Aristotle.

Aristotle's History of animals. In ten books online

. (page 1 of 39)
Online LibraryAristotleAristotle's History of animals. In ten books → online text (page 1 of 39)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|



Digitized



by Google



(f^ //'i.^s.aCB




HARVARD
COLLEGE
LIBRARY



Digitized



by Google



Digitized



by Google



Digitized



by Google



Digitized



by Google



Digitized



by Google



s ARISTOTLE'S ^



^^HISTOET OF ANIMAL&



//



IN TEN BOOKS.



TRANSLATED BT '

RICHARD CRESSWELL, M.A.,
ST. jouk** coixsos, oxrouo.



LONDON:
EEBBT O. BOHN, 70BE STREET. COITNT GABDEN.

1862.



I



' _^ _^j. Digitized



by Google'



[



Digitized



by Google



Digitized



by Google



Digitized



by Google



BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY.

1 TNI MISCELLANEOUS WORKS AND REMAINS Of THE REV. ROBERT



4
f

1

S

s

10
19

II

14

le

ie
11
«



Si
21



"XT



Darvard Colleoe Xibrars

noM
(r^^io^ 4?. ./V.*^c*^



ton,
ite4
Of

»

iND
>LT



id«r
ktof



mi



SI

r

81

S •da

SSp 41, ti 46. MENZEL9 HISTORY Of GERMANY. Conplete in S Toli. PcHnU, \

42. SCHLEQELS AESTHETIC AND MISCELLANEOUS WORKS.

4a. GOETHE'S WORKS. VoL IL CRemfthider of hb AntobJognphy, tad T^tcIs.]

44. SCHILLER S WORKS. Vd. IV. ["The Robbers," Tietko.- "Lore ud j
lAtripc,* aiid "Tlie Ghoit4(eer.'*] Tnnikted by IIxmbt 0. Bonn. j



Digitized



by Google




49, SCHLEQEL'S LECTURES ON MODERN HISTORY.

47. LAMARTINrS HISTORY OF THE ERENCH REVOLUTION. OF 1t4«.

4S & 50. JUNIUS'S LETTERS^ with Nptof, AMitioii^ Umf, lw4n, kc t Yolk



40, 65, 60, 55. 71. VASARI-S UVES OF THE MOST CELEBRATED PAINTERS,
SCULPTORS. AND ARCHITECTS, i:^mMl«l«4 by Mm. fpnsi, WfUi KMca.
CotnpleU in i Voto^ with Indei.



41. TAYLOR'S (JEREMY) HOLY UVINO AND OYlNa
C2. GOETHE'S WORI



^#flrail.







ftS,50.

re

€4. NEANDER'S UFE OF CHRIST

e7, 54. NEANDER'S PLANTING OF CHRISTIANITY, * AMTIGNOSTIKUS.

SO. GREGORYS (DRJ LETTERS ON THE CHRISTIAN. RIUGION.

02 * 53. JAMES* (Q. P. RJ LOUIS XIV. Coviplttofai I Yolk r§tlnUt.

06 & 70. SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS* LITERARY WPRI^v<fUb ll«iQir,S Ypl«. FtrL

00. ANDREW FULLER'S. PRINCIPAL WORKS. f^rlnU*

72. BUTLER'S ANALOGY OF RELIGION, AND SERMONS, viib Kotof, fcc
Porlrmit.

78. MISS BREMER'S WORKS. Tnadtted bv ItAM Howrrr. New EdiUmi. mfaoi.
VoL L V The Neigbboon." and other Tatek] Foti Svo. rmrinif. Z». 0^

74. NEANDER'S MEMORIALS OF CHRISTIAN LIFE IN THE EARLY AND
MIDDLE AGES (iodttding hit "Lisbk ia Dark Placw*0. Ptal Bto. Sf. C/.

75. MISS BREMER'S WORKS, by. lURT HOWnX Y«L IL *«Tbo TnMtmV*
Dmnglitert.'* PorlndL

77 <» Oa JOHN FOSTER'S UFE AND CORRESPONDENCE, cditod bf J. K.
'^ RfLAnn. laSVolnaiet. FortrmL

^ 70. BAC - '• ESSAYS. APOPHTHEGMS, WISDOM OF THE i)^NCIENTS.
NEW ATALANTIS, AND HENRY VIL, witk DiMertaiiuB aa4 Kotet.
fortrmL

! 70. GUIZOTS HISTORY OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT, tnuHlatecl
' from ibe French bj A. R. Scoilb. Wilh Index.

j 03. MISS BREMER'S WORKS, bj Ma»t Uowitt. YoL XU^ ^Tht BoM^ and
^ Strife and Fcaoe."

>^ 64. DE LOLME ON THE CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND, w. Aeeoont of the
^^ EugUih Gt>Tcmnient ; edited, with Life and Notes, bj John M*conKoon, M .P.

A^ 85. HISTORY OF THE HOUSE OF AUSTRIA, from 17W to tbo primt Um; fai
v)^ continnatkNi of com Torlrmil of Ikt prtmU Smfinr,

>y<^ 97 <» 68. FOSTER'S LECTURES, •ditad by J. S. Rtlahd. t Tolf.

80* MISS BREMER'S WORKS, by MART HOWITT. Yol lY. «*ADI«i7:Tho

H FamilTj The 8oUtary; Tbo ComXortcr{ Axel nnd Anna; and n Letter

about Suppers.**

00. SMITH'S (ADAM) THEORY OF MORAL SENTIMENTS: "nd -Km/ on
the nrst Formation of Lanpiafes." with Memoir bj Duoald Stkwakt.

01, 05. 05, 00. 10^ !03.^!p5. & 105. COWPER'S COMPLETE WORKS, MItod
bj SoirmBTi eompriting hit Poems, Correspondence, and Tmnslations, wtth
Sotithey's Memoir. WUk M Engrningo •» SiUL Complete in 8 vols.











Digitized



by Google





Wf'^J'Xjj* I. Orie»biiclitU«t. with the

«\\'';'Vxyv^ . «t Mill and Schols at foot of imre, and farallel Rcrerenctt in tk« nMUfis) alto a

avr'*'^ CriUcal Introduction and Clironolopeal Tablet. B; aa Eminmit Scholar. With

MM^ ' '"" '^






two racaimiica of Greek Manoacrinta.
with a completa Gceek and EncUan ]



Jfi

ro»t 8ro. (6aO pfra) doth. S*. U, Or.
LaiiooM to the Mow Teataatni (liO yafOi






miFOM WITH THE STANDARD UBRARY|

BARBAULO'S (MRS.) SELECTIONS FROM THE SPECTATOR. TATLER,
GUARDIAN. AND TREEHOLDER. Ja S VoU. . U. (U. per Volnnti.




BRITISH POETS, firom Milton to Kibik WHirr.. Cabinet Edition, coNi|irialng. hi a fo^(/^.

/•-^^ 'd ^^T '*""" ^^^ remarkably clear tvpe, aa aiivch matter aa tho iisty roKinica tC CC^v^rvv>

*;,v5r^3 Johnton'i Poela. CompleU in 4 VoU. rn»tispit€ti. lit. ^^^S^**^^^

''^v'^'^^'V^ CARTS TRANSLATION or DANTE. EitraehAh. 1t.U, ^^^^

:ift!A'Vv^ CATTERMOLE-S EVENINGS AT HADDON HALL tl ts^ilU BHVtvtaf* • t^^^>^^^'Pi

/iE,-*hl'?^ Steel, from lleaigna by himteir. Fostllvo. It.ii. ^ ^X^A^:»f

i^sVv'3^^ CHILUNGWORTH*S RELIGION OF PROTESTAf T8. S*. <if.




CLASSIC TALES; comariiinjc the Vicar of WakeHeld. Niubeth. fani and YlitinK sS^W-^^

Gullircr'a TmveU. »eme't Sentimental Jonrney. Sorrova of wtrter. T1ie0onei« Ss^V>i'>^^

and CoiittanUa, Cattle of Otraoto. and Ranclaa. ItMO. 7 fmirmUt, If. 0^ g^'^^^r^

DEMOSTHENES. Trawdatedby LciAJtD. F9rtrmlU tc 0^.-v\is.-J

rV'V^'/f^;4 DICKSON and MOWBRAY on poultry, Edited by Mm. Lovmii. UhHtr^

^/f^^f^^^jS ^"* ^J llABVKt. (locludiiic the Cockin-Cbina Fowl). I#.

-o A^^'/^'^'S HORACrS ODES AND EPODES. tranaUted Uterally and rhjth«icnlly by Iht Rtv.

VVr^^'^ W.Stwaci.. au.ft/. '

j'viV';,Vc^o;0 IRVING'S (WASHINGTON) WORKS. CompIrU In 10 Vols. U IK orS*. €A fir vtL

vS'i;>iv'V? JOYCES INTRODUCTION TO THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. tt.U,

»V:>rr\\";3 LAMARTINES THREE MONTHS IN POWER. Sewed «*.

^'"-^ "^ LAMARTINES POETICAL MEDITATIONS AND REUQIOUS HARMONIES,
mth Uiojtnpbinil Sketch. Portfit. CkHh. Is, U,

^^ LAWRENCE'S LECTURES ON COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. PHYSIOtDQV,
^f ZOOLOGY. AND THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN. ?lal«t. U

and Impmrod EdWan, hj
•NafhriUea. S«.





Deaerfr* Jk of ■ortthas Oj<
_ d Pop«lar MiMt. WUk ^^
Vc^ «rvAnlf •/ SOO U'oodeitUt hf Bewick. lUnrar, kt, 1», U,
^^ MILLER'S PHILOSOPHY. OF HISTORY. Third F^ition. 4 vola., U. U. mtk,
Kd MITFORD'S (MISS) OUR VILLAGE. New F^ition. milk Wmifi$^ mi kmU^
.'XK? Ftontitpitrft en 5/rcf, pilt cloth. S Volt., each 5*.
HS9 PARKES* CHEMICAL CATECHISM. New Edition. WJIA WoodenU, U.U.
ir^2 •HAKSPEARE'S PLAYS AND POEMS, fcj CnALMiia. In I Vol. St. ML
^t(\Q ■ the tame, with 40 SUH Eugr^nf^ chKh. filt odfet. I#.




.'.-.r -r. STANDARD LIBRARY CYCLOP €DIA OF POLITICAU CONSTITUTIONAL*
4*vV^ STATISTICAL AND FORENSIC KNOWLEDGE. 4 Vola,, S*. U, each.

^\'^\^JSSl Thb «Mk eaaulat •■ mnrh as tlfht ordlMry nriavM. It «•• trai p«blMie4 hi aa atliw flbaye
Aj'/V^ br Mr. Cliarlw Kalcbt, an^vr Ik* tlila af P«»Hikal DIctlMary. at £1 Ifi. Yhe CMipllat^

f''/^V7At^ Ma. Oaoaoa Loa*. te oa« af tbt matt ce«|Mi«at Kcbelart af iht iaf.

^^" V'^CI JNCLE TOM'S CABIN, vith Intradnctorr Remarki by tho Rr.T. J. Sbbihaii.
(printed in a larfe clear type, with head-lines of ConUnU). S«. td,
-»— Tlie tame, on Une paper, with 8 nm Ittntimlimu if LilCB ami OiLBRKT,
^ ^ ^ nd a Imm/i/bI ftomtltfitf hf HmcBLirr. S«. M.

^i;i>?'t^^ THE WIDE. WIDE WORLD, by Elikabstb Withbbbll. CompleU li I TdiM,
rt<^-/<.'V»>« wIM rr<mlit^tct, f^\% edfea. 8#. W.







-Thf



II



ITiM 9 kifklgJbtUk$d Engnmng$ m Slml, U,




Digitized



by Google







BOHN'S SCIENTIFIC LIBBABT.




42 k 47. MANTELL'S WONDERS Of OEOLOQY: 7lli«»it.. reriiedbyT.lUjntt g<2fltJjKl;l

JoRKs. Culourcd Geolopral Mapof Englnnd} SQK) «ood<eiita. Srok. 7««M-eaek. SzJT^/^.l

43 fc40. CARPENTER'S ZOOLOGY: rcviicd and completed to tht vnteni Wmu S^^a^Sv"!

8 voU. (nearly C<M) pn^cs nieh), 6*. each. With many Imndred Wood Eofnnagi. SoJxMW/'
44. CARPENTER'S CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY, ASTRONOMY Ik HOROLOGY. S^';!/?" >

With 181 IllMirationa. ffi^'\i>|-'-

45^54. INDEX OF DATES, comr"'^"^ - '*^ — '"*"* *-" — '*- '^ ' ' •^ -^-^ ^

HUtory of the World, from tl

in tiroparta,ronnin)roneyery , . _ .^._ ...

4Slb40. MANTELL'S MEDALS OF CREATION; or Fint LMonaisGoologyMl Ct^.%v,y^/-



Orpinic Remaius. 2 vols. 300 wood-cuta. lit.




L ByCM4BUI CW'sV^
Mid Memoir.






51. CARPENTER'S VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY AND SYSTCMATIC BOTANY.
^ew E<lition, careruily revised. 917 Wood ensraviiist. 6#.

62. DE JUSSIEirS ELEMENTS OF BOTANY. By '• ^' ^lUON. 7W

63. CARPENTER'S ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. With SiiO llluttrationi. 6«.

65. CHEVREUL ON COLOUR: iU Harmony, Contratt and AoplicatioK. By Cmj

Maetel. (Tbe onljr edition which fiTef the entire work.) Plateau'
Or. With the addition of 16 eolovred plates, 7«. 6^

66. MORPHrS GAMES OF CHESS. By J. L»wE»TMAt. Portrait

67. STAUNTON'S CHESS PRAXIS; A SUPPLEMENT TO TUB QllKS.^

PLAYER'S HANDBOOK) oootainiBg t mised Code of Cheat Uwt and ,
Morphy'a Games. 6$.
SefcSO. THE COTTON MANUFACTURE OF GREAT BRITAIN, eyfteMattcafly |
inreatipitedi with an introductory Tiew of its comporatire atatt in Koretpn
CoQUtiret. By Airouw Uat. M.D. New edition, completed to the wreeeet
time, by P. L. Sihmomds. In 3 Vols, with IM Ulnatrationt.

60. URE-S PHILOSOPHY OF MANUFACTURES; or, an EipoaitioQ efttw Padeiy

System of Great Britain. Third Kdition, continned to the prtsent timeb by P. k
SiMMOHDB, F.S.S. Double Volume (npwarda of 800 pagee), It. M.

61. ELEMENTS OF EXPERIMENTAL AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. Bv

Jabrk Hooo. HKC.S. hx. Second Edition, eoirected and eakrge< wiA
npwarda of 400 woodcnta.

BOHN'S ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY.

Vit\form witk lk$ Stah DAMO Libia ar, •I («. fr vefaaif.

1 to a. INGE'S PORTRAITS OF ILLUSTRIOUS PERSONAGES OF GREAT

BRITVILN. 8 VoU., post Sro. S40 P^trult.
0. CRUIKSHANK'S THREE COURSES AND DESSERT, with AO lUnHrmOmt,
ia PICKERINGS RACES OF MAN. With Humcrous Portrmiit, (or coloured 7«. •/.)
II, KITTO'S SCRIPTURE LANDS, AND BIBUCAL ATLAS* with M M»fi, ie.

Colonretl, 7$. 6J.




|?7|V Wc> Q uoionrew, /#. oa.

V^i^'^AS 1^ WHITE'S SELBORNE, by Sit WiLLiAM Jaeduii uid £. Jseii. dO/ee
l^^^^'T vPS £M§rmrimffit (t. Or, eoloared, fs, 6d,



K'^A.i^'j^^ ^' DIDRON'S CHRISTIAN ICONOGRAPHY. With 110 A yr a o h if fc TeL L

rcf'Vr^cTV^ 1^ REDDING ON WINES. New and Reriaed Edition, witk SO ttmuUM ITtedemU.

^^^V^'>yJ>S 16 * 16. ALLEN'S BATTLES OF THE BRITISH NAVY. NewWition. Kolvfai

KC<>i\<io^ by the Author. iV*«w«»i»*/liia ^or/r«itoon StecL t Vole.

5l]<MJ^. 17 U 18. ROME IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. KiWi Mitioi^ ta S V«to^

Wjf/(^'ji **'* **/"« ^"' f^grmnnqt, and Indei.

^T^Wt^ 10. MAXWELL'S VICTORIES Of WELUNGTON AND THE BRITISH ARMIES*

(rf^'Xt^/MSi 20. UFE OF WELUNGTON, by • An Oi.o Soloirb." compiled from the materinla %t
rV7'''rV'C?^ Manrell; with an Account of the Pnncml. 18 Mifkljf.jimiBhtd ttett Kng rmM n w *

Wcl^^y'X^ 21. MARY AND WM. HOWITTS STORIES OF ENGUSH AND FOREIGN UF^

I^kA^.//^S^ i^ BECHSTEIN-S CAGE and CHAMBER BIRDS, Indwding Swntf^ WafW««.

^^j'f/IV.V^CSS >ew Edition, greatly enlarged, nnwuront PImttt (or Cot^Mt^ 1i. U.)

ffy>f-^y^ 8S. NORWAY AND ITS SCENERY, compnains Paica'a JovnaL with fairgt AMI-
f^iVh'^^ UousandaKoadHook. Kdiied ^y THua. A'oEKaTKi, Eeq. IHik » tibSumUmm^

vN. . v^,^ V TbaBMdlkioiitotoMatpanlely.pfkala.








1^








. *



\



Dig tized by Google g



Til



Ajtalttioal Tjlbli ov Covnwn.

Book I.— The work commenees with a general reriew of
the animal kingdom, and ■everal raggestiona for a natural
arrangement of animalt in groupe» according to tiieir
external form or their mode of life, a comparieon of animala
among themselTeB, and a description of some of their habits.
Aristotle then introduces the human form, the best known
to man, as the standard of comparison to which he refers
the rest of the animal kingdom. The concluding dusters
of this book are occupied with a description of the sereral
parts of the human bodj, both internal and extemaL <

Book U. — ^In the second book the different parts of ani*
mals are described. The animals are arranged in.Tarioua
groups, Tiriparous and oriparous quadrupeds, fish, ser-
pents, birds. The onlj animala described are those with
/ re^lood : the description of the rest being reserred for the
fourth book. Their internal organs are also described; and
in the course of the book a few animals, as the ape, ele-
phant^ and chameleon, are especially noticed.

Book in. — ^The third book commences with a description
.of the internal organs, beginning with the generatiTO
system. A considerable portion of the book is deroted to
. the course of the reins; and Aristotle quotes from other
writers, as well as states the result of his own obserrations.
He then describes the nature of other constituent parts of
the body, sinews, fibres, bone^ marrow, cartilage^ naili^
hoofr, daws, horns, and, beaks of birds, hair, scales, mem*
branes,flesh,fat| blood, marrow, milk, and ike spematie fluid.
I Book iY.<— Animals without blood, and firsts the cspha-



Digitized



by Google



TIU BEKFAOl.

lopoda, are described ; tben the cnittaoeans, tes^"''^ '^lii*
nids^aeddiAiu^actiiiiaDylieniiit crabs, iDsecte. L ith

chapter the organs of sense are considered, and ds,

the voice, sleep, age, and differences of the sezei lis

are described.

Book V. — ^In the former books animals are tr^ ♦^'^ ^'^
part described with reference to their sereral pai
fifth book thej are treated as entire, and espc
regard tq their mode of reproduction. First
author treats of spontaneous reproduction, m
those animals which spring from a union of the
from this he proceeds to some detail with
different groups of animals, testacea, crustao
The book concludes with a long description o:
their habits.

; Book VI. — ^In this book the same subject ii
through' the sereral classes of birds, fish, and quadrupeds.
This account of the reproduction of animals includes also
the consideration of the seasons, climates, and ages of
animals, and how far these influence their reproduction.

Book YIL — ^The seventh book is almost entirely devoted
to the consideration of the reproduction of man, and an
account of man from his birth to his death. This book
ends abruptly, and is probably imperfect.

Book YIU. — ^In the eighth book Aristotle passes on to
the most interesting part of his ^work, the character and
habits of the whole animal world, as it was known to him.
The amount of detail which he has collected and arranged
on this subject is most interesting. He treats, first of all,
of the food of animals, of their migrations, their health and
diseases, and the influence of climate upon them.

Book DL— The subject of the eighth book is continued,
with an aeeoont of the relations in which animals stand



Digitized



by Google



PBX7A0B. IZ

to each other, and espedallj the firlendship and hoetilitj
of different species ; and tiiese are for the most part re-
ferred to the nature of their food, and their mode of pro-
caring it. The notices of fish are not so numerous as those
of other groups : this would necessarily arise from the diffip
. ealty of obsenration. At the conclusion of the book, an
essay on bees and their congeners is gifen at eonsiderabla
length.

Book X— This book, in all probability erroneouslj as-
cribed to Aristotie, is occupied with a treatise on the
canses of barrenness in the human species. It appears
to be rather a continuation of the seienth book, which ends
abruptlj; but it is well phioed at the end, as no gwraina
work of oor author.



Digitized



by Google



Digitized



by Google



PREFACE.

The following* TranBlation of Aristotle's History of An
xnals has been made from tbe text of Schneider. In a wor
of considerable difficulty it is hardly possible entirely 1
aroid errors ; but it is hoped that those which haye escape
are neither numerous nor important. The notes <
Schneider have been consulted throughout ; andinplac<
of difficulty the English translation by Taylor, the Frenc
of Camus, and the G^ennan of Strack, have been sereral
referred to. ^

The work ityelf is thft fPTrtt anripnt nrifl Hph*^^-^^-^'*^
bution^ tflLjde nce which has come dow n to n^ « mndJt
bardly possi ble, when we consider the iq ^nns irf t^^nm1ti^
i ^MS were access ible at the time,_tojDUigine a work .
more accTOite obroiratjbn. VrSin. the numerous quotatioi
in whiAour author aTails himself of the experience
his preoecessors in the same field, as well as correc
their errors, there can be no doubt that Aristotle had t
adfantage of many works which hare perished in the lap
of ages. In the Appendix to the present Tranalati
will be found the Essay of Schneider on the ioorc
whence Aristotle derived his knowledge of the animals !
deseribes; and these sourees, together with his owa ^cc



Digitized



by Google



IT PBBFACB.

/

I nke obserrations, are probably sufficient to account for the

^ correct knowledge of the hiatory of animala displayed

throughout tlie work.

It is right, perhaps, to observe in this place, that Dr.
Smith, in his Dictionary of Biography, speaks of the * His-
tory of Animals ' as partly the result of the royal liberality
of Alexailder ; and doubtless Aristotle would gladly have
introduced into his work any fresh materials which might
hare been made arailable to him either during his residence
at the Macedonian court, or by the subsequent yictories of

i Alexander in the East, if the information so obtained had

reached Athens in sufficient time to be incorporated. But

I in the first instance he would naturally use the mate-

I . rials ready to his hand in the works of his predecessors,

I and these were not few. | The animals also which he de- .

scribes are principally those of Ghreece and of the countries
with which the enterprising Gtreeks had frequent and com-
mercial intercourse. He says little of the animals of the

' interior of Asia and of India, and speaks rery cautiously of

such as he does mention ; and one who quotes his authorities

so freely would hardly hare fiuled to notice the sources of

j^ his information. ^

J^A'y The_ Btndyy or at least the^knowledge of the dassifici^on

^JjTiA animala iqppears to hare been carefully pur8uedL.in.ihe '
^y ' earlieat.period of man's history. The oldest records that "

'/^ we possess contain abundant notices of the peculiarities of

animals The Mosaic law abounds in them, in its distinc-
tions between the clean and the undean, a distinction not
then first established, but of the most remote antiquity.
Indeed it could hardly be otherwise than that men engaged
in the pursuits of agriculture and the chase should study *
the halrita of the animals that were Taluable to them, as weU
aa those which were iqurious. A study thus eommenced '



Digitized



by Google



PBSVACS. ▼

bj neeeanitj, would eyentaaUj be punned for its own take ;
and not a few would be found who would inteetigate, and,
as far asthej could, record the rarioua phenomena thej
obserred. The paintings of Egypt and tiie sculptures of
Assyria are our witnesses of the skill with which animals
and plants were drawn, and of the minute perception
of their external forms ; and the knowledge thus gained
in the ancient centres of civilisation would be sure to
circulate and increase when the intercourse with foreign
nations spread the knowledge and philosophy so acquired.

laihe writings of Homer we find that the Howledgft of
the^ anatomy of the human_body had already made, consi-
derable progressTancl the inspection of the animals ofiered
insacnSSrsanfioF fail to have added much to the gmenl
knowledge of their history. A century later, we have the
poems of Hesiod, devoted to the encouragement of agricul-
ture and rural pursuits. Pythagoms, in the seventh cen*
tury B.C., may perhaps have left no writings, but we know
that he was an eminent student and exponent of natural
phenomena. His contemporary, AlcmaK>n of Crotona, is
especially mentioned by Aristotle ; and he is eminent among
natural philosophers as the first who is said to have recom-
mended to his followers the practice of dissection. Empe*
dodes of Agrigentum left a work on the phenomena of na-
ture, of which a few fragments still remain, and there were
also others who, if they did not enter into the details of
what we now callnatural history, treated generally of the
nature of things, and opened the field to those who would
study the subject in its particular parts. -The empire
of Persia was still the dominant power, and was carrying
the civilization of the ,East to every part of the known
world when Ctesias wrote his great works, of which, un-
happil/i only a few fragments remain. He described not



Digitized



by Google



onlj the Ikiitoiyof his owniime, but also the natural hiatorj
ef Persia and of India, and thai probably with more accu«-
imgr than has been usuaUj attributed to him. India he had
not Tisited personallj, so that he could onlj describe it
lirom the information of others ; but this implies that he
mm not alone in the studies which he devoted to natural
objects. With such predecessors and aided hj his own
aeate obserrations, we need not wonder that Aristotle pro-
doeed a work whidi has oyer been admired hj naturalists,
nd must contioue to rise in their estimation the longer
it is in their hands.

The Index to the present Tolume has been formed on the
basis of that of Schneider, and considerable pains hare been
taken to add as many names as possible from other sources,
eqtedallj the Index of Strack, and Kulb*s recent translation
of the History of Animals, both of which contain identifica-
tknsof a great many animals. A few identifications have
also been added from Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, as well as



Online LibraryAristotleAristotle's History of animals. In ten books → online text (page 1 of 39)