Aristotle.

Aristotle's History of animals. In ten books online

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on tiie surface, as the patella and nerita, originate in holee
in the rocks. All these reach maturi^ very soon, espe-
cially the purpur» and peetens, for they are matured in one
year.

9. Very small white cancri are produced in some of the
testacea, especially in the mye that inhabit muddy places,
and next to this in the pinnn those which are called Pjjjuio-
ter»$ they occur also in the peetens and limnostrea. Theee
animals apparently never grow; and the fishermen say that
theyare jnx>duced at the same time as the creatures thcrr
inhabit The peetens di^pear for some time in the sanoL
and sodo the purpura. The ostrea (bivalves) aieimdnoea
in the manner described, for some of them originate is
shallow water, others near the shore, or among row% or in
rough hard places, or in sand; and some ha^' the power
of looomotioni others have not.



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118 TBI HISTOBT OF AimCALS. [B. Y*

10. Among those that are not locomotiTe, the phms are
fixed ; the soleiis and conche remain on one spot, though
not fixed, and do not surviTe separation from their home.
The nature of the aster^ is so not, that if it is captured
immediately after swallowing anything, its food is found
digested ; and they sajr that it is very trouUesome in thp
Fyrrhiean Euripus. Its form is like the paintings of a
star. The creatures called pneumones are spontaneously
produced* The shell which painters use is very thick, and
the pi^ent is produced on the outside of the shell ; they
are pnncipally found in the neighbourhood of Caria.

11. The cardnium also origimUm in earth and mud, and
afterwards makes its way into an empty shell, and when it
grows too large for that, it leaves it for a larger one, as the
shell of the nerita, strcnnbus, and such like ; it fiequentlr
occurs in the small ceryx. When it has entered the shelj^
it carries it about and liTCS in it^ except that as it grows it
migrates into a larger shelL

CHAPm XIY.

1. Thx nature of the testacea is the same as that of crea*
tures without shells, as the cnidao^ and sponges, which inha-
bit the holes in rocks. There are two kmds of cnide, some
which Uto in holes in the rocks, and cannot be separated
from them, and other migrating species which live uiK>n the
smooth fiat surface of the rodu. Hlie patella also is free
and locomotiTe.) In the interior <n the sponges are found
the creatures ciuled pinnophvlaces, and the interior is closed
with a net like a spider's web, and small fish are captured^
by opening and closing this web, for it opens as they ap*.
proach, and closes upon them when they have entered.

2. Iliere are three kinds of sponges ; one of them is thin,
itm other is thick, and the thira, which is called the
Achillean spouse, is slender, compact, and very strong; it
is placed beneath helmets and thim-pieces, for the sake of.
deadening tiia sound of blows; this kind is Terr rsre. Among'
tiia comiMct kinds, those which are Terr hard and roug^are^
Gslled tragi Thar all grow upon toe rock or near the'
dioieb am obtain tbeir food from the mud. ThisiseYident^>
ftr they MO fnll of mud when they are captured. This ia,
* 0Csr-l^ * Aoiiaiai



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B. T] THB HI8T0BT 07 AKISfALt. 119

tlio case with all other fixed thtngs, that they derife thor
food from the spot to which they are attached.

8. The compact species are weaker than those which are
thin, because their point of attachment is smaller. It is
Affirmed that the sponge possesses sensation; this is
a proof of it, that it contracts if it perceives anj pur- i

nose of tearing it up, and renders the task more difficult fi

The sponge does the same thing wlien the winds and waves W

are violent, that it may not lose its point of attachment.
There are some persons who dispute this, as the natives of
Torona. The sponge is inhabited by worms and other living
creatures, wiiicn the rock-fish eat when the sponge is torn
up, as well as the remainder of its roots. But if Sie sponge
is broken off, it grows agiun, and is completed from the por-
tion that is left.

4. The thin sponges are the largest, and they are most
abundant on the Lycian coast; the compact sponges
are softer, and the Achillean are more hareh than uie ^{|

others. On the whole, those that inhabit deep places with p \

a mild temperature are the softest, for wind and cold ;)*■

weather harden them, as they do other growing things, and | ^ ^

stop their increase. For this reason the sponges of the { i

Hellespont are rough and compact; and, altogether, thoee
beyond Maleai and those on this side, ditfer in sofbiees and
hardness.

6. Neither should the heat be very great, for the sponge be-
comes rotten, like plants, wherefore those near the shore are
the best, especially if the water is deep near the land, for the
temperature is moderated by the depth. When alive, before
they are washed, they are black. Their point of attach-
ment is neither single nor dispersed over the whole sudboe,
for there are empty passages oetween the points of attach-
ment. Something like a membrane is extended over their
lower part, and the attachment is by several points ; on the
upper part are other closed passages, and four or five which
are apparent. Wherefore some persons say that these are
the organs by which they take their food.

0. There is also another species called i^ysia» because it m .

cannot be washed. This has very large passage s; but the | ]

other parts of the substance are qnite compact When cat ) •

open it is more compact and smooth than the sponge^ and « \

i

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120 Tni HI8T0BT OF AITIMALS. [B. T.

the whole is like a lung ; of all the sponges this one is con-
fessed to have the most sensation, and to be the most
enduring. Thej are plainlj seen in the sea near the sponges,
for the other sponges are white as the mud settles down
npon them, but these are always black. This is the mode
(tt production in sponges and t^tacea.

ClLlPTlB XV.

1. AuoKO the malacostraca the carabi are impre^ted bj
sexual intercourse, and contain their ova during three
months, May, June, and July. Ther afterwards deposit
them upon the hollow part of their folded taU, and their
ova grow like worms. The same thing takes place in the
malacia and oviparous fish, for their ova always grow.

2. The ova of the carabi are sandy, and divided into
eight parts ; for a cartilaginous appendage, round which the
ova are attached, is unit^ to eacn of the opercula at their
junction with the side ; and the whole resembles a bunch of
grapes, forever^ one of the cartila^nous appendages is fre-
quently subdivided, and the divisions are apparent to any
one who will separate them, but when nrst seen they
appear to be united. Those ova which are in the centre
are larger than those which are contiguous to the perforation^
and the last are the least.

8. The smallest ova are as large as millet ; the ova ore
not continuous with the perforation, but in the middle.
For two divisions extena on each side, from the tail
and from the thorax, and this is also the line of junction for
the opercula. The ova, which are placed at the side, cannot
be enclosed, unless the extremity of the tail is drawn over'
them ; this, however, covers them like a lid. '[

4 4. The femUe, in dei>ositing her ova, appears to collect .
them on the cartilaginous ap{)endages by means of ^
the broad part of the folded tail. She produces them^
by pressing with her tail and bending her body. These
cirnlaginous processes at the season of ovipositicm in-^
crease in size, in order to become appropriate recep*^
tacles for the ova. The ova are deposited on these pro*
eessesi as those of the sepia are deposited upon bruLOTi^
pieoei of wood or anything floating in the sea. ibis ia the^



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B.T.] TUB HISTOBT 07 ASIUAIM. 121

maimer of depositing them; but after they hare been
ripened twenty days, they are cast off altogether in a mass,
. aa they appear when separated from the parent ; in fifteen
' days, at the outside, the carabi are produced from these ovoi
and they are often taken off less than a finger*s length. The
OTa are produced before Arcturus, and after Arcturus they
are cast off.

6. The cyphs among the carides contain their era about
four months. The carabi are found in rough and rocky places,
the astaci iu those that are smooth ; but neither of them
inhabit mud. Por this cause the astaci are found in the
Hellespont and near Tliasus ; the carabi in the neighbour-
hood of 8igoum and Athos. Fishermen, when they pursue
their calling in the open sea, distinguish the rough and
muddy places by the nature of the shore, and other signs.
In the spring and winter they come near the shore ; in sum-
mer time they go into deep water, sometimes for the sake of
warmth, and sometimes for the cold.

6. Those called arcti^ breed nearly at the same time aa the
carabi, wherefore they are most excellent in winter and in
sprins before the breeding season, and they are worst after
tney have deposited their ova. They change their shell in
the spring, live the serpent, which puts off its old age, aa it
is coUed. Both the carabi and the carcini do this when they
are voung, aa well as afterwards. All the carabi are l<mg-

Chaptib XYL

1. Thb malacia produce a white ovum after sexual inter-
course ; in the course of time this becomes sandy, like that
of the testacea. The polypus deposits its ova in holes or
pots, or any other hollow place ; the ovum is like bunches of
the wild vine and of the white poplar, aa was observed
before ; when the ova are produced they remain suspended
firom the hole in which they were deposited : and tne ova
are ao numerous, that when taken out they will fill a vessel
much larger than the head of the polypus in which thej
were contained.

2. About fifty days afterwavds the young polypi burst tha
ep^ and escape, like phalangia, in great numbm. Thepaiw
tidilar shape of each Bmb is not diatinct, though the general
> Ptehspi, OuMir ■pinosinianM»



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122 THl HI8T0BT 07 AKI1CAL8. [b. T.

fi>nn 18 plain. Many of them perish from their small size
and debilitj. Some have been obserred so small that they
could not be distinguished, unless thej were touched, when
they were seen to move.

8. The sepia also deposits eggs, which resemble large;
black, myrtle seeds. Tbey are united together like a bunch
of fruit, and are enclosed in a substance which prevents
them from separattog readily. The male emits his ink'
upon them, a mucous fluid, which causes their slippery
appearance. The ova increase in this war; and when first'
produced they are white, but when they have touched the
ink they become large and black. When the young sepia,
which is entirely formed of the internal white of the ovum,
is produced, it makes its way out by the rupture of the
membrane of the ovum.

4. The ovum which the female first produces is like hail,
and to this the young sepia is attached by the head, as birds
are attached to the abdomen. The nature of the umbilical
attachment has never been observed, except that as the sepia
increases the white always becomes less, and at last entirely
disappears, like the yolk of the eggs of birds.

6. The ef es are at first very large in these as in other
animals, as in the diagram. The ovum is seen at A, the eyes
at B and C, and the embryo sepia itself at D. The female
contains ova during the spring. The ova are produced in ,
fifteen days; and when the ova are produced they remain
for fifteen days longer like the small seeds of grapes, and,
when these are ruptured the voung sepias escape from tho
inside. If a person divides them before they have reached; .
maturity, the young sepias emit their fcBces and vary inj
colour, and turn from white to red from alarm.

6. The crustaceans incubate upon their ova, which aroi
placed beneath them; but the polypus and sepia and such-
like incubate upon their ova wherever they may be depo^v
sited, and especially the sepia, for the female has often becm >
observed with her abdomen upon the ground, but the female [
polvpus has becm observed sometimes placed upon her ova/>
ana sometiines upon her mouth, holding with her tentacnla \
over the hole in which the ova were deposited. The sepia :
d^oiits her ova upon the ground among fad and reeda»
€r upon any thing thrown in the water, as wood, biaoches^



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1. T.] THX HISTORY 07 AJtfTUALB. 12^

or stones ; and the fishermen are careful to pUce branches
of trees in tlie water. Upon these they deposit their long
and united ova like branches of fruit.

7. The ova are deposited and produced hj repeated
exertion, as if the parturition were accompanied with pain.
The teuthis oviposits in the sea. The ova^ like those
of the sepia, are united together. Both the teuthus and
eepia are short-lived, for very few of them survive a Tear.
The same is the case with the polypus. Each egg produces
one small sepia, and so also in the teuthis. The male teuthus
differs from the female ; for if the hair (branchia) are drawn
aside, the female will be seen to have two red substances
like mamms, which the male does not possess. The sepia
also has the some sexual distinction, and is more variq;ated
than the female, as I observed before.

Chapteb XVII.
1. It has already been observed that the male insects are
less than the female, and that the male mounts upon the
female ; and the manner of their sexual intercourse has been
described, and the difficulty of separating them. Most ot
them produce their young very soon after sexual intercourse.
All the kinds except some psyche (butterflies and moths)
produce worms. These prepuce a hard substance, like the
seed of the cnecus,' which is fluid within. From the worm
an animal is produced, but not from a portion of it, as if it
were an ovum, but the whole grows and becomes an artien*
lated animaL

2. Some of them are produced from similar animals, as
phalangia and spiders from phalangia and spiders, and atte-
Isbi,' locusts, and grasshoppers. Others do not originate in
animals of the same species, but their production is sponta-
neous, for some of them spring from the dew whicn faOs
SK>n plants. The origin of these is natunlly in the springs
ougn they often appear in the winter, if fine weather and
south winds occur for any length of time. Some originate
in rotten mud and dung; and others in the fresh wood of
plants or in diy wood; others among the hair of animals, or
in their flesh, or excrements, whether ejected, or still snst-
uig[ in the body, as those which are called helminthss*

. •Cmtfatfiiitiiietoiiiit.splnloftethislkkiBd. Lb«id0.
^i iXhtkrvaoltoaMfpoeMi.



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124 THX HI8T0BT 07 AKIMAL8. [>*.▼•

8. There are three kinds of these, the flat worms, the
round worms, and those which are called ascarides. From
these creatures nothing; is produced ; but the broad worm is
attached to the intestine, and produces something like the
seed of the colocynth, and this is used by physicians as s
proof of the presence of the worm.

4. Butterflies are produced from caterpillars ; and these
originate in the leaves of green plants, especially the rha-
phMus, which some persons call crambe. At first they are
smaller than millet, afterwards they grow into little worms,
in three days they become small caterpillars, afterwards they
grow and become motionless, and change their form. In
this state the creature is called chrysalis. It has a hard
oorering, but mores when it is touched. They are united
to something by weblike processes, and hare no mouth nor
any other yisibfe organ. After a short time the corering is
burst, and a winged animal escapes, which is called a but*
terfly.

6. At first, while in the caterpillar state, they take food
and eracuate faeces, but in the chrysalis state they do nei-
ther. The same is the case with all other creatura which
originate in worms, and those which produce worms after
•ezual intercourse, or eren without this process; for the
<^pring of bees, anthrens, and wasps, while they are young
worms, consume food and evacuate excrement, but when
from worms the^ receive their conformation they are called
nvmphs, and neither feed nor evacuate, but remain quiet in
tneir covering until they are grown. They then make their
escape by cutting throuch a place where the cell is fastened on.

6. The penia^ and nypera' also are produced from a
kind of campe (caterpillar) which make a wave as they
walk, andf as thev aavance bend the hinder extremity
up to that whicn has preceded. The creature pro*
duoed always derives its colour from the campe in whidi
it originates. A certain great worm, which has as it were
horns, and differs from ^hers, at its first metamorphosis
jvrodnces a campe, afterwards a bombylius, and lastly
s necydalus. It passes through all these forms in six
montM From this animal some women unroll and separate
the bombydna (cocoons)^ and afterwards weave them. Itii
ifiooitfpMitseCkHrvm. ^O^ooMtfs.



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•i. T.] THX HI8T0RT OF IITIICALS. 125

'Imid that this was first woven in the island of Cot bj
Pamphila, the daughter of Plateos.

^ 7. From the worms in dry wood the insects caUed carabi

are produced in the same manner ; for at first they are im-

' moveable worms, and afterwards the carabi are produced bj

the rupture of their case. The crambides originate in the

plant called crambe, and these also have wings, and the

prasocurides from the plant called prasum (onion). The

cBstri are produced from the little flat creatures that are

« found on the surfieM^ of nTers. Wherefore also they con

gresate in the greatest numbers around the waters where

[such animals are found. The kind of pygolampis which

,bas no wings originates in a small, black/luury caterpilhir.

^ These undergo another change, and turn into the wmged

^creatures called bostrychi.

' 8. The emnides originate in ascarides, and the ascarides

originate in the mud of wells and running waters which flow

over an earthy bottom. At first the decaying mud acquires

' a white colour, which afterwards becomes black, and finally

red. When this takes place, very small red creatures are

seen growing in it like fuci. At mrst these move about in a

' mass, afterwards their connection is ruptured, the creatures

' called ascarides are borne about in the water, after a few

days they stand erect in the water without motion and of a

^ hard texture, and subsequently the case is broken and the

^ empis sits upon it until either the sun or the wind enables

' it to move, Uien it flies away.

^' d. The commencement of life in all other worms, and in
'^all creatures produced from worms, originates in the infln*
.^ence of the sun and wind. The ascarides are produced in
Vgreater numbers, and more quickly, where the various
'^matters are mixed together, as in the works conducted in
^:the Megarian territory, for putrefaction thus t<akes place
^ more readily. The autumnal season also is favourable to
^'their increase, for there is less moisture at that time of the
f'jrear. The crotones^ originate in the agrostis, the melo-
*' lonth» from the worms which originate in the dung of oxen
^ imd asses.

^.J 10. The canthari whicb roll up dung, hide themselves in
^il during tiie winter, and produce wormsy which afterwiids
'Xkkf. Aosnu rioiaas.



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126 THS HI8T0BT OV AKDCALS. [b. t*

become canthari ; and from the worms which inhabit the
osprea^^ winged creatures, like those already mentioned,
deriTO their existence. Flies originate in dung which has
been set apart, and those who are employed in this work
strire to sepanite the remainder which is mixed together,
for they say that the dung is thus brought* to putrefac-
tion.

11. The origin of these worms is Tery small ; for first of
all a redness is perceired, and motion commences, as if they
were united together. The worm then again becomes stilli
afterwards it mores, and then again is immo? eable. From
this the worm is completed, and motion recommences under
the action of the sun and wind. The myops is produced in
wood. The orsodacn®' from the metamorphosis of worms,
which originate on the stalks of the crambe. The cantharis
from worms which dwell on the fig tree, apium (pear tree),
and pitch tree, for there are worms on all these, and en the
ejnacantha.' They assemble round strong smelling things
because they originate from them.

12. The conops springs from aworm which originates in the
thick part of vinegar; for there seem also to be worms in things
which are the fiuthest from putrefaction, as in snow which has
laid for some time : for after having laid, it becomes red,
wherefore, also, the worms are such and hairy. Those in the
snow in Media are large and white, and furnished with but
little power of motion. In Cvprus, when the manufacturers
of the stone colled chalcitis bum it for many days in the
fire, a winced creature, something larger than a great fly,
IS seen walking and leaping in the fire.

18. The worms perish when they are taken out of the
snow, and so do these creatures when taken from the fire.'
And the salamander shews that it is possible for some'
animal substances to exist in the fire, for they say that fire ^
IS extinguished when this animal walks over it.

14. uk the river Uvpanis in the Cimmerian Bosphorus, [
about the summer solstice, capsules larger than grape-seed
are floated down the river: when these are ruptured, a
four-footed, winged creature makes its escape, which lives:
and flies about till the evening. As the sun descendsi it '

1 TdcliM, l^gnmtixms pkate. * OhiyMoiels oknots.

* Ftriiaps tM dof rota^ or twsel briar.



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B. T.] THS HI8T0BT 07 AVIHALS. 127

becomes emaciated, and is dead bj sunset, baring lived but
one day ; for whicb cause it is caUed epbemerum. Most
animals wbicb spring from caterpiUars or worms, are first of
all enclosed in a web, and this is tbeir nature.

15. The wasps which are called ichneumons, which are
smaller than the others, kill the phaknffia, and canr them
to a wall, or some other place with a hole in it; and when
they hare corered them orer with mud, thejr oviposit there,
ana the ichneumon wasps are produced tnm them. Manjr
dTthe coleoptera, and other small and anonymous creatures
make little holes in tombs or walls, and there deposit their
worms.

16. The period of reproduction, from its commencement
to its conclusion, is generally completed in three or four
weeks. In the worms and worm-like creatures, three weeks
are usually sufficient, and four weeks are usually enough
for those which are oviparous. In one week from their
sexual intercourse, the growth of the ovum is rompleted*
In the romaining three weeks, those that produce uj gene-
ration, hatch and bring forth their ovai as in the spiders^
and such like creatures. The metamorphoses generally
occupy three or four days, like the crisis of diseases. This
is the mode of generation in insects.

17. They die from the shrivellinff of their limbs, as large
animals do of old age. Those which aro furnished with
wings have these organs drawn together in autumn. The!
myopes die from an effusion of water in their eyes.

Chaptu XYIIL



1. All persons sre not agreed as to the generation of beest
for some say that they neither produce young, nor have
sexual interoourse ; but that they bring their young from



other sources ; and some sar that they collect them from
the flowers of the calyntrus,'^and others from the flower of
the calamus.* Others again, say that they aro found in the
flowers of the olive, and produce Uiis proof, that the swarma
are most abundant when the olives aro fertile. Other per>
sons aflGbm that they collect the youns of the drones from
any of the substances we have name{ but tiiat the mists
(queens) produce the young <^ the bees.

* HoocjtiMkki *Setd.



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128 THB H18T0BT 07 USIUALB. [b.T.

2. There tre two kinds of rulers, the best of these is red«
the other black and variegated : their size is double that of
the working bees ; the part of the body beneath the cincture
is more than half of the whole length : by some they are
called the mother bees, as if ther were the parents of the
rest; and they argue, that unless the ruler is present,
drones only are pn^uced, and no bees. Others affirm that
ther have sexual intercourse, and that the drones are males,
ana the bees females.

8. The other bees originate in the cells of the comb, but
the rulers are produced in the lower part of the comb, six or



Online LibraryAristotleAristotle's History of animals. In ten books → online text (page 13 of 39)