ing a volume of crayon portraits
of the nobility of France (42), a
4to book of studies by Michel
Angelo (47), and a proof im-
pression of Hollar's engraving
from the Richard II. diptych, t



Four large engraved antique
cameos.

A large collection of golden
coins and medals.

Two large pictures, in guazzo
or distemper colours, by Cor-
reggio (Mantua pieces), which at
this period had no place assigned



* This frame, with all the contents as specified in this catalogue,
has passed into the collection of the Duke of Buccleuch.
t See post, p. 346.



PICTUEES AT WHITEHALL PALACE, A.D. 1639. 327

to them,* but were protected Gallery of Drawings at the Charles I.
in double-door shutting wooden Louvre.t 1625-49.

cases. They are now in the

After this are specified a large number of wax
" pictures/' chiefly medallions, some modelled in relief
and others impressed from dies, set upon a black ground
in coloured velvet cases, black jet oval and circular
boxes.

Among them might be observed the King's portrait
when he was only eighteen years of age, the royal arms
at the back, and the motto " Si vis omnia subjicere,
subjice te rationi, 1636 " (page 78).

TENNIS-COTJET. Page 83. Tennis

Court.

The second volume commences with the Tennis-
court Chamber, which, according to Fisher's Map of
the Palace, must have been on the western side of the
public street, that is, towards the Cockpit, in the mass
of buildings abutting on St. James's Park.

In the Tennis-court Chamber, Sir James Palmer's
lodgings, were five pictures, figure subjects.

The chief among them being :

" The picture of Queen Mary Prince (2), full length ; by Portraits,

of Scotland, King James's mo- Abraham Blyenburch. (Qy.

ther, at length, painted upon a Abraham Bloemaert). The name

board. Brought from Scotland of Cornelius Polenburgh has

and given to the King." (1.) been erroneously substituted for

Portrait of the King, when the above in Bathoe's edition.

* Bathoe's edition of the Catalogue, p. 76.

t See London's " (Euvres de Correge," planches 59 and 60 ; and
Landon's " Annales du Musee," vol. 2, planches 9 and 69.



328 HISTORY OF OLD LONDON.



Bear BEAR GALLERY. Page 84.

Gallery.

The Bear Gallery contained twenty-eight portraits,
the size of life, by good painters, and with powerful
effects of light and shadow; one Holy Family, by
Schidone (15), placed over the door ; a picture of three
Angels (20), by Salviati ; one Scriptural subject (l) ;
and two grand compositions by Rubens ; making, with
two other Italian pictures, (2) and (26,) thirty-five in all.

Pictures The " Emblem," or Allegory Twenty-two out of these por-

by Rubens. o f Peace and War"* (13), by traits were whole length, the

Rubens. size of life ; nine of them by

The second large picture is Daniel Mytens, two by Van

the grand composition of "Da- Somer, two by Honthorst, five

niel in the Lion's Den"f (14), by Van Dyck (three of them

presented to the King by Sir half-lengths), one by Janet, and

Dudley Carleton. Size, 7 ft. 4 one by Titian. J
in. by 10 ft. 8 in.

* This is the fine picture now in the National Gallery. Its history
is so well known, that it is sufficient merely to allude to the circum-
stance that the picture was painted by Rubens during his residence
in England on diplomatic service, and that he himself gave it as a
present to "King Charles. The dimensions are stated to be 6 ft. 8 in.


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