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Columbia (HnitJer^ftj)

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LIBRARY





HISTORY OF EUliOPE



FROM THE



FALL OF NAPOLEON

IN MDCCCXV

TO THE

ACCESSION OF LOUIS NAPOLEON

IN MDCCCLII



BY

SIR AECHIBALD ALISON, BAET, D.C.L

Author of the ' History of Europe from the Commencement of the French
Revolution in 17S9, to the Battle of Waterloo,' &c. &c.



VOL. IV.

EIGHTH THOUSAND



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS

EDINBURGH AND LONDON
MDCCCLXIV



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV.



CHAPTER XXIII.

DOMESTIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND, FROM THE FALL OF THE WELLINGTON ADMIN-
ISTRATION IN 1830 TO THE PASSING OF THE REFORM BILL IN 1832.



Page
The fall of the Welling-ton IMinistry, 1
The Duke's declaration against Re-
form, 2

DiflBculty in forming the new Minis-
try, 3

Character of Earl Grey, ... 4
Character of Lord Brougham, . 5

Lord Palmerston 7

Lord John Russell, .... 9
Lord Melbourne, . . . .10
Sir James Graham, . . . ib.

His inconsistencies, . . .11

Earl Grey's announcement of his

principles of government, . . ih.
State of England during the winter, 12
Agitation and increased misery in

Ireland, ih.

Prosecution of Mr O'Connell, . .13

The budget, 14

Committee on the Reform Bill, . 15
Introduction of the Reform Bill, . 16
Second reading carried, . . .28
General Gascoigne's motion carried

against Government, . . .29
Settlement on the Royal Family, . 30
Means by which the King was in-
duced to dissolve Parliament, . ih.
Scene in the House, . . . 82
Violence at the elections, . . ih.
Riots in Scotland, . . . .33
Results of the election, . . .34
Preparations for insurrection, . ih.

Delusions which prevailed, . . ih.
King's speech on opening Parliament, 36



The Reform Bill carried.
Bill read a third time, and
Eiforts to intimidate the Peers,
Lord Grey's speech,
Bill thi-own out.

Vote of confidence in the Commons
Disorders in London and in the couu
try,



Page
Great meeting of political unions at

Birmingham, . . . .41
Riots at Derby and Nottingham, . ih.
Riots at Bristol, .... 42
Disturbances in other quarters, . 44
Proclamation against political unions, 45
The new Reform Bill introduced, . ih.
Third reading carried, . . .47
General distress in the country, . ih.
Declining state of the revenue, . ib.
State of Ireland, . . . .48
Resolution of the Cabinet to create

Peers, ...... 49

The King reluctantly consents, . ib.
Negotiations with the waverers, . 50
Revolutionary meetings to coerce

the Peers, ih.

Second reading of the bill carried, ib.
Lord Lyndhurst's amendment carried, 51



Ministers resign.

The King sends for the Duke of
Wellington to form a ministry, .

The Duke fails in forming an ad-
ministration, ....

Lord Ebrington's motion carried by
eighty, _

The King gives authority to create
Peers,

His circular to the Opposition Peers,

The bill passes both Houses, and re-
ceives the royal assent,

The Scotch and Irish bills passed, .

General results of the bill.

Principle of the old constitution, .

Difficulties of the representative
system,

What first broke up the old consti-
tution,

Mistake in the estimate of the effect
of the Reform Bill, .

Command of the House of Com-
mons gained by the shopkeepers.



53



54

ib.

55
56
57
59

61

ib.
65
66



24359



CONTEl^TS.



Page

Errors on both sides dixring the con-
test, 66

Error in the uniform representation
in the boroughs, . . . ,69

Mistake of the Whigs as to the in-
fluence in the boroughs, . , 70

Prospective abandonment of our
colonial empire, . , . .71

Labour was unrepresented, . . 72

Want of the representation of intel-
ligence and education, . . 73

Vast increase of corruption under
the Reform Bill, .... 74



Page

Fault of the Liberals in the way the
Reform Bill was carried, . . 75

Danger of coercing the House of
Peers, ib.

The producing classes were still the
majority, 76

The Reform Bill has strengthened
Government, . . . .77

Sums spent by working classes on
drink, 78

Political truth evolved by the Re-
form Bill, 79

Great law of nature on the subject, ib.



CHAPTER XXIV.

FRANCE AND EUROPE, FROM THE ACCESSION OF LOUIS PHILIPPE IN 1830 TO THE
OVERTHROW OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS IN THE SAME YEAR.



Page

Objects to which great popular
movements have been directed, . 80

Prosperity of the bourgeois class, . 81

Effect of the sjaread of machinery,
steam, and railways, . . .82

Increased strength of the Govern-
ment, ih.

The Republicans, . . . .83

The Napoleonists, . . . .84

The Orleanists, .... ib.

The Duke of Orleans remains in re-
tirement, ib.

Arguments for and against the
Duke's being called to the
crown, 85

Project of giving the lieutenancy-
general to the Duke of Orleans,
and the crown to the Duke of
Bordeaux, ib.

Intei-view between M. Thiers and
the Duchess of Orleans, . . 87

Irresolute conduct of the Duke, . ib.

Meetings of the Deputies and Peers, ih.

Reunion of the Republicans, . . 88

Scene at the Hotel de Ville, . . 89

Defeat of the Napoleonists, . . 90

Panic of the Orleanists, . . . ib.

Arrival of the Duke of Orleans at
Paris, ib.

The Duke accepts the lieutenancy-
general of the kingdom, , . 91

M. Guizofs proclamation of the
principles of the Government, . 92

Visit of the Duke of Orleans to the
Hotel do Ville, .... ib.

Efforts of the Orleanists to popular-
ise the dynasty, . . . .93

Conversation between the Duke of
Orleans and the Republicans, . 94

Speech of Chateaubriand, . . ib.



Page

Chateaubriand refuses the portfolio
of foreign affairs, . . .97

Acceptance of the crown by Louis
Philijjpe, . . . . . ib.

Changes in the constitution of the
Revolution, 99

Peers who resigned, and Ministers
who were appointed, . . . ib.

Distress in Pai'is, .... 100

Reception of the Revolution in the
provinces, . . . . . ib.

Recognition of Louis Philippe by
the English Government, . . 101

His recognition by the Cabinet of
Vienna, 102

And by Prussia, .... ib.

His character, .... ib.

Dissensions in the Council, and vio-
lence of the National Guard, . 105

Death and testament of the Duke
de Bourbon, .... ih.

Attitude of 31. de Lafayette, . . 106

Disturbances in Paris, . . . ib.

First measures of the new Govern-
ment, 107

The Electoral Law, . . . ib.

First financial measures, . . ib.

Proceedings against the popular so-
cieties, ib.

Attempt to revolutionise Spain from
Paris, 108

State of Belgium, . . . .109

The revolution there, . . . Ill

The separation of Belgium and Hol-
land is pronounced by the Cham-
ber, 114

State of political feeling in Ger-
many, 115

Disturbances in Aix-la-Chapclle and
Cologne, ib.



CONTENTS.

Pajre



Convulsions in tne north of Ger-
many, . . . • • • 116
Politica. contests in Switzerland, . H7
Convulsions in Italy, . . . ib.



V

Page



Change in the order of siiccession in
Spain, 113

Influence of the Revolution in France
over Eui'ope, . . . .119



CHAPTER XXV.

FRANCE, FROM THE OVERTHROW OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS IN
OCTOBER 1830 TO THE ABOLITION OP THE HEREDITARY PEERAGE IN SEPTEM-
BER 1831.



Page



Change in the attitude of France
in reference to the Continental
powers, .....

And fall of the Ministry,

Trial of the late INIinisters,

Disturbed state of Paris,

Dissolution of the Administration, .

Formation of M. Lafitte's ministry.

Progress of the trial of the ex-min-
isters, 125

Disaffection of the National Guard,
and the misery of the capital,

.Demands of Lafayette, .

His dismissal,

Changes in the Cabinet, .

Favourable accounts from Algiers, .

Expenditure for the army.

Crown of Belgium offered to Duke
de Nemours, ....

Protocol fixing limits of Holland and
Belgium,

Views in London and Paris on Louis
Philippe's refusal,

State of Belgium, ....

Perilous state of Italy, .

Insurrections in Bologna, Modena,
Reggio, and Parma, .

Intervention of Austria, ,

Affairs of Germany, and precaution-
ary measures there,

State of feeling in Prussia,

Fermentation in the lesser states of
Germany,

Troubles in Saxony and Hesse-Cas-
sel,

Insurrection in Hanover,

Violence of parties, and misery in
Paris,

Budget of 1831, and its effects.

Situation of commerce and credit, .



120
121
ifj.
122
123
124



127
ib.
ib.

128
ib.

129

130

il.

131
ib.
132

ib.
133

134
135

ib.

136
ib.

137
ib.
139
General indignation of the democrats, ib.
Extravagant ideas afloat in society, ib.
Moral statistics of Paris at this

period, 140

Tumult in the Church of St Ger-
main I'Auxerrois, . . . 141
Attacks on individuals, and deplor-
able weakness of Government, . 142



Fall of Lafitte, and appointment of
Casimir Perier, . . . .143

Change in the Electoral Law, . ib.

Proscription of the elder branch of
the Bourbons, . . . .144

Formation of the National Associa-
tion, ib.

Casimir Perier's speech on the prin-
ciples of his government, . . 145

Louis Philippe's efforts to conciliate
the electors, .... ib.

Disturbances in Paris, . . . 146

The King's progresses into Nor-
mandy and Champagne, . . ib.

Issue of the elections, . . . 147

King's speech, .... ib.

Defeat of the Government, . .148

Affairs of Holland and Flanders, . ib.

Views of Talleyrand and Lord Pal-
merston, 149

Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg elected
King of Belgium, . . . 150

Policy of Great Britain regarding
Belgium, ib.

Language of England and France
regarding Luxembourg, . .151

Secret treaty of France and England, 152

The King of Holland declares war, ib.

Total defeat of the Belgians, . . 153

Intei-vention of the French ai-my, . ib.

Armistice, and withdraw^al of the
French troops, .... 154

Renewed conferences, and reasons
which made the Northern Powers
acquiesce in them, . . . ib.

Great advantages gained by Holland
by this irruption, . . . 155

Forcible intei-vention of the French
at Lisbon, ib.

Scene in the Chamber on the debate
on Poland, 159

Excitement in Paris on the fall of
Warsaw ib.

Law against the Bourbons, . .1*10

Abolition of the hereditary peerage, 162

Previous degradation of the peerage, 108

Superiority of the aristocracy as
statesmen, 169



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXVI.

POLISH REVOLUTION AND WAR, FROM ITS C01\i:\rF.NCEMENT IN NOVEMBER 1830
TO ITS TERMINATION IN SEPTEMBER ISul.



Page



Terrible wars between Europe and
Asia,

Causes of this perpetual strife.

Effects of the conquest of the By-
zantine Empire by the Turks, and
of the partition of Poland, .

Faults of the Poles which led to
their subjug-ation,

Prosperity of Poland under Russian
rule,

Secret societies, ....

Plans of the conspirators,

Supineness of Constantino, and pro-
gress of the consi->iracy,

Insurrection of 29tli November at
Warsaw, .....

Reti-eat of Constantino, .

Ai3pointment of a provisional gov-
ernment,

Constantino sends back the Polish
troops, and retreats into Russia,

Chlopicki seizes the dictatorship, .

His biography and character.

Military preparations, .

Strange conduct of Constantino, .

Negotiations with Nicholas, .

Preparations and conference of
Austria, Prussia, and Russia,

Secret views of Austria and France,

Great Britain declines to join France, 18-i

Chlopicki resigns the dictatorship,
and is i-eappointed,

Preparations of the Czar,

Manifesto of the Polish Diet, .

The Czar is dethroned by the Diet,

Statistics of Russia at this period, .

Of the kingdom of Poland,

Of Austrian and Prussian Poland, .

Of Lithuania and Russian Poland, .

Military forces, ....

Strategetical advantagesof the Poles,

Advance of Diebitch towards VVar-



172

173

175
176
ih.

177

ib.
178

179

ib.
ISO
181
182

ib.
183



ib.



185

ib.
186
188
189

lb.
]90

ib.
191

ib.



saw.
Battle of Grochow,
Battle of Praga,



192
193

ib.



Page

Skrzynecki appointed generalissimo, 196

Vigorous preparations of, . . ib.

Forces at his disposal, . . .197

Total defeat of the Russians, . . 198

Victory of the Poles at Iganie, . 200

Cholera breaks out in the Polish
army, which is arrested in its ad-
vance, ib.

Bad success of Sierawiki on the
right, .201

Defeat of Dwemicki in Volhynia, . ib.

Insurrection in Podolia and the Ul;:-
raine, 202

Operations in the centi'e, . . ib.

Expedition of Chrzauowski into
Volhynia, 203

March of Skrzynecki against the
Russian right, .... ib.

Diebitch marches against the Polish
rear, . . ^ . . .204

Battle of Ostrolenka, . . . ib.

Death of Diebitch and the Grand-
duke Constantino, . . . 205

Suspension of hostilities, and ap-
pointment of Paskiewitch, . . 206

Insurrection in Lithuania, . . ib.

Battle of Wllna, . . . .207

Paskiewitch's plans and forces, and
preparations of the Poles, . . 208

Paskiewitch crosses the Vistula, . ib.

Fall of Skrzynecki, . . . .209

Massacres in Warsaw, . . . ib.

Preparations for the final struggle, 210

Victory of Ramorino over Rosen
and Golowin, .... ib.

Vain attempt at negotiation, . .211

Fall of Warsaw, .... ib.

The remainder of the Polish troops
•take refuge in Austria and Prus-
sia, 212

Results of the war, . . . ib.

Conduct of Nicholas in Poland after
the war, and in the cholera, . 213

Restoration of Poland essential to
independence of Europe, . . 215



CHAPTER XXVII.

CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF GERMANY, FROM THE TERI\IINATION OF THE WAR
OF LIBERATION IN 1814 TO THE GREAT CONVULSIONS OP 1848.

Page I Page

Peace necessary to Germany after IModeration of the German demands

the war, 215 ' on the peace, .... 216



CONTENTS.



Page
Dangers to independence on the dis-
solution of the Empire, . .216
Strength of the German Confederacy, 217

Statistics, 220

Universal education, . . . 221

Education and crime in Austria, . 222
Seeds of discontent arising out of

this very prosperity, . . . 223
Expectation of liberal institutions, . ib.
The promise to give Germany con-
stitutional government, . . 224
States established in Hanover, Wijr-

temberg, and Baden, . . . ih.
Promises of the Prussian Govern-
ment, 225

Resolution of the Diet regarding the
internal affairs of the Confedera-
tion, ib.

Effect of the Spanish and Italian

revolutions of 1S19 and 1820, . 226
Resolution of the Diet on the pro-
positions of Austria, . . . 227
Supreme Austregal Court, . . ih.
Assassination of Kotzebue, . . 228
Circular of the Cabinet of Berlin, . 229
Circular of ]\Ietternich, . . . 231
Final Act of Confederation, . . 232
Edict of Prussia regarding provin-
cial diets, 233

Count BernstorflFs circular, . . 234
Regulations against secret societies, 235
The real worth of the provincial

estates, ib.

Wisdom of the internal government

of Prussia, 236

Effect of the French Revolution in

checking German freedom, . . 237

Effect of the siege of Antwerp, . 238
Measures of the Diet against the

press, 239

Decree of Jiily 5 of the Diet, . . ih.
Riot in Frankfort, and its occupa-
tion by the Austrians, . . 240
Congress at MUnchengratz, . . 241
The Zollverein, .... ih.
Fresh riot at Frankfort, . . 244
Decrees of 1835 in the Diet, . . ib.
Death of the Emperor Francis, and



Page
his successor's communication to
the Diet, 244

Change in the public mind, . . ib.

Refusal to restore the constitution
of Hanover, 245

Dispute regarding the Archbishop
of Cologne, ib.

Wise internal regulations of the
Prussian Government, . . 247

Amnesty on the 300th anniversary
of the Reformation, and treaty of
reciprocity with Holland, . . ib.

Death of the King of Prussia, and
revival of the question of the con-
stitution, . . . . . 248

Opening of the provincial estates, . 249

Extension of the Zollverein, and in-
creasing intellectual strength of
Prussia, 250

System of railways in Northern Ger-
many, ib.

Inauguration of the Cathedral of
Cologne, 251

IMeeting of the general estates at
Berlin, ib.

Progress of constitutional ideas, . 252

Progress of 1844, .... ib.

Religious movement in Germany, . 253

Constitutional progress, . . . ib.

Increased demand for reform, . 255

Convocation of a general diet, . ib.

Opening of the States-General of
Prussia, ib.

Political situation of Germany, . 256

Effect of the Revolutionary War, . ib.

Effect of general education, . . 257

Difficulties arising from the want of
colonies, ib.

Causes which held Germany together, 253

Influence of Russia on Prussia and
the lesser states, .... 259

Influence of the wantof employment, 260

Effects of the revolutions of 1820
and 1830, ib.

Advantages of the Germ ah Con-
federacy to the peace of Europe, 262

Cause which shipwrecked German
liberty, 264



CHAPTER XXVIII.

LITERATURE OF GERMANY IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.



Page
Im])ortance of German literature in
the early part of the nineteenth

century, 265

Cause of its romantic character in

Germ an J', 266

Dawn of German literature, . . ib.



Science and learning in Germany
before the middle of the eigh
teenth century, .

Lessing and Winkelman,

Wieland, ....

Goethe,



Page



267
ih.
268
2Gi>



CONTENTS.



Schiller, .

Klopstock,

Ochlenschlager,

Grillparzer,

Kotzebue,

Werner, .

German comedy,

Tieck, .

Kiirner, .

Burger, .

Freiligrath,

Uhland, .

Ruckhart,

Redwitz,

Kinkel, .

Prose of Germany :

Niebulir,

Heeren, .

Miiller, .

Yon Hammer,

Herder, .

Schlosser,

Ranke, .

Schlegel,

Military historians

Charles,
Clausewitz,
German memoir- writers



the



its character.



Page
, 271
, 274
, ib.
. 276
, ib.
, ib.
. 277
, 278
, ib.
. 279
, ib.
. 280
, ib.
, ib.
. 281
. ib.
. 282
, 283
. ib.
. 284
. ib.
. 285
. ib.
286



Archduke



Bartholdy,



V^arnhagen von Ense, and Baron
Stein,



287



Page
German autobiographies, . . 287
Romances in Germany: their gen-
eral character, .... 288
The philosophic novelists, . . ib.
Countess Hahn-Hahu, . . . 289

Haklander, ib.

Andersen, 290

Jean Paul Richter, .... ib.
Philosophic school of Germany, . 291

Kant, ib.

Fichte and Schelling, . . .292
Frederick Schlegel, . . . ib.

Jacobi, ib.

Religious character of Germany, . 293
Strauss's Life of Jesus Christ, . 294
General character of German litera-
ture, 295

The fine arts, 297

Thorwaldsen, • . . . . ib.
Danneker and Kiss, . . . ib.

Painting, 298

German architecture, . . . i7).
General passion for music, . . 299

Beethoven, ib.

Mozart, 300

Hadyn, ib.

Handel and Mendelssohn, . . ib.
Spohr and GlUck, . . . .301
Influence of recent disasters on the
German mind, .... ib.



CHAPTER XXIX.

FRANCE, FROM THE EXTINCTION OP THE HEREDITARY PEERAGE IN DECEMBER 1831,
TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MILITARY GOVERNMENT BY THE SUPPRESSION OP
THE REVOLT IN THE CLOISTER OF ST MERI IN JUNE 1832, AND THE TREATY WITH
HOLLAND IN MAY 1833.



Increase of the power of the Crown

from these changes.
Social dangers of the Government

of France, ....
Louis Blanc's picture of the work

ing classes, .....
The Lyons insurrection,
Alarm at Paris, and vigorous meas

ures of the Government,
State of Lyons after the revolt.
Arrival of Marshal Soult and the

Duke of Orleans, and submission

of Lyons,

Renewed efforts of the Republicans.

Armand Carrel, . . . .
Garnier Pages, . . . .
Strength of the Republican press,

and extravagance of the Court, .
The Civil List, . . . .

Increase of the general expend! ture^



Page
302



303
305

308
309



ib.

310
311

ib.
ib.
312



Page

Conspiracy of Notre Dame and the

Rue Prouvaires, . . . .313
Conspiracy at Grenoble, . . ib.

Expedition to Ancona, . . . 314
State of affairs in Italy, . . . ib.
Disturbances in Romagna, and Aus-

ti'ian- interference, . . . ib.
Occupation of Ancona, . . . 315
Effects of this stroke, . . .31(5
The cholera in Paris, . . . ib.
Death of Casimir Perier and Cuvier, 320
Attempt of the Duchess de Berri to

raise the west, .... 321
Attempt at an insurrection, . . 324
Adventures of the Duchess de Berri,
and extinction of the insurrec-
tion, 326

Her arrest and imprisonment, . 328
Discontent and democratic move-
ment in Paris, .... ib.



CONTENTS.



Page
Death of General Lamarqiie. . . 329
His funeral, and commencement of
the insurrection, .... ib.

Meeting at Lafitte's at night, . . 332
Marshal Soult's military measures, . 334
Successes of the insurgents, and

consternation of the military chiefs, ih.
Successes of the troops, . . . 335
Deputation of the Chamber to the
King, . . . . . .337

Paris declared in a state of siege, . ib.
Arrest of MM. de Chateaubriand,
Fitzjames, Hyde de Neu-valle, and

Berryer, 338

War with the press, . . . 340
Increased consideration of the Gov-
ernment by the suppression of the

revolt, ib.

Improved condition of the country
and the revenue, . . . 341



Page
Marriage of Leopold, King of Bel-
gium, to the Princess Louise of

France, 341

Changes in the Ministry, and new

creation of peers, . . . ib.

Preparations for a war with Holland, 342
Convention for cession of Antwerp

to Belgium, .... ib.

Siege of the citadel of Antwerp, . 3-15
Effect of this success in France and

England, 347

Treaty between Holland and Bel-
gium, 348

Abandonment of the Barrier treaty, 349
Great addition to the power of

France by these events, . . ib.

And of Eussia, .... ib.

Influence on England's power, . 350

Vindication of Polignac's cotqj d'etat

by subsequent events, . . ib.



CHAPTER XXX.



FRANCE, FROBI THE SUPPRESSION OF THE INSURRECTION IN THE CLOISTER OF ST
MERI IN JUNE 1832, TO THE FINAL ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT OP
LOUIS PHILIPPE BY THE ELECTIONS OF JUNE 1834.



Page
Results of the victory over the Royal-
ists and Re-publicans, . . . 351
General policy of the Government, 352
Liberation of the Diichess de Berri, 353
Journey of the Duke of Orleans

through the south of France, . ib.
The romances and theatres of Paris, 354
Trial of the St Simonians, . . ib.
Changes in the Ministry, and crea-
tion of peers, .... 355
Circular to the prefects, . . . ib.
State and views of the Republicans, 356
Death of the Duke of Reichstadt, . ib.
Opening of the Chambers, and King's

speech, 357

Project for the fortification of Paris, 358
Large grants for public works, . 359
Income and expenditure of 1833, . 360
King's journey to Normandj", and

answers to addresses, . . . 361
New form which the spirit of propa-

gandism assumed, . . . 362
Remonstrances of Russia and Prus-
sia against the Polish committees, ib.



Page
Revolutionary organisation in Ger-
many, 363

Congress of Muntz-Graetz, . . 364
Affairs of Algeria, .... 365
Origin of the Zouaves there, . . 366
Violence of the press in Paris, . 367

Opening of the Chamber of 1834, . 368
Correspondence on the subject of a

general disarming, . . . ib.
Laws against public criers, and im-
posing a stamp duty on pam-
phlets, 369

Law against associations, . . ib.
Resistance to the law against secret

societies, 372

Second insurrection at Lyons, , 374

General insurrectionary movements, 376
Insurrection in Paris, . . . ib.
Death of M. de Lafayette, . . 378
Lamartine : bis rise and character in

public life, 379

Dissolution of the Chamber, and re-
sult of the elections, . . . 381
Results of the Revolution of July, , ib.



HISTOEY OF EUROPE.



CHAPTER XXIIL



DOMESTIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND, FROM THE FALL OF THE WELLINGTON AD-
MINISTRATION IN 1830 TO THE PASSING OF THE REFORM RILL IN 1832.



1. Tiirs fell the "Wellington Admin-
istration, tlie most important event in
the domestic history of England since
the Eevolution, in the general annals
of Europe since the battle of Waterloo.
In the decisive and lasting transfer-
ence of the political power in the State
by which it was followed to another
party, it bears a very close resemblance
to the overtlirow of the Coalition J»Iin-
istry by Mr Pitt in 1784, which ter-
minated a dominion of nearly a century
by the Whigs, and introduced one of
half the time by the Tories. But in
its political and social results it was
far more important than Mr Pitt's tri-
umph. It induced a transference not
merely of the reins of government from
one party to another, but of political
power from one class in society to an-
other. It terminated the long-estab-
lished dominion of the landed and
commercial aristocracy, and vested it
in the class of capitalists, shopkeepers,
and small householders. It closed the
sway of the interests of production,
whether in land or manufactures, and
created that of buying and selling.
Thence has ensued an entire change
in our whole domestic policy, both in
relation to agriculture and manufac-



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