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OUTLINES

OF

THEOLOGY

Rewritten and Enlarged

BY

A. A. HODGE, D.D.

LATE PROFESSOR OF SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY

IN THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

PRINCETON, N. J.



CHICAGO

THE BIBLE INSTITUTE COLPORTAGE ASS'N

826 NORTH LA SALLE STREET



Copyright 1878,
By Robert Carter and Brothms.



cambridgb: st. johnland

press of itrreotypk foundbt

•okn wilson and son. suffolk co., n. t.



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.



In introducing this book to the reader, I have only a
single word to say upon two points: first, as to the uses
which I regard this form of exhibiting theological truth
as being specially qualified to subserve; and, secondly, as
to the sources from which I have drawn the materials
composing these "Outlines."

As to the first point, I have to say, that the concep-
tion and execution of this work originated in the expe-
rience of the need for some such manual of theological
definitions and argumentation, in the immediate work
of instructing the members of my own pastoral charge.
The several chapters were in the first instance prepared
and used in the same form in which they are now
printed, as the basis of a lecture delivered otherwise
extemporaneously to my congregation every Sabbath
night. In this use of them, I found these preparations
successful beyond my hopes. The congregation, as a
whole, were induced to enter with interest upon the
study even of the most abstruse questions. Having put



6 rKEFACE TO ORIGINAL EDITION.

this work thus to this practical test, I now offer it to my
brethren in the ministry, that they may use it, if they
will, as a repertory of digested material for the doctrinal
instruction of their people, either in Bible classes, or by
means of a congregational lecture. I offer it also as an
attempt to supply an acknowledged public want, as a
syllabus of theological study for the use of theological
students generally, and for the use of those many labo-
rious preachers of the gospel who can not command the
time, or who have not the opportunity, or other essential
means, to study the more expensive and elaborate works
from which the materials of this compend have been
gathered.

The questions have been retained in form, not for
the purpose of adapting the book in any degree for
catechetical instruction, but as the most convenient and
perspicuous method of presenting an "outline of the-
ology" so condensed. This same necessity of conden-
sation I would also respectfully plead as in some degree
an excuse for some of the instances of obscurity in defi-
nition and meagreness of illustration, which the reader
will observe.

In the second place, as to the sources from winch I
have drawn the materials of this book, I may for the
most part refer the reader to the several passages, where
the acknowledgment is made as the debt is incurred



PREFACE TO ORIGINAL EDITION. 7

In general, however, it is proper to say that I have,
with his permission, used the list of questions given by
my father to his classes of forty-five and six. I have
added two or three chapters which his course did not
embrace, and have in general adapted his questions to
my new purpose, by omissions, additions, or a different
distribution. To such a degree, however, have they
directed and assisted me, that I feel a confidence in
offering the result to the public which otherwise would
have been unwarrantable. In the frequent instances in
which I have possessed his published articles upon the
subjects of the following chapters, the reader will find
that I have drawn largely from them. It is due to my-
self, however, to say, that except in two instances, " The
Scriptures the only Rule of Faith and Judge of Contro-
versies," and the "Second Advent," I have never heard
delivered nor read the manuscript of that course of theo
logical lectures which he has prepared for the use of his
classes subsequently to my graduation. In the instances
[ have above excepted, I have attempted little more, in
the preparation of the respective chapters of this book
bearing those titles, than to abridge my father's lectures.
En every instance I have endeavored to acknowledge the
full extent of the assistance I have derived from others,
in which I have, I believe, uniformly succeeded, except
so far as I am now unable to trace to their original



8 PREFACE TO ORIGINAL EDITION.

sources some of the materials collected by me in my
class manuscripts, prepared fourteen years ago, while a
student of theology. This last reference relates to a
large element in this book, as I wrote copiously, and
after frequent oral communication with my father, both
in public and private.

A. A. Hodgr

Fudbricksbukg, May, i860.



PREFACE TO REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION.



The Preface to the original edition gives a perfectly accu-
rate and somewhat circumstantial account of the origin of
this work. Since its first publication the evidences of the
fact that it met a public need have been multiplying. Its
sale in America and Great Britain has continued. It has
been translated into Welsh and Modern Greek, and used in
several theological training schools.

The author, in the meantime, has been for fourteen years
engaged in the practical work of a theological instructor.
His increased knowledge and experience as a teacher have
been embodied in this new and enlarged edition, which has
grown to its present form through several years in connection
with his actual class instructions.

The new edition contains nearly fifty per cent more matter
than the former one. Two chapters have been dropped, and
five new ones have been added. Extracts from the principal
Confessions, Creeds, and classical theological writers of the
great historical churches have been appended to the discus-
sions of the doctrines concerning which the Church is di-
vided. Several chapters have been entirely rewritten, and
many others have been materially recast, and enlarged. And
the Appendix contains a translation of the Consensus Tigurinus
of Calvin, and of the Formula Consensus Helvetica of Heideg-
ger and Turretin, two Confessions of first class historical and



10 PREFACE TO REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION.

doctrinal interest to the student of Reformed theology, but
not easily accessible.

The work is again offered to the Christian Church, not as
a complete treatise of Systematic Theology, for the use of the
proficient, but as a simple Text Book, adapted to the needs
of students taking their first lessons in this great science,
and to the convenience of many earnest workers who wish
to refresh their memories by means of a summary review of
the ground gone over by them in their earlier studies.

Princeton, N. J., August 6th, 1878.



CONTENTS.



' * CHAPTER I.

CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY; ITS SEVERAL BRANCHES; AND THEIR RELA-
TION TO OTHER DEPARTMENTS OP HUMAN KNOWLEDGE. . . 15



CHAPTER II.

THE ORIGIN OF THE IDEA OP GOD AND PROOF OF HIS EXISTENCE. 29

CHAPTER III.

THE SOURCES OF THEOLOGY 53

CHAPTER IV.

THE INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE 65

CHAPTER V.

THE SCRIPTURES OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS THE ONLY

RULE OF FAITH AND JUDGE OF CONTROVERSIES 82

CHAPTER VI.

A COMPARISON OF SYSTEMS 94

CHAPTER VII.

CREEDS AND CONFESSIONS 112

CHAPTER VIII.

THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD 129



12 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IX.

TIIE HOLY TRINITY, INCLUDING THE DIVINITY OP CHRIST, THE ETER-
NAL GENERATION OF THE SON, THE PERSONALITY, DIVINITY,
AND ETERNAL PROCESSION OP THE HOLY GHOST, AND THE
SEVERAL PROPERTIES AND MUTUAL RELATIONS OP THE PER-
SONS OF THE GODHEAD. ..." 164

CHAPTER X.

fHE DECREES OF GOD IN GENERAL. 20C

CHAPTER XL

PREDESTINATION 214

CHAPTER XII.

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD 237

CHAPTER XIII.

ANGELS 249

CHAPTER XIV.

PROVIDENCE 258

CHAPTER XV.

THE MORAL CONSTITUTION OF THE SOUL, WILL, CONSCIENCE, LIB-
ERTY, ETC 280

CHAPTER XVI.

CREATION AND ORIGINAL STATE OF MAN 296

CHAPTER XVII.

THE COVENANT OF WORKS 309

CHAPTER XVIII.

TFIE NATURE OF SIN AND THE SIN OF ADAM 315

CHAPTER XIX.

ORIGINAL SIN. — {Peccatum HabituaU.) 325



CONTENTS. 13

CHAPTER XX.

INABILITY 338

CHAPTER XXL

THE IMPUTATION OP ADAm's FIRST SIN TO HIS POSTERITY. . . . 348

CHAPTER XXII.

THE COVENANT OP GRACE 367

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE PERSON OP CHRIST 378

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE MEDIATORIAL OFFICE OF CHRIST 391

CHAPTER XXV.

THE ATONEMENT: ITS NATURE, NECESSITY, PERFECTION, AND EXTENT. 401

CHAPTER XXVI.

THE INTERCESSION OP CHRIST 426

CHAPTER XXVII.

THE MEDIATORIAL KINGSHIP OF CHRIST 428

CHAPTER XXVIII.

EFFECTUAL CALLING 445

CHAPTER XXIX.

REGENERATION , 456

CHAPTER XXX.

FAITH 465

CHAPTER XXXI.

UNION OF BELIEVERS WITH CHRIST. 482



14 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXII.

REPENTANCE, AND THE ROMISH DOCTRINE OF PENANCE 487

CHAPTER XXXI I L

JUSTIFICATION 49G

CHAPTER XXXIV.

ADOPTION, AND THE ORDER OF GRACE IN THE APPLICATION OF RE-
DEMPTION, IN THE SEVERAL PARTS OF JUSTIFICATION, REGEN-
ERATION, AND SANCTIFICATION 515

CHAPTER XXXV.

SANCTIFICATION 520

CHAPTER XXXVI.

PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS 542

CHAPTER XXXVII.

DEATH, AND THE STATE OF THE SOUL AFTER DEATH 548

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

THE RESURRECTION 559

CHAPTER XXXIX.

THE SECOND ADVENT AND GENERAL JUDGMENT. 56G

CHAPTER XL.

HEAVEN AND HELL. 577

CHAPTER XLT.

THE BACRAMENTS 588

CHAPTER XLII.

BAPTISM G03

CHAFrER XLIII.

the lord's supper, 631



OUTLINES OF THEOLOGY.



CHAPTER I.



CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY ; ITS SEVERAL BRANCHES ; AND THEIR RE-
LATION TO OTHER DEPARTMENTS OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE.



1. What is Religion? And ivhat TJwology in its Christian
sense ?

Religion, in its most general sense, is the sum of the rela-
tions which man sustains to God, and comprises the truths, the
experiences, actions, and institutions which correspond to, or
grow out of those relations.

Theology, in its most general sense, is the science of
religion.

The Christian religion is that body of truths, experiences,
actions, and institutions which are determined by the revelation
supernaturally presented in the Christian Scriptures. Chris-
tian Theology is the scientific determination, interpretation,
and defence of those Scriptures, together with the history of
the manner in Avhich the truths it reveals have been under-
stood, and the duties they impose have been performed, by all
Christians in all ages.

2. What is Theological Encyclopaedia ? and what Theological
Methodology ?

Theological Encyclopaedia, from the Greek lyxvxlonaiSEia
(the whole circle of general education), presents to the student
the entire circle of the special sciences devoted to the discov-
ery, elucidation, and defence of the contents of the supernatural
revelation contained in the Christian Scriptures, and aims to
present these sciences in those organic relations which are
determined by their actual genesis and inmost nature.

Theological Methodology is the science of theological
method. As each department of human inquiry demands a
mode of treatment peculiar to itself; and as even each subdi-
vision of each general department demands its own special



16 THEOLOGICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA.

raodificcation8 of treatment, so theological methodology provides
for the scientific determination of the true method, general
and special, of pursuing the theological sciences. And this in-
cludes two distinct categories : (a) The methods proper to the
original investigation and construction of the several sciences,
and (b) the methods proper to elementary instruction in the
same.

All this should be accompanied with critical and historical
information, and direction as to the use of the vast literature
with which these sciences are illustrated.

3. How far is the scientific arrangement of all the theological
sciences possible ? And on what account is the attempt desirable ?

Such an arrangement can approach perfection only in pro-
portion as these sciences themselves approach their final and
absolute form. At present every such attempt must be only
more or less an approximation to an ideal unattainable in the
present state of knowledge in this life. Every separate attempt
also must depend for its comparative success upon the compar-
ative justness of the general theological principles upon which
it is based. It is evident that those who make Reason, and
those who make the inspired Church, and those who make the
inspired Scriptures the source and standard of all divine knowl-
edge, must severally configure the theological sciences to the
different foundations on which they are made to stand.

The point of view adopted in this book is the evangelical
and specifically the Calvinistic or Augustinian one, assuming
the following fundamental principles: 1st. The inspired Script-
ures are the sole, and an infallible standard of all religious
knowledge. 2d. Christ and his work is the centre around
which all Christian theology is brought into order. 3d. The
salvation brought to light in the gospel is supernatural and of
Free Grace. 4th. All religious knowledge has a practical end.
The theological sciences, instead of being absolute ends in them-
selves, find their noblest purpose and effect in the advancement
of personal holiness, the more efficient service of our fellow
men, and the greater glory of God.

The advantages of such a grouping of the theological sci-
ences are obvious, and great. The relations of all truths are
determined by their nature, whence it follows that their na-
ture is revealed by an exhibition of their relations. Such an
exhibition will also tend to widen the mental horizon of the
student, to incite him to breadth of culture, and prevent him
from unduly exalting or exclusively cultivating any one special
branch, and thus from perverting it by regarding it out of its
natural limitations and dependencies.



MAIN DIVISIONS. 17

4. What are the fundamental questions which aU theological
science proposes to answer, and which therefore determine the
arrangement of the several departments of that general science?

1st. Is there a God ? 2d. Has God spoken ? 3d. What has
God said? 4th. How have men in time past understood his
word and practically, in their persons and institutions, realized
his intentions?

5. Wiiat position in an encyclopaedia of theological sciences must
be given to other branches of human knowledge ?

It is evident that as the Supernatural Kevelation God has
been pleased to give has come to us in an historical form, that
history, and that of the Christian Church, is inseparably con-
nected with all human history more or less directly. Further,
it is evident that as all truth is one, all revealed truths and
duties are inseparably connected with all departments of human
knowledge, and with all the institutions of human society. It
hence follows that theological science can at no point be sepa-
rated from general science, that some knowledge of every de-
partment ol human knowledge must always be comprehended
in every system- of Theological Encyclopsedia as auxiliary to
the Theological sciences themselves. Some of these auxiliary
sciences sustain special relations to certain of the theological
sciences, and are very remotely related to others. It is, how-
ever, convenient to give them a position by themselves, as in
general constituting a discipline preparatory and auxiliary to
the science of theology as a whole.

6. State the main divisions of the proposed arrangement of tJie
theological sciences.

I. Sciences Auxiliary to the study of theology.

II. Apologetics — embracing the answers to the two ques-
tions — Is there a God ? and Has God spoken ?

III. Exegetical Theology — embracing the critical determina-
tion of the ipsissima verba of the Divine Kevelation, and the
Interpretation their meaning.

IV. Systematic Theology — embracing the development into
an all-embracing and self-consistent system of the contents of
that Revelation, and its subsequent elucidation and defence.

V. Practical Theology — embracing the principles and laws
revealed in Scripture for the guidance of Christians (a) in the
promulgation of this divine revelation thus ascertained and
interpreted, and thus (b) in bringing all men into practical
obedience to the duties it imposes and (c) into the fruition of
the blessings it confers.

a



18 THEOLOGICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA.

VI. Historical Theology — embracing the history of the actual
development during all past ages and among all people of the
theoretical and practical elements of that revelation (1) in the
faith and (2) in the life of the Church.

7. State the chief departments of human knowledge auxiliary
to study of Theology.

1st. As underlying and conditioning all knowledge, we have
Universal History, and as auxiliary to theological science espe-
cially the Histories of Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, Greece, Rome
and of Mediaeval and Modern Europe.

2d. Archaeology in its most comprehensive sense, including
the interpretation of inscriptions, monuments, coins, and re-
mains of art, and the illustrations gathered thence and from all
other available sources, of the geographical distribution and
physical conditions, and of the political, religious, and social
institutions and customs of all peoples, of all ages.

3d. Ethnology — the science of the divisions of the human
family into races and nations, and of their dispersion over the
world — which traces their origin and affiliations and their
varieties of physical, intellectual, moral, and religious character,
and the sources and modifying conditions of these variations.

4th. Comparative Philology, the science which starting from
the natural groups of human languages, traces the relations
and origins of languages and dialects, and transcending the
first dawn of human history, traces the unity of races now
separated, and the elements of long extinct civilizations, and
the facts of historic changes otherwise left without record.

5th. The Science of Comparative Religion, the critical study
and comparison of the history, beliefs, spirit, principles, institu-
tions, and practical character of all the Ethnic religions, tracing
the light they throw upon (a) human nature and history, (b)
the moral government of God, and (c) the supernatural revela-
tion recorded in Scripture.

6th. Philosophy, the ground and mistress of all the merely
human sciences. This will include the history of the origin
and development of all the schools of philosophy, ancient,
mediaeval, and modern — a critical study and comparison of
their principles, methods, and doctrines, and the range and
character of their respective influence upon all other sciences
and institutions, especially upon those which are political and
religious, and more especially upon those which are definitely
Christian.

7th. Psychology, or that department of experimental science
which unfolds the laws of action of the human mind under
normal conditions, as exhibited (a) in the phenomena of indi-



APOLOGETICS. 19

vidual consciousness and action, and (b) in the phenomena of
social and political life.

8th. ^Esthetics, or the science of the laws of the Beautiful in
all its forms of Music, Rhetoric, Architecture, Painting, etc.,
and the principles and history of every department of art.

9th. The Physical Sciences, their methods, general and spe-
cial; their history, genesis, development, and present tendencies;
their relation to Philosophy, especially to Theism and natural
religion, to civilization, to the Scriptural records historically and
doctrinally.

10th. Statistics, or that department of investigation which
aims to present us witli a full knowledge of the present state
of the human family in the world, in respect to every meas-
urable variety of condition — as to numbers and state, physical,
intellectual, religious, social, and political, of civilization, com-
merce, literature, science, art, etc., etc. ; from which elements
the immature forms of social science and political economy are
being gradually developed.

8. Wliat particulars are embraced under the head of Apolo
getics ?

This department falls under two heads: (1.) Is there a God
(2.) Has He spoken; and includes —

1st. The proof of the being of God, that is of an extra
mundane person transcendent yet immanent, creating, pre
serving, and governing all things according to his eternal plan
This will involve the discussion and refutation of all Antithe-
istic systems, as Atheism, Pantheism, Naturalistic Deism, Ma-
terialism, etc.

2d. The Development of Natural Theology, embracing the re-
lation of God to intelligent and responsible agents as Moral
Governor, and the indications of his will and purpose, and con-
sequently of the duties and destinies of mankind, as far as these
can be traced by the light of Nature —

3d. The evidences of Christianity, including —

(1.) The discussion of the proper use of reason in religious
questions.

(2.) The demonstration of the a priori possibility of a super-
natural revelation.

(3.) The necessity for and the probability of such a revelation,
the character of God and the condition of man as revealed by
the light of nature, being considered.

(4.) The positive proof of the actual fact that such a reve-
lation has been given (a) through the Old Testament prophets,
(b) through the New Testament prophets, and (c) above all in
the person and work of Christ. This will involve, of course,



20 THEOLOGICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA.

a critical discussion of all the evidence bearing on this sub-
ject, external and internal, historical, rational, moral, and spirit-
ual, natural and supernatural, theoretical and practical, and a
refutation of all the criticism, historical and rational, which has
been brought to bear against the fact of revelation or the in-
tegrity of the record. Much that is here adduced will of course
necessarily be also comprehended under the heads of Systematic
and of Exegetical Theology.

9. What is embraced under Exegetical Theology ?

If the facts (1) That there is a God, and (2) that he has
spoken, be established, it remains to answer the question,
'•What has God said?" Exegetical Theology is the general
title of that department of theological science which aims at
the Interpretation of the Scriptures as the word of God, recorded
in human language, and transmitted to us through human
channels; and in order to this, Interpretation aims to gather
and organize all that knowledge which is necessarily intro-
ductory thereto. This includes the answer to two main ques-
tions: (1) What books form the canon, and what were the exact
words of which the original autographs of the writers of these
several books consisted, and (2) What do those divine words,
so ascertained, mean.

The answers to all questions preliminary to actual Interpre-
tation, come under the head of Introduction, and this is divided

(1) into General Introduction, presenting all that information,
preliminary to interpretation, which stands related in common
to the Bible as a whole, or to each Testament as a whole, and

(2) into Special Introduction, which includes all necessary prepa-
ration for the interpretation of each book of the Bible in detail.

A. General Introduction includes —

1st. The Higher Criticism or the canvass of the extant
evidences of all kinds establishing the authenticity and genuine-
ness of each book in the sacred canon.

2d. The Criticism of the Text, which, from a comparison of
the best ancient manuscripts and versions, from internal evi-
dence, and by means of a critical history of the text from its
first appearance to the present, seeks to determine the ipsissima
verba of the original autographs of the inspired writers.

3d. Biblical Philology, which answers the questions: Why
were different languages used in the record ? and why Hebrew
and Greek? What are the special characteristics of the dia-
lects of those languages actually used, and their relation to tho
families of language to which they belong? And what were
the special characteristics of dialect, style, etc., of the sacred
writers individually.



EXEGETICAL THEOLOGY. 21

4th. Biblical Archaeology, including the physical and political
geography of Bible lands during the course of Bible history,
and determining the physical, ethnological, social, political
and religious conditions of the people among whom the Script-
ures originated, together with an account of their customs and
institutions, and of the relation of these to those of their ances-
tors and of their contemporaries.

5th. Hermeneutics, or the scientific determination of the prin-
ciples and rules of Biblical Interpretation, including (1) the
logical and grammatical and rhetorical principles determining



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