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THE LIFE



CHARLES HODGE D.D. LL.D.



PROFESSOR IN THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
PRINCETON N. J.



BY HIS SON

A. A, HODGE



NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

743-745 Broadway



COPYRIGHT 1880
Bt CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS.



GRANT, FAIRES & RODGEKS,

Electkotypkrs and PlUNTKa3,

Fhilacelphia.



PREFACE.



THE family of the late Dr. Charles Hodge have been assured,
by those in whose judgment they have the most reason to con-
fide, that a memoir of his life should be prepared. This was ren-
dered probable by the fact that, although his life had been a quiet
one, varied by few external events of general interest, yet it had
been one of very remarkable literary activity, and of protracted
and extended influence, involving an intimate association with
many of the most interesting characters and events of the cen-
tury. The totality of the phenomenon, including personality and
achievement, was unquestionably very remarkable. It matters not
whether the effect is to be attributed in the largest measure to
natural, gracious, or providential endowments, the study of the
causes combining to produce such an effect must be instructive.
Behind every cause, whatever its nature, is the beneficent effi-
ciency of God, and to him will be all the praise.

The subscriber undertook the work because he could secure the
agency of none of those who would be more competent. That
he is a son is an advantage, in so far as the relation secures
special opportunities of information, and the strongest motives to
diligence. It need, on the other hand, occasion no embarrass-
ment, as he does not purpose to intrude upon others his opinions
of, or his affection for his Father, but sim.ply to gather and present
materials through which his Father and his work may speak for
themselves, and the opinions of the most competent among his con-
temporaries may be impartially reflected.

At the repeated and earnest solicitation of his children, my Father

jotted down during the last year of his life some reminiscences of

iii



[y PREFACE.

his childhood and youth, and of his early friends. These I have re-
corded in the first and second chapters of this Memoir, preserving
his order and language in the first person, but interpolating addi-
tional matter of the same kind, culled from the reminiscences of
my Father's only brother, the late Dr. Hugh L. Hodge, of Philadel-
phia, dictated to his daughter-in-law, Mrs. Harriet Woolsey Hodge,
during the winters of '70 and '71. I have preferred rather to fuse the
new material with that of my Father, than to keep them mechanically
distinct, and have marked the words of my uncle as his only in a few
instances, when the propriety of doing so will be evident.

The other sources from which these memorials are drawn are : — A
diary kept during his residence in Germany, from March, 1827, to
May, 1828: — meager notices of events and dates, preserved in con-
nection with his daily record of the weather: — his published writings
and his extant manuscripts : — his own letters, preserved by his
mother, brother, and friends : — the letters of his correspondents : —
estimates of his character and services, published during his life and
since his decease, and especially the printed records of his Semi-
centennial Celebration, April 24th, 1872.

The state of his letters and papers is accurately represented by
what he said in response to an application from a daughter of one
of his oldest friends: "Through my long life I have never destroyed
and never preserved letters." With much care many interesting
relics have been recovered from the mass, while doubtless much just
as valuable remains undiscovered.

I am particularly indebted to my Father's pupils in Ireland and
Scotland— Prof. Robert Watts, D. D., of Belfast, and Mr. Charles A.
Salmond, of Arbroath, and to Rev. Professor Benjamin B. Warfield,
and the Rev. Drs. Henry A. Boardman and Wm. M. Paxton, of
America.

Princeton, N. J., August 19, 1880. A. A. Hodge.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY,

WITH EXTRACTS FROM THE REMINISCENCES OF HIS BROTHER.

Ancestry, Childhood, Mother, Brother, Teachers and Companions . . 1-19

CHAPTER II.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY CONTINUED.

FROM HIS ENTERING. THE COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY, SEPTEMBER,
1812, TO HIS GRADUATION, SEPTEMBER, 1815.

Profession of reHgion— Revival — Class-mates and Teachers .... 20-38

CHAPTER III.

FROM HIS GRADUATION FROM THE COLLEGE, SEPTEMBER, 1815, TO
HIS GRADUATION FROM THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY,
SEPTEMBER, 1819.

Study in Philadelphia — Journeys to Silver Lake and Virginia — Seminary life
and friends — and letters to Mother and Brother 39-67

CHAPTER IV.

FROM HIS GRADUATION ,FROM THIC SEMINARY, SEPTEMBER 27, 1819,
TO HIS ELECTION AS PROFESSOU, MAY 24, 1822.

Correspondence vv^ith Dr. Alexander, and with his Mother and Brother — Visit
to New Haven, Boston and Andover — His licensure, teaching in tlie

Seminary, and preaching at Lambertville and Ewing 68-91

V



yl TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V,

FROM HIS ELECTION AS PROFESSOR, MAY, 1 822, TO HIS DEPARTURE
FOR EUROPE, OCTOBER, 1 826.

His election as Professor — Marriage — Birth and baptism of children — Studies
and commencement of the Biblical Repertory — Resolution to go to Eu-
rope 92-103



CHAPTER VI.

FROM HIS DEPARTURE FOR EUROPE, OCTOBER, 1826, TO HIS RETURN
TO PRINCETON, SEPTEMBER, 1 828.

Letters to his wife, mother, and Dr. Alexander, relating to his voyage and
residence in Paris — His journal, kept during his residence in Halle and
Berlin — Letters from Drs. Alexander and Miller — His own letters relating
to his visit to Switzerland, and return home via Paris, London, and
Liverpool 104-201

CHAPTER Vn.

FROM HIS RETURN TO HOME AND WORK IN PRINCETON, SEPTEMBER,
1828, TO HIS TRANSFERENCE TO THE CHAIR OF SYSTEM-
ATIC THEOLOGY, MAY, 1840.

Work as a professor and preacher — Correspondence with German friends —
Children, family relations, and recreations — Correspondence with brother
— Death of mother — Politics - Lameness — His department of instruction
reinforced by Mr. Hubbard and Professor J. A. Alexander— Gathering of
professors and friends in stud)' — The Biblical Repertory and Princeton
Review — Its history, and estimate of its character and influence— The
qualifications and success of Dr. Hodge as an editor and reviewer— His
associates and principal contributors — His Commentary on Romans —
His Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church of the United
States 202-284

CHAPTER Vni.

THE DISRUPTION OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (1834-1838).

The historical conditions out of which the conflict sprang — The several parties
in the church — The true position of the '' Princeton," or conservative
''party" — Dr. Hodge's own statement of the principles on which he and
his associates acted — The thorough agreement of all the Princeton men
as to principles and measures — Misconceptions corrected — Dr. Hodge's



TABLE OF COXTENTS. yjj

relation to the "Act and Testimony" — His letters to his brother and to
Dr. Boardman 285 — 320

CHAPTER IX.

FROM THE CHANGE OF HIS PROFESSORSHIP, MAY, 184O, TO THE DEATH
OF DR. ARCHIBALD ALEXANDER, OCTOBER, 185I.

His transfer to the chair of Systematic Theology — His method and success in
teaching — The "Way of Life" — Letters from Dr. A. Alexander, Bishop
Johns, Ludwig, and Otto Von Gerlach — His articles in the Princeton
Review — Slavery — Sustentation — Romish Baptism — His letters to his
brother, and from Drs. Biggs and Johns -Friendship and correspondence
with Dr. William Cunningham — Death of Professor Albert B. Qod —
Marriage and departure of his children — Death of his wife — Disturbed
health — Death of his senior colleagues 321—383

CHAPTER X.

FROM THE DEATH OF DR. ARCHIBALD ALEXANDER, 1851, TO THE
COMMEN'CEMENT OF THE CIVIL WAR, 1861.

A member of the Boards of the Church— Trustee of the College of New Jer-
sey—Methods of Teaching— Second marriage— Correspondence with his
brother, politics — Dancing and card-playing— The baptism of the infants
of non-professors — Commentaries — Articles in the Princeton Review (L)
On the General Assemblies— The relation of the Board of Missions to the
Presbyteries — The constitutionality of our Boards — Commissions — The
adoption of the Confession of Faith— Religious education, and the reli-
gious amendment of the Constitution of the United States— (H.) Free
Agency, Inspiration, &c.— (HI.) Presbyterian Liturgies— (IV.) "The
Princeton Review and Cousin's Philosophy '—(V.) Review of Bishop
Mcllvaine on the Church— (VI.) His articles on the Church and Elder
question— Correspondence with Dr. William Cunningham and Bishop
Johns— The death of Drs. James W. and Joseph A. Alexander— Letter
of Dr. R. L. Dabney—Election of his son, C. W. Hodge, as Professor of
N. T. Literature, &c.— His great debate with Dr. Thornwell in the Gen.
eral Assembly of 1861 384—448

CHAPTER XI.

FROM 1861, AND THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CIVIL WAR, TO 1872,
AND THE CELEBRATION OF DR. HODGE'S SEMI-CENTENNIAL.

His appearance and health— His occupations and recreation— The composi-
tion of his " Systematic Theology "—The Sabbath afternoon Conferences
—The Civil War : correspondence with his brother— The assassination



y[ll TABLE OF CONTENTS.

of Lincoln: correspondence with his brother' — Letter to Dr. Robert
Watts on the "Witness of the Spirit" — The relation of the Church to
political questions, and the merits of the actual decisions by the General
Assembly (O. S.) of questions growing out of the War — The case of the
Rev. S. B. McPheeters, D. D. — The re-union of the Old and New School
Presbyterians — The National Presbyterian Convention, Philadelphia,
Nov., 1867 449-508

CHAPTER XIL
HIS SEMI-CENTENNIAL,

APRIL 24, 1872 509-530



CHAPTER XHI.

HIS LAST YEARS.

FROM 1872 TO HIS DEATH, JUNE I9, 1878.

His appearance and habit of mind — The object of general love, in his family,
the Seminary, and among his students — The death of his brother, Dr. H.
L. Hodge, of Philadelphia — Dr. William Goodell's biographical sketch
of him — The visit of the General Assembly of 1872 to Washington — The
Evangelical Alliance, New York, 1873 — Historical sermon, delivered at
the re-opening of the Chapel of the Theological Seminary in Princeton,
September 27th, 1874 — Latest correspondence and interviews with his
friend. Bishop Johns — The appointment of his assistant and successor —
His eightieth birth-day — His writings during these last years . S31-577

CHAPTER XIV.
THE LAST DAYS S78-587

CHAPTER XV.

DR. HODGE CONSIDERED AS A TEACHER, PREACHER, THEOLOGIAN,
AND CHRISTIAN MAN, BY THE REV. DRS. BENJAMIN B. WARFIELD,
WILLIAM M. PAXTON, AND HENRY A. BOARDMAN. GENERAL ES-
TIMATE OF DR. HODGE'S SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY, BY'PROF. C. P.
KRAUTH, D. D 588-616



THE LIFE



CHARLES HODGE, D.D.



CHAPTER I.



AUTOBIOGRAPHY,

WITH EXTRACTS FROM THE REMINISCENCES OF HIS BROTHER.



ANCESTRY — CHILDHOOD — MOTHER — BROTHER — TEACHERS AND
COMPANIONS.

DURING the last years of the seventeenth and the first
of the eighteenth centuries, Wilham Hodge, and
Margaret, his wife, hved in the north of Ireland. They
were the parents of four boys and two girls, of whom two
died in early childhood, and one surviving to maturity lc(t
no record. The father died Januar>^ 4th, 1723, and the
mother October 15th, 1730.

Soon after the death of their mother, the three remaining
children, William, Andrew and Hugh, emigrated to America
and settled in Philadelphia, where they became successful
merchants and men of influence in the community. William
had but one child, Mary, who in August, 1757, married Mr.
William West, from whom are descended the Wests, Con-
ynghams and Fraziers of Philadelphia, and the Stewarts of
Baltimore. Hugh, the youngest of the three brothers, had
but one chijd, a son bearing his own name, who graduated
in the College of New Jersey, in Princeton, in 1773, and
took his master's degree in course. Soon afterwards he



2 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. [1745.

sailed for Europe, but the ship he sailed in was never heard
of after leaving port.

His mother, Mrs. Hannah Hodge, known for many years
in the family as Aunt Hannah, was recognized in all the
city as a mother in Israel. She was born in Philadelphia,
January, 1721, the daughter of John Harkum, of English
descent. Her mother, whose maiden name was Doz, was
the child of a Protestant who fled from France on account
of the revocation of the Edict of Nantz, 1685, and afterwards
with other French Protestants, was principally instrumental
in founding the First Presbyterian Church, then standing
on Market Street above Second, of which the Rev. Jedidiah
Andrews was pastor. Although Hannah joined the church
in 1736 or 7 she thought her true conversion occurred un-
der the preaching of Whitefield, when her life became emi-
nently consecrated to religious interests. When in 1743
the Second Presbyterian was formed out of the converts of
Whitefield, she was one of one hundred and sixty communi-
cants originally enrolled. In 1745, she married Mr. Hugh
Hodge, who was a deacon in the Second Church from its
foundation to the time of his death. They had a dry-goods
store on the north side of Market Street above Second.
Their house was the resort of clergymen and the centre of
religious meetings. After her husband's death Mrs. Hodge,
although left independent, retained the business in order
that she might not curtail her charities. Dr. Ashbel Green,
her pastor, afterwards President of Princeton College, en-
tertained a sincere reverence for her, and concludes his
memoir of her, printed in the Panoplist, vol. 2d, for the year
ending June, 1807, with a glowing eulogium of his friend.
"Solid sense, sterling integrity, sincere piety united with
great humility, the love of truth and the abhorrence of hy-
pocrisy were her chief characteristics. These gave her an
influence among her Christian associates perhaps superior
to that of any other individual." Her house was the home
of several old and infirm ladies, supported in great measure



1739-] HIS GRANDFATHER, ANDREW HODGE. 3

by her bounty; and here* also originated the weekly meet-
ing for prayer and religious instruction observed still in the
Second Church, and in most of the other Presbyterian
Churches of the city. The house in which she lived was
by the will of her husband, left upon her decease to the
Trustees of the College of New Jersey, for the education of
candidates for the ministry. This endowment has con-
tinued to fulfil the pious design of its founders up to the
present time, yielding an income varying from eight to
fifteen hundred dollars annually; thus constituting with a
few others the foundations of a system of endowments
which has since attained magnificent proportions.

Aunt Hannah died December 17th, 1805, when I was
eight years old. I was present at her funeral, and was stand-
ing with my cousin, John Bayard, rather older than myself,
near the open coffin. We began to cry. We thought that
was the right thing to do. But his mother came up, and
giving us a little shake, said in an authoritative whisper,
"Stop." The discovery that we were making ourselves
ridiculous, instantly dried the fountain of tears. By such
filaments the present generation is connected with the
past.

Andrew Hodge, the second in order of age of the three
immigrant brothers, born in Ireland, March 28th, 171 1, was
my grandfather. He soon became a successful merchant,
and acquired considerable property. His wharf, and store,
and city residence in which he spent his life, were on Water
Street, to the south of what is now termed Delaware
Avenue. His country seat was on Mead lane, now Mont-
gomery Avenue, and he possessed one of the only six car-
riages then in the city. He was active and influential m all
the affairs of the Church and of the community, one of the

* " The crowd being often so great as to fill, not only the parlor and kitchen,
but even the back garden, close up against Christ Church ground, and much to
the offence of our Episcopal brethren, who caUed them ' Those conventicles held
by Mrs, Hodge,' "



A AUTOBIOGRAPHY. [i74S-

founders of and a liberal contributor to the Second Church,
and a member of its board of Trustees to the day of his
death. In 1739 he married Miss Jane M'Culloch. Her
brother Hugh was an elder in the Second Church, and a
man of great goodness and influence, though remarkable
for the great tenacity with which he held on to his own
opinions. He never would consent to the assertion that the
earth moves ; maintaining that it was contrary alike to his
own observation and to Bible authority, as Joshua com-
manded not the earth, but the sun to stand still. His char-
acter is said to have been imbibed by our family, " O ! there
is Uncle M'Culloch " having become quite a .saying among
the descendants of his sister.

The religious excitement which attended the preaching
of Whitefield in this country about the middle of the last
century, gave rise to two parties in the Presbyterian Church.
Those who approved of the revival were called New Lights,
and those who stood aloof or opposed to it, were called Old
Lights. The pastor of the First Church, then the only Pres-
byterian Church in Philadelphia, together with a majority
of the congregation were Old Lights, while a minority were
on the other side. These latter were, at their own request,
set off and organized into the Second Church, of which the
celebrated Gilbert Tennent was the first pastor. Of this
Andrew Hodge, Senior, was a Trustee, and his son-in-law,
Col. John Bayard, and his brother-in-law, Mr. Hugh M'Cul-
loch, were ruling elders. The Church edifice was erected
on the corner of Third and Arch Streets. It was an oblong
building. The shorter side on the east faced Third Street ;
the longer side was on Arch Street. The steeple was on the
west end, and the pulpit was on the north side. Subse-
quently the steeple was taken down and the tower included
in the auditorium, and the pews were turned round to face
the pulpit, which was placed at the west end. The Church
in after years was removed to Seventh Street, near Arch,
where it remained during the pastorates of Rev. Drs. Cuyler



1767.] DESCENDANTS OF ANDREW HODGE. 5

and Shields. The shifting of the population necessitating
another removal, a lot was purchased at the corner of
Twenty-first and Walnut, on which has been erected one of
the most beautiful church-buildings in the city. My grand-
father's pew in the original edifice on Third and Arch Streets
was the front one in the middle aisle to the left hand of the
preacher. The same pew, i. e., the same in relative position,
has remained in the family ever since. It is now held by
the great-grandson of the original occupant. Dr. H. Lenox
Hodge, who is also a ruling elder in his ancestral Church.

These family details are of interest to those whom they
concern. I wish, however, that those who come after me
should know that their ancestors and kindred were Presby-
terians and patriots.

Andrew Hodge and Jane M'Culloch were the parents of
fifteen children, eight of whom died in infancy or early life.
Their eldest child, Margaret, married John Rubenheim Bay-
ard, of Bohemia Manor, Maryland, afterwards a Colonel
in the Revolutionary army. After the war he settled in
Philadelphia, but during the latter part of his life resided in
New Brunswick, New Jersey. His sons were James A.,
who married the daughter of the Rev. Dr. Rodgers, New
York ; Andrew, a merchant, and president of the Commer-
cial Bank, Philadelphia; Samuel, clerk of the Supreme Court
of the United States, and a resident of Princeton, New
Jersey ; John M., who resided on the Millstone river, near
to a village of the same name ; and Nicholas, a physician,
who settled in Savannah, Georgia. His daughters were Jane,
who married Chief Justice Kirkpatrick, of New Brunswick,
N. J. ; Maria, who married Samuel Boyd, Esq., of New
York; and Mrs. Samuel Harrison Smith, of Washing-
ton, D. C.

Agnes, the second child of Andrew Hodge, sr., married
James Ashton, a twin-brother of her brother-in-law. Col.
John R. Bayard, who was a surgeon in the revolutionary
army, and was accidentally killed in Charleston, South Car-



6 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. [1772.

olina. Their children were John Hodge Bayard, who hved
in Cumberland and died unmarried ; Jane, whom 1 remem-
ber as a portly lady, dressed in the simple habit of a QiJti-
keress, which the stricter Methodists of that period adopted ;
and James Ashton Bayard, jr., born July 28, 1767. He
practiced law in Wilmington, Delaware, and in 1787 repre-
sented his district in the National House of Representatives.
In 1804 he was chosen United States Senator, as successor
to his father-in law. Governor Bassett, which position he re-
tained until he was selected by President Madison as a
Commissioner, together with Gallatin, Clay, and others, to
negotiate a peace with Great Rfitain, His son, Richard H.
Bayard, was United States Senator from 1836 to 1839, ^f'd
again from 1841 to 1845. His second son, the third James
Ashton Bayard in the direct line, was United States Senator
for many years. And again the office has been continued
in the third generation, in the person of the present Senator,
Thomas F. Bayard.

A third daughter of Andrew Hodge, sr., married a gentle-
man from the West Indies, by the name of Philips. She
left an only child, a daughter, who died unmarried.

A fourth daughter, Mary, married Major Hodgdon, a
commissary in the revolutionary army. She lived to a
great age, and left many children.

The sons of Andrew Hodge, sr., were John, a physician,
who died at twenty-three years of age, and William, a mer-
chant, who residing abroad was called by acquaintances on
the Continent, " the handsome American." After the revo-
lution he was employed in the secret service of his govern-
ment, and falling under suspicion, was for a time confined in
the Bastile, where he was well treated. He died when only
thirty years old. Of James, the youngest son of Andrew,
sr., it is only known that he died unmarried. Andrew, jr.,
graduated in Princeton College in the class of 1772, and
married Ann Ledyard, half-sister of the traveler and author.
He was a Captain in the Pennsylvania line during the revo-



I790.] HIS FATHER AND MOTHER. 7

lution, and was present at the battle of Princeton, and used
to boast that he had captured a cannon in " Stockton's
woods." He hved to a great age, and left many children. I
heard the old gentleman say that at the battle of Princeton
a company from Delaware, formed a little in advance of his
own, broke and ran at the first fire of the British. Its Cap-
tain, who was rather corpulent, came puffing by crying,
" Run, Captain Hodge, run, Captain Hodge, we shall all be
killed." The only answer I could get to the question " Did
Captain Hodge run?" was a little laugh. He fell back, how-
ever, upon his treasure trove, " the cannon in Stockton's
woods."

Hugh, the eighth child and fourth son of Andrew Hodge,
sr., was my father. He was born in Philadelphia, August
20, 1755, graduated in the College of New Jersey in 1773,
and studied medicine under the eminent doctor Cadwaladcr.
He was appointed Surgeon, February 7, 1776, in the third
battalion of troops raised in the Province of Pennsylvania,
in the service of the United Colonies. He was captured by
the British, and held as a prisoner at Fort Washington, N.
Y., but through the intervention of General Washington
was liberated on parole. After engaging in mercantile pur-
suits with his brother Andrew, he returned to the practice
of medicine, and soon secured an influential connection.
The tradition of his fine person and attractive manners
lingered among the latest survivors of his generation. He
was a prominent actor in the terrible scenes occasioned by
the memorable epidemics of yellow fever in 1793, and after-
wards in 1795. And through the exposure incident to liis
labors on these occasions his constitution was impaired, and
he died after protracted sufferings July 14, 1798, at the early
age of forty-three. His pastor. Dr. Ashbel Green, said of
him, in his eulogium, that " as a husband, father, brother,
friend and citizen, none surpassed him."

His wife, my mother, was Mary Blanchard, of Boston.
Her mother's name was Hunt, probably of ICnglish origin.



8 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. [1790.



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