Archdeacon McDonald.

A grammar of the Tukudh language online

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Yks. ABCHDEACu.> AicL'UAAlJ;, B.D.



Huntington Free Library

Native American




Cornell University

The original of tliis book is in
tine Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.







Ven. aechdeacon McDonald, d.d.




London: Nobthumbebland Avenue, W.C.


Richard Clat & Sons, Limited,

brunswick street, stamford street, s.e.,

and bunoav, suffolk.


The Tukudh Grammar here presented is little more than an
outline of what it represents. It is, however, hoped that it will
be considered sufficient to be of real service. With the help of
the syllabary prefixed to it the pronunciation of even the longest
words, after a few lessons, is rendered comparatively easy. Without
it a long time may elapse before the correct sounds of words can
be discerned. It was only after many years that they were
ascertained, and that the syllabary was completed as it is. The
art of reading is quickly acquired by the Natives who speak the
language, especially by the more intelligent. An instance may
be cited of one, who previously had a slight knowledge of reading
in English. He was taught the syllabary in three days. He was
then given a copy of the Gospel of St. John. This was at the end
of April. In the month of June when his own and another tribe
assembled at a trading post of the Hudson Bay Company, he was
able to read to them in their own tongue out of the Holy Gospel
given to him. As a Christian leader he had been accustomed to
teach them orally what he himself had been taught. This was in
1874. Since that time even old men have learnt to read the Holy
Scriptures, and other books, translated into their language.



RSTUVWXYZ. abcdefgh ij

Ba Be Bi Bo Bu Boo Bou Bei Bui Bar
Da De Di Do Du Doo Dou Dei Dui Duk
Ga Ge Gi Go Gu Goo Gou Gei Gui Gin
Ha He Hi Ho Hu Hoo Hou Hei Hui Hun
Ja Je Ji Jo Ju Joo Jou Jei Jui Job
Ka Ke Ki Ko Ku Koo Kou Kei Kui Ket
La Le Li Lo Lu Loo Lou Lei Lui Lik
Ma Me Mi Mo Mu Moo Mou Mei Mui Mar
Na Ne Ni No Nu Noo Nou Nei Nui Net
Pa Pe Pi Po Pu Poo Pou Pei Pui Per
Ra Re Bi Ro Bu Roo Rou Rei Rui Rre
Sa Se Si So Su Soo Sou Sei Sui Set
Ta Te Ti To Tu Too Tou Tei Tui Tik
Va Ve Vi Vo Vu Voo Vou Vei Vui Vet
Ya Ye Yi Yo Yu Yoo You Yei Yui Yet
Za Ze Zi Zo Zu Zoo Zou Zei Zui Zit
Nda Nde Ndi Ndo Ndu Ndoo Ndou Ndei
Gga Gge Ggi Ggo Ggu Ggoo Ggou
Cha Che Chi Cho Chu Choo Chou Chei
Dha Dhe Dhi Dho Dhu Dhoo Dhou Dhei
Kha Khe Khi Kho Khu Khoo Khou Khei
Pha Phe Phi Pho Phu Phoo Phou Phei
Rha Rhe Rhi Rho Rhu Rhoo Rhou Rhei
Sha She Shi Sho Shu Shoo Shou Shei
Tha The Thi Tho Thu Thoo Thou Thei
Wha Whe Whi Who Whu Whoo Whou Whei
Zha Zhe Zhi Zho Zhu Zhoo Zhou Zhei
Nja Nje Nji Njo Nju Njoo Njou Njei Njui Njik
Kha Kke Kki Kko Kku Kkoo Kkou Kkei
Kla Kle Kli Klo Klu Kloo Klou Klei Klui
Kwa Kwe Kwi Kwo Kwu Kwoo Kwou


Tla Tie Tli TIo Tlu Tloo TIou Tlei Tlui
Tra Tre Tri Tro Tru Troo Tsou Trou Trei
Tsa Tse Tsi Tso Tsu Tsoo Tsei Tsui
Tta Tte Tti Tto Ttu Ttoo Ttou Ttei Ttui
Tza Tze Tzi Tzo Tzu Tzoo Tzou Tzei Tzui
Rsa Rse Rsi Rso Rsu Rsoo Rsou Rsei Rsui
Rza Rze Rzi Rzo Rzu Rzoo Rzou Rzei Rzui
Ssa Sse Ssi Sso Ssu Ssoo Ssou Ssei Ssui Ssun
Hya Hye Hyi Hyo Hyu Hyoo Hyou Hyei
Kya Kye Kyi Kyo Kyu Kyoo Kyou Kyei
Lya Lye Lyi Lyo Ljru Lyoo Lyou Lyei
Nya Nye Nyi Nyo Nyu Nyoo Nyou Nyei
Sya Sye Syi Syo Syu Syoo Syou Syei
Tya Tye Tyi Tyo Tyu Tyoo Tyou Tyei
Vya Vye Vyi Vyo Vyu Vyoo Vyou Vyei
Zya Zye Zyi Zyo Zyu Zyoo Zyou Zyei
Zza Zze Zzi Zzo Zzu Zzoo Zzou Zzei
Ddha Ddhe Ddiii Ddho Ddhu Ddhoo
Kdha Kdhe Kdhi Kdho Kdhu Kdhoo Kdhou
Tdha Tdiie Tdhi Tdho Tdhu Tdhoo Tdhou
Chya Chye Cliyi Chyo Chyoo Chyu

Trha Trhe Trhi Tiho Trhu Trhoo Trhou
Tsha Tshe Tshi Tsho Tshu Tshoo Tshou Tshei
Ttha Tthe Tthi Ttho Tthu Ttlioo Tthou Ttliei
Ktha Ktlie Ktlii Ktho Ktliu Kthoo Kthou Kthei
Klitha Khthe Khtlii Khtho Khthu Khthei
Thla Thle Thli Thlo Thin Thloo Thlou
Tlha Tlhe Tlhi Tlho Tlhu Tlhoo Tlkou
Ttra Ttre Ttri Ttro Ttru Ttroo Ttrou Ttrei
Rsha Rshe Rshi Rsho Rshu Rshoo Rshou
Kkwa Kkwe Kkwi Kkwo Kkwu Kkwoo Kkwou
Rsra Rare Rsri Rsro Rsru Rsroo Rsrou
Ndya Ndye Ndyi Ndyo Ndyu Ndyoo Ndyou
Kkya Kkye Kkyi Kkyo Kkyu Kkyoo
Njya Njye Njyo Nyju Njyoo Njyei


This Tukudh Grammar is an attempt to teach the art of speaking
and writing correctly the Tukudh language.

It is divided into three parts : namely, Orthography, Etymology,
and Syntax.


The following letters are in use :


V W X Y Z.

Smaller ob Common.

abcdeghij klmnoprstuvwxyz.

The vowels a e i o u are sounded according to continental usage.

The letters b p and x are used only in words of foreign

A dot . thus, placed under a vowel is meant to indicate a nasal
sound : thus, ttya, a case, box, kettle; taui, an axe; ttaui, paddle, oar ;
thlui, dog.

This mark ( . . ) placed over one of two vowels joined together
denote that they are pronoimced separately. Thus, kuttugwitaug,
prophet; ttrinorzi gituttea, the sun will rise; ttrinorzi nuttea, the
sun will set; ndonyaei, end.

The diphthongs are five in number : oo, ei, oi, ui, ou.

In regard to the consonants, it is to be observed that dentals and
gutturals abound : among them are the following : gg, kh, kk, kth,
kkth, tt, tth, tdh, ttl, ttlh, vv, ss, zz, thl. They occur at the end
as well as at the beginning of words: as, tsegga, darkness; ttodh or
ttokk, night; khahtsut, evening; kwuggut yoo, because; khekhtsut,
slowly; kekh, rabbit; khthuih, grease; chikkekh, fat; kthui, foot
kirkhe, through or by; tta, blood; tthah, awl; tthahtsul, needle
tdhah, mountain; wakh, sleep; zzeh, house; zzoh, wolf; zzokh, snow
ttsekh, cap; ttlin, hem of a garment; thla, fishhook; ttla, leech
akotugwantssi, so much.



The letter c is never employed by itself in the Tukudh language,
but is always connected with h, and pronounced like tch, as in church,
thus, ohitti tte, what f chottin tte, who ? chyaggut tte, why ? sut
chah, my younger brother; ^et chi, my elder sister.

The letter g has only one sound : as in gay, go : thus, ginikhyi,
/ speak; ginyoo, they say; gunokhyi, speak ye.

The letter j is pronounced like g soft, as in ginger; thus, nyi nja,
your provision; trenjo, woman; kukwadhut njo, great master.

The rest of the consonants are sounded as in the English alphabet.

The sound of the vowels never changes ; they have always the same
sound. The letter a in ako has the same sound as in man. The
letter e in lyet has the same sound as in men. The letter i in tinjih
has the same sound as in pin. The letter o in onjit has the same
sound as in not. The letter u in kwu tsut has the same sound as
in but.



There are in Tukudh eight sorts of words, or, as they are commonly
called, parts of speech : namely, the Substantive or Noun, the
Adjective, the Pronoun, the Verb, the Adverb, the Preposition,
the Conjunction, and the Interjection.

Of Substantives.

The Substantives or Nouns have two numbers, the Singular and
the Plural.

The Singular speaks of one : as, kwittyi, father ; tinjih, man ;
trenjo, woman ; trinyun, child ; ttsyah, hoy ; nitchid, girl.

The Plural speaks of more than one, and is formed by annexing
nut or kthut to the Singular : as kwittyinut, fa'hers ; tinjihnut, men ;
trinyunkthut, children ; ttsyahnut, boys ; nitchidkthut, girls.

Some nouns are used only in the Singular Number.


Tinjyik, moose ; vutzui, reindeer ; tivi, sheep ; thlyoog, fish ; rsioha .
blue fish ; thlyoog tukkui, white fish ; eltyin, jack fish ; tutchun, tree ;
trhokh, dry wood ; thlyethehyokh, bread ; anetsid, bee ; tidike, gull ;
ttarrzui, swan ; neggoi, frog.



Or Gbndbe.

Tinjih, man.
Ezir, male.
Kukwadhut, master.
Kwittyi, father.
Ttia, my father.
Sonde, my elder brother.
Setchi, my elder sister.
Sit chyokh, my younger sister.
Sut chah, my yo\inger brother.
Sit tinji, my son.
Sit tshi, my daughter.
Sit tyih, my father's brother.
Soih, my mother's brother.
Sit tshikkui, my son-in-law.
Sah, my wife's brother.
Suh gdhui, my brother's wife.
Sekui, my father's sister.
Sekui, my mother's sister.
Sit tshih, my grandson or grand-

Sik kkyi, my child.
Syoo, my nephew or niece.
Sil lig, my dog.
Sit tsi, my grandfather.
Sit tsop, my grandmother.
Tinjih ehukeinduk, man-servant.

Trenjo, woman.
Tizyoo, female.
Kwiyeut, mistress.
Kwuhtin, mother.
Nu'a, my mother.
Sonde, my elder brother.
Setchi, my elder sister.
Sut chah, my younger brother.
Sit chyokh, my younger sister.
Suh gdhui, my husband's sister.
Siz yetsi, my daughter.
Siz zyoo, my son.
Si yetsi, my daughter.
Set tenyoo, my son-in-law.
Sit tyih, my father's brother.
Soih, my mother's brother.
Suh gdhui, my brother's wife.
Sekui, my father's sister.
Sekui, my mother's sister.
Sit taaei, my grandson or grand-

Syoo, my nephew or niece.
Sik kkyi, my child.
Sil lig, my dog.
Sit tsoo, my grandmother.
Trigg ehukeinduk, maid-servant.

Of Adjectives.

There are three degrees of comparison, the Positive, the Com-
parative, and the Superlative.


Nirzi, good ; kwiyendo nirzi, better ; irsit tsut nirzi, best.

Chintssi, great; kwiyendo chintssi, greater; irsit tsut chintssi,

Kwizyej, wise; kwiyendo kwizyei, wiser ; irsit tsut kwizyei, wisest.

John James yendo tsut nitchinttei, John is stronger than James.

James John yendo tsut kotutundui, James is more active than John.

Kwinttluth, much; kwinttluth kwiyendo, more; irsit tsut kwint-
tluth, most.

Kwirzyoo, bad ; kwiyendo kwirzyoo, worse ; irsit tsutkwirzyoo,
worst ; kwuntuj ket, opposite.



Or Pronouns.
Pronouns are of three kinds : the Personal, the Relative, and the
Adjective Pronouns.

Of the Pbbsonai, Pronottn.
There are three Personal Pronouns, viz: : Si, nun, attun; with
their plurals, nyiwhon, ei nyiwhon, kuttun ko kuttettun. It may
be observed that the expression ei nyiwhon is very rarely used,
not being required by the rest of the sentence, being understood.


Si kasuhndui, / know ; nun kanyitundui, them knowest; attun ka-
tundui, he knows; nyiwhonkaitundui, loefcraow); nyiwhon kawhondui,
kuttettun kagutundui.

" Kthoikit nizhit kwut sut ninidichil : ezyuk kwuggut choog
thlukwinadhun nyiwhah zyunkohtsi" — " We he come from a far, far
country ; therefore now make ye a league with us."

The Personal Pronouns are thus declined :


Case. Singular.



Nom. Si,




Poss. Setsun,




Obj. Nyit tsut.


Nyiwhot tsut.

To us.


Nom. Nun,


Ei nyiwhon.


Poss. Nyitsun,


Ei nyiwhotsun


Obj. Nyit tsut,

To thee.

Ei nyiwhot tsut.

, To you.


Nom. ^ Attun,

He or she.



Poss. Vutsun,

His or hers.



Obj. Attun tsut, To him or her. Kuttettun tsut. To them.
^ Masculine and feminine are alike.

Of the Relative Peonouns.

Relative Pronouns relate in general to some word or phrase going
before : they are, ohoottin, who; chitti rsit, which. Ei, that, is often
used instead of choottin, who, and chitti rsit, which. It is applied
to both persons and things : as, Ei kwizyei tittiyin tekwitiohile
ginilj, He that acts wisely deserves "praise.

Choottin, who, is thus declined :


Nom. Choottin, who. Choottinnut, who.

Poss. Choottin vutsun, whose. Choottinnut kotsun, whose.

Obj. Choottin vut tsut, to whom. Choottinnut, ko tsut.

Choottin, who; chitti, what, have sometimes the particle te, ever,
annexed to them; as, ohoottin te, whoever; chitti te, whatever.


Ei, that, is sometimes a demonstrative pronoun when followed
immediately by a noun to which it refers : as, Ei ettinetle, thai booh;
setsun nili, is mine ; ei ttsyah, that hoy ; kotutundui nili, is diligent.

Choottin, who; chitti rsit, which; ohitti, what, are interrogatives
when used in asking questions : as, Choottin tte nili. Who is he '/
Chitti rsit ettinetle tte. Which book is it ? Chitti tte tinittiyin, What
art thou doing ?

Of the Adjective PKONorms.

Adjective Pronouns are of four kinds, namely — the Possessive, the
Distributive, the Demonstrative and the Indefinite.

1. The Possessive are those which relate to possession, or property.
There are six of them, namely, setsun, nyitsun, vutsun, nyiwhotsun,
ei nyiwhotsun, kotsun, mine, thine, his or her, our, your, their.


Chih thluj, this dog, setsun nili, is mine. Ei thlui, that dog, nyitsun
nili, is thine. Chih zzeh, this house, nyiwhotsun nili, is ours. Ei
zzeh, that house, ei nyiwhotsun nih, is yours. Kotsun, theirs,
kwinttluth kwitchintssi nili, is very great.

Self is added to possessives; as, sunthun, myself; nyiwhonthun,
ourselves. Self is sometimes added to personal pronouns : as, attun-
thun, himself; kuttettunthun, themselves. It is used to express
emphasis : as, sunthun ohih tihsiyinh, myself I did this. Attunthun,
himself; ninizzi, he came.

2. The Distributive are those which denote the persons or things
that make up a number, as taken separately and singly. They are
each, every; as, vondenut, his brothers; ettounyatchyo, each of;
kotetkoogwinyatchyo, ervery one; kwittetkoogwinyatchyo, every
thing. " Ettounyatchyo n5dwhot tet vittekwichanchyo tsut khenjit
kwunduk kwitti nukwutahtsyah " — "Every one of us shall give
account of himself to Ood."

3. The Demonstrative are those which precisely point out the
subjects to which they relate : Chih, this; ei, that; chihnut, these;
einut, those are of this class : as, Chih thlih ha chettigwinidhim nilj,
This truly is love. Ei vik kitteltsj kwirzi nilj. That is its image
only. . Chih tinjih ei yendo tsut kwikkittutzikwele kittiyin. This man
has more understanding than that. The Demonstrative Adjective
Pronoun supplies the place of the Definite Article.

4. The Indefinite are those which express their subjects in an
indefinite or general manner. The following are of this kind :
Ihthle, one; ohizzi or ezzi, other; ettenut, some; akotinchi, such;
tutthug, all; etchichi, something; kwullud, some.



Ettenut, some, trunkotitinjik, are, slothful. Ezzinut zyun-
kotugutundui, others are diligent. Ettenut rsyunkookoohanohyo,
some are joyful. Ezzinut Z3runtrigoogwitti. Thiyethchyokh lud
sintlunyantshit, some bread give to me, Kwittrid akotinchi kwitohin-
ttsi kkwa, such work is not great.

Or Verbs.

A verb is a word which signifies being, kwitili; doing, tigwittiyin;
suffering, kitshitkwilnji ; as, Ihthli, / am; kukweldhut, / rule;
sik kuttrookwadhut, / am ruled.

Verbs are of three kinds : Transitive, Passive, and Intransitive.

A Verb Transitive expresses an action, and necessarily implies
an agent, and an object acted upon: as, Vettinihthun, I love him;
Truttoutilchyo, / Aa(e him; Kettinithun, I like it; Truttukotilchyo,
/ hate it.

A Verb Transitive also expresses a reflex action : as, John James
tsut ninizzi yit tsut gitekhyali kepjit, John came to James in order
that he (James) might speak to him. John James pkkuggikhe yit tsut
tehah kenjit, John called to James that he {James) might go to him.

A Verb Passive expresses passion or suffering, or the receiving
of an action, and necessarily implies an object acted upon, and an
agent by which it is acted upon, as, Settitrinidhun, / am hved.
Edward sik kirkhe vettitrinidhun, Edward is hved by me. Truttu-
sittroochaohyo, / am hated. Saun truttutroochachyo. On my account
he is hated.

A Verb Intransitive expresses neither action nor passion, but being,
ko kwitili, or a state of being, ko kwitili tukwudhut : as, Ithli, / am;
dhihtshi, / sleep; chihah, / eat; sihn3d, / drink; ulkul, / run; geitik,
/ walk.

0:e Ntjmbbr and Person.

The verbs have three numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural : as
ulkul, / run; akul, we run; kulatah, we run.
In each number there are three persons : as

Verb. To believe.
Singular. Dual. Plural.

First Person. Kwikyinjishit. Kwikyinjitizhit. Kwikyinjidichi.

/Second Persom. Kwiky in jinizhit. Kwikyinjoshit. Kwikyinjochi.

Third Person. Kwikyinjizhit. Kwikyinjigizhit. Kwikyinjigichi.


Of Moods.

Mood is a particular form or state of the verb, showing the manner
in which the being, action, or passion is represented.

There are strictly only two moods of verbs, the Indicative and the

The Indicative Mood simply indicates or declares a thing : as,
kwikinjizhit, he believes; vikyinjitritizhit, he is believed; vettinih-
thun, / love him; vettitrinidhun, he is loved.

The Imperative Mood is used for commanding, exhorting, entreat-
ing, permitting : as, tpzi, go thou, ; akotpntiyin, do so ; akkhetun-
vidichyo, let us remain; todichya, let us go; ovisuhkthut, let me
entreat ; kookunkotundui, let us try ; akotivittiyin, let him do so.

The Potential Mood which implies possibility, power, will, may
thus be expressed: as, kookwudhun tigwitettiya, it can be done;
literally, it is possible it will be done. Kudhun akotitettiya, he can
do so ; literally, he is able, he will do so. Kudhun akotittiyin, he can
do so ; literally, he is able, he does so.

The Subjunctive Mood which represents a thing as imcertain, as
under a condition, may be thus expressed : as, Vah tihsyah set
tinjitizhit chi akotittihsiya, // he wishes me to go wi'h him I will do so.
Set kookontrhi kwittizzik, nukoolyp kookukwitihndui. Though it is
difflcult for me, yet I will try. Nisizzhignyakthah kwittizzyik
tthui te vitteinjitutelchyah. Although he slay me, yetwill I triist in him.

Of the Tenses.

There are three Tenses : Present, Past, and Future.

The Present Tense represents an action or event as passing at the
time in which it is mentioned : as, yinihthun, / think; akotinihthun,
/ thinh so.

The Past Tense not only refers to what is past, but also conveys
an allusion to the present time : as. Sit ettinetle kwittshilikwidhihei,
/ have finished my letter. Ei tinjih venjit set tsut kwirzi trigikhe
nelhyinh, I have seen the man thai was recommended to me. Kettui
nelhyinh, / saw him yesterday.

The Future Tense represents the action as yet to come : as, Tunelh-
yah, / will see him. Chun nutunelhyah, / will see him again. Nikka
niheih chi, vut tsut gitihkhyah, // he comes to-mjyrrow I will speak
to him. Tzut kwittle kwuttuttui kwiyendo ha kwittridtugwutelyah.
Hereafter I will work m^ore vigorously.

Of Conjugations.

The conjugation of a verb is the regular combination and arrange-
ment of its several numbers, persons, moods, and tenses.



The conjugation of an active verb is styled the Active Voice, and
that of the passive verb, the Passive Voice.

Examples of both are given in the following conjugations, also
of the Intransitive verb. Most are only in the affirmative. A few
are given in both affirmative and negative forms.

It is to be observed by one unpractised in the tongue that the
verb negative being spelt with the same letters as in the affirmative
may. create a difficulty, the distinction resting on the division of

Verb. To know.

Indicative Mood.

present tense.

[The word kkwa {not) affixed to the affirmative form of words
expresses the negative ; as for example, Kasuhndui kkwa, 1 know not.]


1 Kasuhndui.

2 Kanyitundui.

3 Katundui.


1 Kaitundui.

2 Kawhondui.

3 Kagutundui.


1 Kazyunitundui.

2 Kazyunwhondui.

3 Kazyungutundui.


1 Kaihsundui.

2 Kaitundui.

3 Kaetundui.



1 Kaitinjik.

2 Kaowhondui.

3 Kagetundui.


1 Kazyunitinjik.

2 Kazyunowhondui.

3 Kazyungetundui.


1 Katihsundui.

2 Katjtundui.

3 Katetundui.



1 Katitundui.

2 Katowhondui.

3 Kagutetundui.


1 Kazyuntitundui.

2 Kazyuntowhondui.

3 Kazyungutetundui.

1 Kavusuhndui.

2 Kaotundui.

3 Kavutundui.

Imperative Mood.


1 Kavutundui.

2 Kaowhondui.

3 Kakottmdui.


1 Kazyunvutundui.

2 Kazyunowhondui.

3 Kazyunkotundui.


Verb. To be ignorant of.
Indicative Mood,
pbesbnt tense.
Singular. Dual.

1 Elyet kadhisinjik. 1 Elyet kadhitinjik.

2 Elyet kadhitinjik. 2 Elyet kadhowhonjik.

3 Elyet kathinjik. 3 Elyet kagithinjik.


1 Elyet kazyundhitinjik.

2 Elyet kazyundhowhonjik.

3 Elyet kazyungithinjik.


Singular. Dual.

1 Elyet kaisundul. 1 Elyet kaitundul.

2 Elyet kaenyitundul. 2 Elyet kaowhondul.

3 Elyet kaitiindul. 3 Elyet kagitundul.


1 Elyet kazyunitundul.

2 Elyet kazyunowhondul.

3 Elyet kazyungitundul.


Singular. Dual.

1 Elyet katidhihsundul. 1 Elyet katidhitundul.

2 Elyet katidhitundul. 2 Elyet katudhowhondul.

3 Elyet katetundul. 3 Elyet kagutetundul.


1 Elyet kazyuntidhitundul.

2 Elyet kazynntudhowhondul.

3 Elyet kazyungutetundul.

Impbeative Mood.
Singular. Dual.

1 Kavusuhndui rsho. 1 Kavutundui rshp.

2 Kaotundui rshp. 2 Kaowhondui rsho.

3 Kavutundui rsho. 3 Kakotundui rsho.


1 Kazyunvutundui rsho.

2 Kazyunowhondul rshp.

3 Kazyunkotundui rshp.


Verb. To know, negative form.
Indicative Mood.

present tense.

Singular. Dual.

1 Elyet kadhisinjik. 1 Elyet kadhitinjik.

2 Elyet kadhitinjik. 2 Elyet kadhowhonjik.

3 Elyet kathinjik. 3 Elyet kagithinjik.


1 Elyet kazyundhitinjik.

2 Elyet kazyundhowonjik.

3 Elyet kazyungithinjik.


Singular. Dual.

1 Elyet kaisundul. 1 Elyet kaitundul.

2 Elyet kaenyitundul. 2 Elyet kaowliondul.

3 Elyet kaitundul. 3 Elyet kagitundul.


1 Elyet kazyunitundul.

2 Elyet kazyunowhondul.

3 Elyet kazyungitundul.


Singular. Dual.

1 Elyet katidhihsundui. 1 Elyet katidhitundui.

2 Elyet katidhitundui. 2 Elyet katudhowondui.

3 Elyet katethundui. 3 Elyet kagitethundui.


1 Elyet kazyuntidhitundui.

2 Elyet kazyuntudhowondui.

3 Elyet kazyungitethundui.

Impebativb Mood.
Singular. Dual.

1 Kavusundui rshp. 1 Kavutundui rshp.

2 Kaptundui rshp. 2 Katowhondui rshg.

3 Kavutundui rsho. 3 Kakotundui rshp.


1 Kazyunvutundui rshp.

2 Kazyuntowhondui rshp.

3 Kazyunkotundui rshp.



Verb. To he, negative


Indicative Mood.





1 Elyet ihthli.

2 Elyet enili.

3 Elyet ih.

1 Elyet itili.

2 Elyet ohthli.

3 Elyet gili.


1 Elyet zyunitili.

2 Elyet zyunohthli.

3 Elyet zoungili.




1 Elyet ihthlya.

2 Elyet tenilya.

3 Elyet ilya.

1 Elyet itilya.

2 Elyet othlya.

3 Elyet gilya.


1 Elyet zyunitilya.

2 Elyet zyunothlya.

3 Elyet zyungilya.



1 Elyet tidhithlya. 1 Elyet tidhitilya.

2 Elyet tidhilya. 2 Elyet tidhothlya.

3 Elyet tethiya. 3 Elyet gitethlya.


1 Elyet zyuntidhitilya.

2 Elyet zyuntidhothlya

3 Elyet zyungitethlya.


Impbeativb Mood.




1 Vithlirshp.

2 Oli rsho.

3 Villi rshp.

1 Vitih rshp.

2 Othlirshp.

3 Koli rshp.

Verb. To see.
Indicative Mood.

pkbsent tense.

1 Zyimvitili rshp.

2 Zyunothli rshp.

3 Zyiinkoli rsho.




1 Nilyin.

2 Nyayin.

3 Yinahyin.

1 Nyayin.

2 Noyin.

3 Ginahyin.

1 Zyunnyayin.

2 Zyunnoyin.

3 Zyunginahyin.



1 Nelyinh.

2 Nayinh.

3 Yinahyinh.



1 Nayinh.

2 Nohyinh.

3 Ginahyinh.


1 Zyunnayinh.

2 Zyunnohyinh.

3 Zyunginahyinh.


1 Tunelyah.

2 Tunayah.

3 Tunahyah.



1 Tunayah.

2 Tunohyah.

3 Gitunahyah.


1 Zyuntunayah.

2 Zyuntunohyah.

3 Zynngitunahyah.


1 Nelhyin.

2 Npyin.

3 Yinyooyin.

Imperative Mood.

1 Nyayin.

2 Nohjrin.

3 Ginyooyin.


1 Zyunnyayin.

2 Zyunnohyin.

3 Zyunginyooyin.

Verb. To looh
Indicative Mood.


Singular. Dual.

1 Kwinilhyin. 1 Kwinyaym.

2 Kwinyayin. 2 Kwunohyin.

3 Kwunahyin. 3 Kookwunahyin.

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Online LibraryArchdeacon McDonaldA grammar of the Tukudh language → online text (page 1 of 16)