Archibald Little.

Intimate China. The Chinese as I have seen them online

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I UK WAV IN.







NTIMATE

The Chinese as I have
seen them. ^ By Mrs.
Archibald Little, Author
of ^ Jilarriage iii Chiita

^-^^11-^^ ^^m^^l^^^ v^^^J-^^
-^.With 1 20 Illustrations^




HUTCHINSON i£ CO.
Paternoster Row, London • • 1899



•p.




PRINTED BY

HAZELL, WATSON, AND VINEY, L15.

LONDON AND AYLESBURY.



707

L7ZX



CONTENTS



1^



PRELUDE.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS.



PAGE

Arriving in Shanghai. — My First Tea-season. — Inside a Chinese Citj'. —

Shangliai Gardens. — In the Romantic East at last ! . . . . i



CHAPTER I.

1 ON THE UPPER Y.\NGTSE.

I

Boat-travel. — Vegetation. — Trackers. — Terrace of the Sun. — Gold
, Diamond Mountain. — Meng Liang's Ladder. — Great Szechuan Road.

— Steamer Voyage. — Chinese Hades. — Caves ..... 31
J
H

CHAPTER n.

A LAND JOURNEY.

>; Large Farmsteads. — Wedding Party. — Atoning for an Insult. — Rowdy
-I Lichuan. — Old-fashioned Inn. — Dog's Triumphal Progress. — Free

j^ Fight. — Wicked Music. — Poppy-fields. — Bamboo Stream . . 58

cc

III
OQ



CHAPTER HL

LIFE IN A CHINESE CITY.

Arrangement of a Chinese House. — Crowd in Streets. — My First Walk
in Chungking City. — ^Presents. — Cats, Rats, and Eggs. — Paying a
Call.— Ladies Affectionate. — Shocked at European Indecency. —
Cost of Freight. — Distance by Post. — Children's Pleasures. — Pre-
cautions during Drought. — Guild Gardens. — Pretty Environs. —
Opium Flowers, and Smokers. — Babble of Schools. — Chinese
Girl-child ............ 74






Contents



CHAPTER IV.

HINDRANCES AND ANNOYANCES.

PAGE

Sulphur Bath. — Rowdy Behaviour. — Fight in Boat. — Imprisonment for
letting to Foreigners. — Book-keeper in Foreign Employ beaten. —
Customs Regulations. — Kimberley Legacy. — Happy Consul. — Un-
just Z//('/« Charges. — Foreigners massacred. — Official Responsibility 98

CHAPTER V.

CURRENT COIN IN CHINA.
Taels. — Dollars. — Exchange. — Silver Shoes.— Foreign Mints . . . 120

CHAPTER VI.

FOOTBINDING.

Not a Mark of Rank. — Golden Lilies. — Hinds' Feet. — Bandages drawn
tighter. — Breaking the Bones. — A Cleft in which to hide Half a
Crown. — Mothers sleep with Sticks beside them. — How many
die. — How many have all their Toes. — Feet drop off. — Pain
till Death. — Typical Cases. — Eczema, Ulceration, Mortification. —
General Health affected 134

CHAPTER VIL

ANTI-FOOTBINDING.

Church Missions Action. — American Mission's Action. — T'ien Tsu Hui. —
Chinese Ladies' Drawing-room Meeting.— Suifu Appeal. — Kang,
the Modern Sage. — Duke Kung. — Appeal to the Chinese People . 145

CHAPTER Vni.

THE POSITION OF WOMEN-

Official Honours to Women. — Modesty. — Conjugal Relations. — -Business

Knowledge. — Opium-smoking. — Typical Women .... 164

CHAPTER IX.

BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES.

Missing Bride. — Wedding Reception. — Proxy Marriage. — Servants'
Weddings. — Love for Wives. — Killing a Husband. — Wifely Affec-
tion. — Chinese Babies. — Securing a Funeral ..... 184

vi



-^ Contents



CHAPTER X.

CHINESE MORALS.



I'AGE



How Chinese look upon Shanghai. — A Viceroy's Expedient. — Method of
raising Subscriptions. — Deserving Deities. — Trustworthiness. —
Hunan Hero. — -Marrying English Girls ...... 197



CHAPTER XI.

SUPERSTITIONS.

Fung shui. — Devastating Eggs. — Demon Possession. — Sacred Trees. —
Heavenly Silk.— Ladder of Swords. — Preserving only Children.
— God of Literature on Ghosts. — God of War. — Reverence for
Ancestors 211

CHAPTER XH.

OUR M I S S I O N .\ R I E S .

European Prejudice. — French Fathers. — Italian Sisters. — Prize-giving.

— Anti-Christian Tracts. — Chinese Saints and Martyrs . . . 230

CHAPTER XHI.

UP-COUNTRY SHOPPING AND UP-COUNTRY V/AYS.

Buying Curios. — Being stoned.— Chinese New Year. —Robbers. — Pro-
testing Innocence.^Doing Penance. — Medicines .... 253

CHAPTER XIY.

SOLDIERS.

Tiger Soldiers.— Woosung Drill. — General's Gallantry.— Japanese War.

—Admiral Ting.— Dominoes with a Sentry. — Viceroy's Review . 269

CHAPTER XV.

CHINESE STUDENTS.

Number of Degrees. — Aged Bachelors. — Up for Examination.— Neces-
sary Qualifications.— Crowding.— Scarcity of Posts.— Chinese Dress 292

vii



Contents



CHAPTER XVI.
A father's advice to his son.



I'AGE



Tseng Kuo Fan. — " Neither envious nor fawning.'" — Repose of Manner.
— Cultivation of Land. — Early Rising, Diligence in Business, and
Perseverance. — Dignity. — Family Worship — Reading . . . 317

CHAPTER XVH.

BUDDHIST MONASTERIES.

Monastery near Ichang. — For tlie Dead. — Near Ningpo. — Buddhist
Service. — T'ien Dong. — Omi Temples. — Sai King Shan. — Monas-
tery of the Particoloured Cliff ....... 327

CHAPTER XVH I.

a CHINESE ORDINATION.

Crowd. — Nun?. — Final Shaving. — Woven Paces. — Burning Heads. —

Relationships. — A Living Picture ....... 350

CHAPTER XLX.

THE SACRED MOUNTAIN OF O.MI.

Luncheon with a Chief Priest. — Tigers. — Mysterious Lights. — The View

of a Lifetime.— Pilgrims. — Glory of Buddlia. — Unburied Priests . 362

CHAPTER XX.

CHINESE SENTIMENT.

In Memory of a Dead Wife. — Of a Dear Friend. — Farewell Verses. —

..-Esthetic Feeling. — Drinking Song. — Music. — Justice to Rats . . 383

CHAPTER XXI.

A SU.MMER TRIP TO CHINESE TIBET.

Drying Prayerbooks Mountain. — Boys' Paradise. — Lolo Women. — Salt-
carriers. — Great Rains. — Brick-tea Carriers. — Suspension Bridge. —
Granite Mountains. — Tibetan Bridge. — Lamas. — Tibetan Women. —
Caravanserai at Tachienlu. — Beautiful Yovmg Men. — Lamnscrai.—
Prayers 'i — Fierce Dogs. — Dress. — Trjing for a Boat . . 396

viii



-») Contents

CHAPTER XXIT.

ARTS AND INDUSTRIES.

PAGE

Porcelain. —Bronzes. — Silver-work. — Pictures. — Architecture. — Tea. —

Silk. — White Wax.— Grass-cloth. — Ivory Fans. — Embroidery . . 425

CHAPTER XXHI.

A LITTLE PEKING PUG.
Enjoyment. — Anticipation. — Regret 446



AFFAIRS OF STATE.



PRELUDE.

PART I. C;ETTING to PEKING.

House-boat on the Peiho. ^Tientsin. — Chefoo. — A Peking Cart. — Camels.

— British Embassy. — Walking on the Walls. — Beautiful Perspectives 457

PART 11. — THE SIGHTS OF PEKING.

Tibetan Buddhism. — Yellow Temple. — Confucian Temple. — Hall of the
Classics. — Disgraceful Behaviour. — Observatory. — Roman Catholic
Cathedral. — Street Sights. — British Embassy. — Bribes. — Shams. —
Saviour of Society. — Sir Robert Hart ...... 473

CHAPTER I.

THE CHINESE EMPEROR'S :\IAGNIFICENCE.

The Emperor at the Temple of Heaven. — Mongol Princes wrestling. —
Imperial Porcelain Manufactory. — Imperial Silk Manufactory. —
Maids of Honour. — Spring Sacrifices. — Court of Feasting. — Hunting
Preserves. — Strikes. — Rowdies. — Young Men to be prayed for 493

i.x



Contents



CHAPTER II.

THE EMPRESS, THE EMPEROR, AND THE AUDIENCE.

PAGE

A Concubine no Empress. — Sudden Deaths. — Suspicions. — PrinceCh'iin.
— Emperor's Education.— His Sadness. — His Features. — Foreign
Ministers' Audience. — Another Audience. — Crowding of tlie Rabble.
— Peking's Effect on Foreign Representatives . . . . -515

CHAPTER III.

SOLIDARITY, CO-OPERATION, AND IMPERIAL FEDERATION.

Everybody guaranteed by Somebody Else. — Buying back Office. —
Family Responsibilities. — Guilds. — • All Employes Partners. —
Antiquity of Chinese Reforms. — To each Province so many Posts.
— Laotze's Protest against Unnecessary Laws. — Experiment in
Socialism. — College of Censors. — Tribunal of History. — Ideal in
Theory ............ 532

CHAPTER IV.

BEGINNINGS OF REFORM.

Reform Club. — Chinese Ladies' Public Dinner. — High School for Girls.
— Chinese Lady Doctors insisting on Religious Liberty.— Reformers'
Dinner. — The Emperor at the Head of the Reform Party. — Revising
Examination Papers. — Unaware of Coming Danger. — Russian
Minister's Reported Advice ........ 545

CHAPTER V.

THE COUP d'etat.

Kang Yii-wei. — China Mail's Interview. — Beheading of Reformers. —
Relatives sentenced to Death. — Kang's Indictment of Empress. —
Empress's Reprisals. — Emperor's Attempt at Escape. — Cantonese
Gratitude to Great Britain. — List of Emperor's Attempted Reforms.
— Men now in Power. — Lord Salisbury's Policy in China . . 570



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



The Way in ... ... ... ... ... Frontispiece

Shanghai from the River
Shanghai Creek, with Drawbridge ...
Tea-garden in Shanghai Chinese City
Porters waiting for Work

The Bubbling Well

Soochow Creek, Shanghai

Guild Garden at Kiangpei

Pavilion in Country Gentleman's Garden

Street Scene

Wheelbarrow ...

Bow of Travelling-boat

Entrance to Yangtse Gorges ...

Trackers

Poling a Boat up a Rapid

In the Niukan Gorge ...

White Emperor's Temple, looking down the Gorge of the F

Pool, or Bellows Gorge ...
New and Glorious Rapid

Tree moved loo Yards by Landslip that formed New Rapid
Iron Cover of Bottomless Well

At Fengtu ... ...

Free School

Poppies and Terraced Rice-fields

Chungking, Commercial Capital of Western China

Dinner Party in the Garden of a Member of the Hanlin College

Cloth spread in Compliment to Europeans
Morning Toilette

Outside Governor's Residence in Chungking
Country House near Kiukiang
A Chinese Country Club, or Guild Garden
A Hot Day



earsome



-White



7
1 1

15

18

22

25
29

30
32
33
36
43
48

49
53
54
55
56
67
71
75

78
80

83
86

94
95



List of Illustrations



Market Street outside City

The Oldest Official in the Province of Szechuan

Giving Evidence in a Court of Justice

Chinese Mode of Salutation ...

Chinese Roman Catholics of Many Generations

Woman's Natural Foot, and another Woman's Feet bound to 6 Inches

Woman's Natural Foot, and another Woman's Feet bound to 4| Inches

Chinese Roman Catholic Burial-ground

Family of Literati, Leaders in the Anti-footbinding Movement in the

West of China
Bridge near Soochovv ...

Memorial Arch leading to Confucius" Grave ...

A Country House Party
Foot Shuttlecock
Wedding Procession ...
New Kvveichovv, built by Order
Memorial Arch ...
Shoes to mend ...

Ichang from the City Wall, Hall of Literature, and Pyramid Hill
Monastery

The 564 Images of Hangchovv

Pavilion of the Moon in Grounds of God of War's Temple
Missionary Group at our House-warming ...
Soochow, with Mission Church
Temple to God of War, Yiinyang
Colossal Gilded Buddha
Punch and Judy
Stone Animals at General's Grave. A Peasant seated on one with

Straw Hat ...
Entrance to Fairies' Temple, Chungking
Play at a Dinner Party in a Guildhall
Audience at a Play in a Guildhall

Junk

Captain of Chinese Gunboat

Soldier ...

Soldier ...

Gunboat Soldiers

Soldiers ...

Temple of God of Literature

Map of China, showing Chief E.xamination Centres

Ovitside Confucius' Grave

Approach to Confucius' Grave

Fortress of Refuge, Country House, and Memorial Arch

Near Ningpo

•Salisburia adiantifolia



List of Illustrations



PACE

Entrance to Monastery ... ... ... ... 343

Buddhist Images cut in Clifts on tlie Kiver Ya ... ... 347

At Fengtu, Chinese Hades ... ... ... ... ... 351

Begging Priest, once a General ... ... ... ... ... ... 359

Jack (Long-haired Shantung Terrier) ... ... ... ... ... 365

Sacred Tiger ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 367

Great Precipice otJMount Omi ... ... ... ... ... ... 369

Priest and Pilgrims on Edge of Omi Precipice ... ... ... ... 373

Cloud Effects on Mount Omi ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 377

Guard-house near the Arsenal ... ... ... ... ... ... 384

Roof and Roof-end at Chungking ... ... ... ... ... ... 387

Bridge at Hangchovv ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 389

Bridge and Causeway on West Lake ... ... ... ... ... 395

Sacred Sai King Mountain ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 397

Brick-tea Carriers on the Great Brick-tea Road ... ... ... ... 403

Caravanserai at Tachienlu ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 410

In a Chungking Guild-house ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 431

Packing Tea ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 435

Chinese Hydraulic Apparatus ... ... ... ... ... ... 439

Peking Pug (.Short-haired) ... ... ... ..._ ... ... ... 447

Peking Lion-dog (Long-haired) ... ... ... ... ... ... 451

On a Mountain Road ... ... ... 454

A Wheelbarrow Stand ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 456

Interior of Governor's Official Residence at Hangchow ... ... ... 459

Farmer and Water Buffaloes ... ..." ... ... ... ... ... 466

Paper-burning Temples ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 468

Approach to Ming Emperors' Tombs, Peking ... ... ... ... 47 1

Tomb over Banjin Lama's Clothes, built after Tibetan ]\Iodel of Marble.
Bell-like Cupola and Upper Ornaments of Gold. Inscriptions in

Devanagari Character, Sanscrit, and Chinese ... ... ... ... 477

Lotus Pond and Dagoba in Emperors Garden ... ... ... ... 483

Mountain Village, with Sham Beacon Fires to Left, Foochow Sedan-
chair in Front ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 489

Shan Ch'ing, Prince Ch'iin, and Li Hung-chang ... ... ... ... 495

Late Viceroy Tso Tsung-tang ... ... ... ... ... ... 5^5

Emperor Kwang-shii, 1875 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5'^

Prince Kung ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 523

The Great Wall 528

Incense-burner ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 ^

Country House in Yangtse Gorges ... ... ... ... ... ... 537

Kiangsi Guild-house in Chungking ... ... 540

Downward-bound Cargo-boat ... ... ... ... ... ... 54^

Bridge at Soochow ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 549

Mr. King, Manager of the Chinese Telegraph Company and Founder

of High Schools for Girls ... ... ... ... ... ... 554



List of Illustrations



Wen Ting-shih, the Reformer, Late Tutor to the Ladies of the Imperial

Household ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 563

Head Eunuch of the Empress-Dowager ... ... ... ... ... 574

Kiaochou, seized by Germany ... ... ... ... ... ... 583

British and Chinese Flags, June 15th, 1898: Town of Wei-hai-wei in

Distance ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 586

Ferry at Ichang ... ... ... ... ... ... 597

Approach to Ming Emperor's Tomb, Nanking ... ... ... ... 605



DRY STATEMENTS.

(TO BE CARRIED WITH THE READER, IF POSSIBLE.)



The Chinese Empire is rather larger than Europe.

Being on the eastern side of a great continent, it has the same
extremes of climate as are to be found in the United States.

Fruits, flowers, and crops vary in like manner.

Peking is on about the same parallel as Madrid, Chungking as
Cairo, Shanghai as Madeira.

The population of China is over ... ... ... 385 millions.

That of the British Isles in 1891 not quite ... ... 38 „

That of France in i8g6 ... ... ... ... 38;^ „

One alone of China's eighteen provinces, Kiangsu,
has over 39I ,,

The Russian nation, already extending over one-sixth of the globe,
while China only extends over a little more than one-twelfth, musters
little over 129 millions, and thus has about one-third of the Chinese
population, with about twice its territory to stretch itself in.

There is no Poor Law in China. There are no Sundays.

It is considered very unwomanly not to wear trousers, and very
indelicate for a man not to have skirts to his coat ; consequently our
European dress is reckoned by Chinese as indecorous.

Chinese begin dinner with dessert or Russian sakouska, and finish
with hot soup instead of hot coffee.

Their cooks are second only to the French ; their serving-men
surpass the Germans.

Chinese love children ; are ready to work day and night for their
masters ; and if occasion demand, to be beaten in their place, or even,
if needs be, to die for them.

In fine, although in all details unlike ourselves, a great race, with
some magnificent qualities.

7, Park Pl.ace, Sr. James's, S.W.



■"^




SHANGHAI IKOM THE RIVKK.



PRELUDE.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS.

Arriving in Shanghai. — My First Tea-season. —
Inside a Chinese City. — Shanghai Gardens. — In
the Romantic East at last !



I. Arriving in Shanghai.

IT was in the merry month of May, 1887, that I first
landed in China ; but from the first there was
nothing merry about China. It felt bitterly cold, after
passing through the tropics ; and in Shanghai one
shivered in a warm wrap, as the wind blew direct from
the North Pole straight at one's chest, till one day
it suddenly turned quite hot, and all clothes felt too
heavy. Every one almost knows what Shanghai is
like. It has been admirably described over and over
again, with its rows of fine European houses fronting

I V.



Intimate China



Online LibraryArchibald LittleIntimate China. The Chinese as I have seen them → online text (page 1 of 33)