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or years even, may not see a harbour in the British
Isles. They are plying upon profitable voyages
with chance cargoes between ports remote from
us by thousands of miles. And it was this great
floating reserve — this volume of ' ' loose tonnage ' '
as it is called — upon which we were able to draw
in our time of need, saving the vast population
of these islands from starvation during the acutest
stage of the submarine warfare, besides rendering
essential aid to our Allies. An example was given
some time ago by the late Sir Douglas Owen of a
typical tramp voyage, during which a steamer, on
her first voyage, went twice round the world.
Leaving Glasgow in ballast for Philadelphia, she
there loaded up jvith cases of oil. These .were
o



210 The Sea Traders

destined for Japan, and, in order to save Canal
dues, the vessel travelled via the Cape. In Japan
she picked up a cargo of rice, and took it to
Brisbane, in Australia. From Brisbane she sailed
to Tasmania, and thence back to Bombay, whence
she proceeded to Burmah, where she loaded up
with a cargo for Buenos Ay res. From Buenos
Ayres she rounded Cape Horn with a cargo for
Chile ; and thence she sailed in ballast for San
Francisco and Portland, Oregon. Here she took
on board a cargo for Japan. From Japan she
went to Java, and from Java she set sail for home
again with a cargo of sugar for Greenock. Such
was a representative voyage of one of these tramp
steamers of which the bulk of our mercantile
marine consists, depending for profitable employ-
ment largely upon the shrewdness and intuition
and opportunity-seizing powers of the individual
owner.

In the foregoing life-stories of the great sea
traders and their companions ashore we have seen
how the sea genius of our race created the ship-
ping industry. What it has meant to that little
England, obscure and conquered, of our first
chapter the following figures show. In the year
before the War there poured into these islands
about fifty-five million tons of imports — imports
having a total money value of nearly £770,000,000.
In the same year, from the erstwhile island home
of John Philpot and his meagre two and a half
million compatriots, there were exported a hundred



The Great Expansion 211

million tons of goods, of a total money value of
£635,000,000. Apart from this, as we have said,
more than half of the world's trade was carried
in British ships, and actually one-third of the
total sea trade between foreign countries trading
with each other. Three remarks are prompted by
these figures. In the first place, in our depreciated
currency of post-war days these values would have
to be nearly doubled ; in the second place, the dis-
proportion between the weights of imports and ex-
ports is due mainly to the fact that 75 per cent, of
our exports consisted of coal, a heavy commodity,
the value of which was only £54,000,000, or about
one-twelfth of the value of our exports ; in the
third place, the visible imports and exports were
more than balanced by the invisible exports in the
form of freights of shipping, the services rendered
abroad by British banks and insurance offices,
and by the earnings of British capital invested
in foreign countries.

Statistics are dull, but the figures which have
been given prove on examination to be eloquent.
They explain in large measure how forty-seven
million people can now live in the British Isles,
where nine hundred years ago only two and a half
millions existed. The standard of employment
of the British people depends upon the volume of
foreign trading in all its various forms and on
the cheap and efficient activities of British
merchant shipping. Day by day a process of
exchange goes on : in return for British services



212 The Sea Traders

— the making and carrying of goods, the arrang-
ing of finance and the insurance against loss — we
receive most of the food by which we Hve and
the main part of the raw materials used in our
factories and workshops. All this business with
the outside world, since we live in an island, must
be done in ships.

Shipping is the essential industry of an island
people, and it has been the medium by which
we have prospered and assisted other nations
to prosper. An American historian — Admiral
Mahan — has borne testimony to the fruits of
British sea-power traceable to the British Navy,
which is the child of the British mercantile marine.
*' Why do English innate political conceptions of
popular representative government, of the balance
of law and liberty, prevail in North America from
the Arctic Circle to the Gulf of Mexico, from the
Atlantic to the Pacific? Because the command
of the sea at the decisive era belonged to Great
Britain. In India and Egypt administrative
efficiency has taken the place of a welter of
tyranny, feudal struggle and bloodshed, achieving
thereby the comparative welfare of the once harried
populations. What underlies this administrative
efficiency.'' The British Navy. . . . What, at the
moment the Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed,
insured beyond peradventure the immunity from
foreign oppression of the Spanish-American
colonies in their struggle for independence? The
command of the sea by Great Britain, backed by



The Great Expansion 213

the feeble navy but imposing strategic position of
the United States, >vith her swarm of potential
commerce destroyers which a decade before had
harassed the trade of even the mistress of the
seas." We might point also to the autonomous
dominions of Australia, New Zealand and South
Africa — all the fruits of sea-power. So that in
tracing the expansion of the little island which
was held under the heel of successive conquerors in
earlier centuries we are not surveying a purely
selfish movement ; in conferring blessings on our-
selves we have also blessed others.

We have laid bare the secret of the island.
It consists of its sea-power cultivated by men of
native genius from age to age. The Sea Traders
have been the pioneers of liberal thought and
action, as they have been the founders of a system
of exchange of goods and services which enables
forty-seven million people to live in a group of
islands which even in the Golden Age supported
only about one-tenth of that population. The
secret of this little island, thrown off from the side
of Europe, consists of the strength which it draws
from the sea and the influence which the sea has
had upon the development of individual character
and the creation of national characteristics
peculiarly British.



INDEX



Aberdeen, University of, founda-
tion and endowment of, 128
Acadia, 151
Adriatic, 170
Agriculture in England of Middle

Ages, 9, 15
Alexander IV, Pope, 33
Alfred the Great and sea power,

26
Allan, Alexander, 166-168
Allan, Bryce, 167, 168
Allan, James, 167, 168
Allan Line, 167-8, 183
Alps, 154
America and Atlantic steamship

service, 152, 153
North, John Cabot and, 29
Sebastian Cabot and, 30
South, Cabot's discoveries in,

31, 32
Anchors and Chain Cables Act,

199
Anderson, Arthur, story of, 173

el seq., 183
Andes, 154

Angles invade England, 3
Antwerp, Early English trade

with, 27
Aquitania, 131, 157, 170
Arctic, 154

Arkwright, Richard, 143
Armada, Spanish, 61, 69, 73
Armadale Castle, 193
Arundel Castle, 193
Ascension, 89
Ashehurst, Thomas, 30
Atlantic, 154
Australia, 154



Bahamas, The, Columbus lands

on, 28
Baltic, 154, 170

Baltic, Canynge's trade with, 23
Baltimore, Lord, founds colony of

Maryland, 104



Bank of England, foundation of,

113-115
Barbados, Earl of Carlisle granted,

105
Basra, Eldred and Fitch at, 82
Black Death, ravages of, 9
Blanket, Thomas, 21
Boadicea, 2

Bokhara, Jenkinson at, 48
Bona Confidentia, 40, 41
Bona Esperanza, 40, 41
Boston, Flemish weavers and, 21
Bourne, Messrs., of Dublin, 174
Brand, President, Donald Currie

and, 189
Brazil, Hawkins's voyages to, 39
Bridgewater Canal, 139
Bristol, cloth industry of, 21
Colston's benefactions to, 109
Cromwell and merchants of, 107
early trading history of, 20 et

seq.
formation of Merchants* Guild

at, 25
importance of, 120
levy on, for fleet, 24
merchant venturers of, 20 et

seq., 105, 107
population of, under Edward

III, 8
Thomas Blanket and authori-
ties of, 21
West Indian trade of, 107
Britannia, 151, 152, 153, 157
Britannic, 164, 171
British and North American Royal

Mail Steam Packet Co., 151
British India Steam Navigation

Co., 180
Brotherhood of St. Thomas k

Becket, 27
Brown, William, and Liverpool
and Manchester Railway, 140
Brunswick Dock, Liverpool, 138
Burns, George, and steamships,
150



215



2l6



Index



Burrough, Stephen, at Nova
Zembla, 44



Cabot, John, death of, 29
discoveries of, 28
Henry VH's grant to, 29
receives Charter from Henry
VH, 28
Cabot, Louis, 28
Cabot, Sanzio, 28
Cabot, Sebastian, 28

adventures and discoveries of,

29-32
appointed Governor of Russia

Company, 44
closing activities of, 39
Cacafuega, 67

Calais, England's loss of, 50
Caledonia, 151
Cambrian, 184
Campania, 156

Canary Islands, discovery of, 16
Canterbury, as Jute capital, 3
Canynge, John, Mayor of and
M.P. for Bristol, 22
Thomas, Lord Mayor of London,

22
William, Bristol merchant, 22
William (the Younger), story
of, 22-26
Cape of;,Good Hope, rounded by

Diaz, 28
Cape Verde, Hawkins at, 53
Carlisle, Earl of, and Barbados,

105
Carnarvon Castle, 187
Cartagena, Hawkins at, 55
Cartwright, Edward, 143
Castle Line, 187 et seq.

Union Steamship Co. amal-
gamated with, 192
Cathay, allurement of, 29, 34, 40,

72
Celtic, 170
Chancellor, Richard, voyages and

journeys of, 40-43
Charles I and Barbados, 105
and William Colston, 106
grants Charter to Liverpool,
121
Charlotte Dundas, 148
Cnarter of Privileges, granted by
Sultan, 79



Chaucer, Geoffrey, influence of,

13
Chester, Liverpool's rivalry with,

121
Chichester and Saxons, 3
Child, Josiah, and East India

Company, 95 et seq.
created baronet, 100
Child, Sir John, 100 ^
City Companies, development of,

from Guilds, 15
City of Baltimore, 162
City of Berlin, 164
City of Chester, 164
City of Glasgow, 162
City of Manchester, 162
City of New York, 165
City of Paris, 163, 165
City of Richmond, 164
City of Washington, 162
Clermont, 149
Clyde, River, development of,

130
Colchester, time of Edward III, 8
Collins, E, K., and trans-Atlantic

service, 153-4
Colquhoun, Patrick, of Glasgow,

132, 133, 134
London river police and, 133
Colston, Edward, story of, 103

et seq.
as Governor of Christ's Hos-
pital, 108
benefactions of, 108, 109
death of, 109
William, 106
Columbia, 151
Columbus, Christopher, lands on

the Bahama Islands, 28
Company of Merchant Adven-
turers, foundation of, 27
Connecticut, foundation of, 104
Corn trade of Liverpool, 136 et

seq.
Cotton trade of Manchester, 143
Coventry, time of Edward III, 8
Cressy, battle of, 13
Cromwell, Oliver, and Bristol

merchants, 107
at Liverpool, 122
Cunard Line, development of,

152, 183
Donald Currie and, 185, 186
foundation of, 151



Index



217



Cunard, Samuel, story of, 148-152
Cunard, Sir Edward, 156
Currie, Donald, story of, 182 el
seq.



Dane, 184

Danes, invasion of England by,
3
struggle for predominance with
Saxons, 4
Darien, Isthmus of, Paterson's
projected colony on. 111, 112,
113, 115, 116
Davis, John, and North-West
passage, 72
as merchant seaman, 76
Davis Strait, discovery of, 31, 72
Denmark, treaty with Henry VI,
23
treaty with Henry VII, 27
Denny, William, 168
Deptford, dock-yard established
at, 38
Trinity House established at,
38
Deulschland, 157
Diaz, Bartholomew, rounds Cape

of Good Hope, 28
Dover Castle, 188, 193
Dragon, 65

Drake, Sir Francis, as merchant
seaman, 76
at Ternate, 90
captures the San Philip, 87
circumnavigates the globe, 68
death of, 62
knighted, 68
life-story of, 64 et seq
quarrels with Hawkins, 62
returns to England, 56
Seaman's Relief Fund and, 60
slave trade and, 54
Spanish Armada and, 69
Dunotlar Castle, 189
Durfoorth, Cornelius, 40



East India Company, Darien
Isthmus project and, 116
history of, 87 el seq.
John Gladstone and, 138
steamships and, 150 172, 173,
175, 176, 177



East Indies, expeditions to,
88
John Gladstone and, 138
Eastern trade, foundations of,

76 et seq.
Edinburgh Castle, 188, 193
Edinburgh, Perth and Duncjec
Railway Co., John Gladstone
and, 140
Edward Bonavenlure, 40, 41, 44,

88
Edward III, English independence
and, 8
" Lord of the Four Seas," 15
military victories of, 13
remits fine on Thomas Blanket,

21
successful rule of, 12
trade and commerce under, 13
Edward VI, and Cabot's North-

East Passage expedition, 40
Egbert, King, 3, 4
Eldred, John, expeditions of, 81,

82, 83, 84
Elizabeth, 66

Elizabeth, Queen, and Drake, 68
and John Hawkins, 54, 58
and Philip IV., 58
and Raleigh, 72
grants Charter to India mer-
chants, 88
sea power and, 51 et seq.
Sultan of Turkey and, 79
Elphinstone, Bishop, andj Aber-
deen University, 128
Elphinstone, William, of Glasgow,

128
Emigrant service, Inman Line

and, 163
England, agriculture in Middle
Ages in, 9, 15
as Roman colony, 2
birth of independent nation in, 8
Black Death in, 9
conditions of life in Middle

Ages in, 9, 10
Flemish handicraftsmen settle

in, 12
Henry VII and, 26
Norman barons in, 6
population and revenue of,

under Elizabeth, 58
population of, in Middle Agesf 9
under Edward III, 8



2l8



Index



Elruria, 156
Ewart, William, 137

Fasque, John Gladstone at, 141

Fitch, Ralph, travels of, 81-86

Flakefield, William, of Glasgow,
129, 130

Flanders, commerce with, under
Henry VII, 27

Flemish handicraftsmen settle in
England, 12, 21

Florence, Society of English Mer-
chants at, 33

Frobisher, Martin, and John
Hawkins, 62, 76
as merchant seaman, 76
Labrador expedition of, 72

Fulton, Robert, and the Clermont,
149

Galeka, 193

Garth Castle, 190

General Ship Owners' Society, 197,

198
Germany and trans- Atlantic trade,

157
Gibson, Walter, of Glasgow, 129
Gilbert Humphrey, as merchant
seaman, 76
expedition to North America, 71
half-brother to Raleigh, 71
M.P. for Plymouth, 60
Gladstone, John, and develop-
ment of Liverpool, 136-139
as Member of Parliament, 140
death of, 141
Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee

Railway and, 140
endowment of churches by, 140,

141
hospital at Leith built by, 141
Liverpool and Manchester Rail-
way Co. and, 140
recommended for baronetcy,

141
Royal Bank of Edinburgh and,
140
Gladstone, William Ewart, 137,

191
Glenart Castle, 193
Glasgow, as rival to Bristol, 106
Chamber of Commerce founded
at, 132



Glasgow, development of, 128
et seq.
merchant venturers of, 128 et

seq.
tobacco trade of, 130-132

Goa, English traders at, 84

Godfrey, Michael, 115

Golden Hind, 66, 67, 68

Gothland, 188

Great Britain, expansion of, 204
et seq.

Great Eastern, 156, 164, 170

Great Liverpool, 176

Great Western, 149, 151, 152

Green Book, the, 196

Greenland, discovery of, 72

Grenville, Sir Richard, 76

Gresham, Sir John, 44

Gresham, Sir Thomas, 113, 114

Guilds, privileges of, under Ed-
ward III, 15

Guion Line, 170



Hakluyt, and Chancellor, 41

on Levant trade, 78, 79
Harborne, William, at Constan-
tinople, 79
Hargreaves, James, 143
Harland and Wolfl, 164, 169, 170,

171
Hawarden Castle, 191
Hawkins, Capt. William, voyaegs

of, to Brazil, 39, 51
Hawkins, John, 39, 51
Hawkins, John (the Younger),
and Levant Company, 80
and Spanish Armada, 61
appointed Treasurer to Navy,

60
as merchant seaman, 57, 76
death of, 62
early voyages of, 51
engaged in slave trade, 51, 53
expeditions of, 53-62
Philip IV and, 54, 59
Queen Elizabeth and, 54, 58
Hawkins, Richard, captured by

Spaniards, 62
Hawkins, William (the Younger),

57
Hector, 89

Heligoland, Cabot's expedition
at, 41



Index



219



Henry, Alexander (Junior), and
development of Manchester,
146
Member of Parliament, 145
Henry, Alexander (Senior), and

Philadelphia, 142
Henry, Samuel, Manchester cotton

trade and, 143-6
Henry VI and treaty with Den-
mark, 23
and William Canynge, 23, 24
grants Charter to Cabot, 28
Henry VH, Charter granted to
Cabot by, 28
England under, 28
treaty with Denmark, 27
Henry VHI, and merchant adven-
turers, 31, 37
and North-West Passage, 35
and the sirloin, 33
dockyards and harbours and,

38
Navy and, 38
Robert Thorne and, 35
Heptarchy, the, 3
Hercules, 82

Hewett, Sir William, 77
Hibernian, 168
Himalaya, 178
Hindosian, 176, 177
Hispaniola, John Hawkins and,

52
Hudson Bay, 72
Hudson Straits, discovery of, 32

Frobisher and, 72
Hull, Flemish weavers and, 21



Iberia, 174

Iceland, 188

Inchcape, Lord, 180, 181

India, expeditions to, 88

Inman Line, 170

Inman, William, story of, 160

et seq.
Innocent III, Pope, and Society

of English merchants, 33
Ismay, Thomas, 166, 169



Jamaica, foundation of colony at,

105
James I and Raleigh, 74, 75
India Company's Charter and,90



Jenkinson, Anthony, journey of»

across Russia, 44, 45, 46, 47'

48, 70
Jesus of Lubeck, 52, 55, 56
John, King, England's salvation

through, 5
influence on English history of

death of, 6
Johnson, Thomas, and Liverpool,

123, 127
Judith, 54, 56, 64
Jutes invade England, 2



Kaiser Wilhelm II, 157

Kangaroo, 162

Kenilworih Castle, 187

Kent, Jutes in, 3

Keymiss, Captain, and Raleigh's

Guiana expedition, 75
Kiel Canal, opening of, 191
Kildonan Castle, 193
Kinfauns Castle, 193
Kingsmill, 138
Kossuth, Louis, Alexander Henry

and, 145



Labrador, Frobisher and, 72

Sebastian Cabot and, 30, 31, 32
Lancaster, James, expedition to

India, 88, 89
La Plata, Cabot and, 32
Leedes, William, and Tripoli ex-
pedition, 81
journey across India of, 84, 85
Leith, Hull and Hamburg Steam

Packet Co., 187
Leith, John Gladstone builds

hospital at, 141
Lesseps, Ferdinand de, and Suez

Canal, 179
Levant and Turkey Chartered

Company, 78, 80
Darien Isthmus project and,

116
East India Company and, 100
pioneer agents of, 80 et seq.
Lexington, 145
Leyland, Thomas, 137
Lima, Drake at, 67
Lincoln, time of Edward III, 8
Liverpool, as rival to Bristol, 106
•'Brunswick Dock, at, 138



220



Index



Liverpool, Corn Exchange, open-
ing of, 138
corn trade of, 136 et seq.
development of, as sea port, 120

et seq., 139, 185
Queen's Half-tide Dock at, 125-

127, 138
slave trade and, 137
Liverpool and Manchester Rail-
way, opening of, 140
Liverpool Old Docli, creation of,
125-127
filling up of, 138
Llandovery Castle, 193
Lloyd's Association of Under-
writers, 195
Lloyd, Edward, story of, 195 et

seq.
Lloyd's List, 203
Lloyd's Register, history of, 195

et seq.
Lofoden Islands, Cabot's expe-
dition at, 41
Lombard merchants and England,

8
London, and Saxons, 3

as largest town under Edward

III, 8
markets of, under Edward III,

14
under Edward III, 14
Lucania, l56
Liisitania, 157

Lyon, Archibald, of Glasgow, 128,
129



Macaulay on England after the

Conquest, 4
Macham, discovery of Madeira by,

15
Mclver, David, 150
McKean, McClarty and Lamond,

Messrs., 167
Madeira, discovery of, 15
Magellan and Pacific, 66
Magellan Straits, Drake in, 66
Mahan, Admiral, on sea power,

212
Manchester, Alexander Henry and

141-146
development of cotton trade

in, 143
Marconi and Lucania, 157



Marigold, 66

Mary and Frances, 107

Mary and John of Bristol, 23

Mary Canynge of Bristol, 23

Mary of Guildford, 35

Mary, Queen of Scots, plot against

Elizabeth of, 60
Mary Redcliffe of Bristol, 23
Maryland Colony founded by

Lord Baltimore, 104
Massachusetts, foundation of, 104
Matthie, Hugh, and steamships,

150
Maiirelania, 157
Melville, Mr., and steamships,

150
Mercer, John, Scottish pirate, 17,

18
Merchant Taylors' School, Robert

Thorne and, 36
Mersey, development of, 125, 120
Middleton, Henr>', and East India

Company, 89, 90
at Ternate, 90
captured at Mocha, 91
death of, 93
knighted, 90
Portuguese and, 91
Minion, 56
Moscow, Chancellor at, 43



Napier, Robert, and steamships,

150
National Line, 170
Netherlands and sea power, 95, 96
New Brunswick, Cabot and, 30
New Haven, foundation of, 104
New Plymouth and Pilgrim

Fathers, 104
Newberi, John, travels of, 81-85
Newfoundland, discovery of, 28

Mary of Guildford at, 35
Nombre di Dios, Drake at, 65
Norman, 184
Normans, invasion of England

by, 4
Norris, Richard, 126
Norsemen, invasion of England

by, 3
North, Roger, and Guiana colony,

75
North America, Glasgow trade

with, 130



Index



221



North-East Passage, Cabot's ex-
pedition to, 40
Nortli-West Passage, Henry VIII
and, 35
John Davis and, 72
Robert Thome and, 34, 35,

39, 49
Sebastian Cabot and, 29, 30,
34
Norwich, time of Edward III, 8
Nova Scotia, Cabot and, 30
Nova Zambia, Burrough at, 44



Oceanic, 169, 170
Olympic, 131, 170
Orders in Council, John Glad-
stone and, 137
Oriental, 176

Ormuz, as trading centre, 82
Osborne, Sir Edward, and Eastern
trade, 76, 78
story of, 77, 78

P. & O. Banking Corporation, 181
P. & O. Line, development of, 174

et seq.
Pacific, 154
Pacific Ocean, Drake's view of,

66
Parsons, Sir Charles, and turbine

engines, 157
Paterson, "William, and Isthmus
of Panama, 111, 112, 113
establishes National Bank, 113-

115
story of, 110, 111
union with Scotland and, 118,

128
William III and, 117
Patten, Thomas, and Mersey

navigation, 126
Pelican, 66
Pembroke Castle, 191
" Peninsular Steam Navigation,"

174
Persia, 154
Pevensey, landing of Normans

at, 4
Phihp IV and John Hawkins, 54,
59
and Queen Elizabeth, 58
Philipps, Sir Owen, 192



Philpot, Master John, as typical

merchant of Edward Ill's

time, 12, 14
life-story of, 16-19
Philpot Lane, origin of name of, 19
Picard, Harry, entertains four

kings, 13
Pilgrim Fathers, the, and New

Plymouth, 104
Poictiers, battle of, 13
Price, Dr., and triple-expansion

engines, 157, 166

Queen's Half-tide Dock, Liver-
pool, 138

Raleigh, Sir Walter, as merchant
adventurer, 69, 70, 76
life-story of, 70-75

Red Book, The, 197

Red Dragon, 89

Richard II, deputation from City
of London to, 16

Richardson Brothers, Messrs.,
161

Rio de la Hacha, Hawkins at, 53,
54

Roe, Thomas, appointed am-
bassador to the East, 93, 94

Romans in Britain, 2

Rome, decay of, 2

Royal Bank of Edinburgh, John
Gladstone and, 140

Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. and
Union-Castle Line, 192

Russia Company, Darien Isthmus
project and, 116 ^
formation of, 44
pioneer agents of, 44, 80

Sampson, Tlie, 35

San Juan de Ulloa, Hawkins at,

55
San Philip, 87
Savannah, 149
Saxons invade England, 3

struggle for predominance with

Danes, 4
Scotia, 155

Scotland, union with, 117, 118
Scottish Parhament and Paterson,

118



222



Index



Sea Power, Alfred the Great and,
26
England's early invaders and,

3
Great Britain and, 212, 213
Henry VII and, 26
influence of, on Early English

history, 6, 7, 8
Mahan on, 212
Netherlands and, 96
Normans and, 4
Queen Elizabeth and, 51 el seq,
Seaforth, John Gladstone endows

church at, 141
Servia, 156, 165
Ship Owners' Registry, 197
Sierra Leone, John Hawkins and,

52
Sirius, 149

Slave Trade, Drake and, 54
John Hawkins and, 51
Liverpool and, 125, 137
Sluys, battle of, 10, 13, 15
Smythe, Sir Thomas, and East

India Companj% 94
Society of English Merchants at

Florence, 33
South Africa, Donald Currie and,

188
Spain, power of, under Philip IV,
58
Sebastian Cabot and, 31, 32
Spert, Sir Thomas, and Cabot's
Labrador expedition, 31, 32
Staper, Richard, and Edward

Osborne, 78, 79
St. Andrew's Church, Liverpool,
John Gladstone and, 140, 141
Stevens, John, and screw pro-
peller, 161
Stirling Castle, 187
St. Lawrence River, Mary of

Guildford in, 35
St. Mary Redclifle, Bristol, 25
Storey, James, and Tripoli ex-
pedition, 81
turns Jesuit at Goa, 84
Strange, James (Lord Stanley),

and Liverpool, 121
Suez Canal, construction of, 178,

179
Sumatra, Lancaster's expedition
at, 89
Middleton at, 90



Susan, 89

Sutherland, Sir Thomas, 180
Sivan, 65
Sydney, 154

Symington, and first steam-
ship, 148



Tanlallon Castle, 187, 189, 191
Ternate, Drake at, 90

Middleton at, 90
Thomas, John, 30
Thorne, James, of Colchester, 33
Thome, John, of Reading, 33
Thorne, Robert, of St. Albans, 33
Thorne, Robert (the Elder), of

Bristol, and Cabot, 34
appointed Admiral of England,

34
knighted by Ferdinand of Spain,

33
Thorne, Robert (the Younger),

North-West Passage and,

39-49
story of, 32-36
Thorne, William, of Reading, 33
Titanic, 11 Q
Tobacco, Glasgow trade in, 130-


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