Aristotle's History of animals. In ten books online

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ass mounts upon a mare, he destroys her foetus, as I obserred
before. But the horse does not destroy the foetus of the
ass, if the mare has been impregnated by a he ass.

2. The pregnant female has muk at the end of ten months.
After parturition, she will admit the male on the serenth
day, and is very easily impregnated at that period. She
will also receive it afterwards. If she does not produce
young before losing her marking teeth, she can never be
impregnated all the rest of her life. She does not like men
to be witnesses of her parturition, nor will she produce her
young in the day time ; but when it is dark she retires, and
so produces her vouns. She continues to procreate during
her whole life, if sheoas begun before loemg her marking
teeth. The ass lives more than thirty years, and the female
longer than the male. When a horse copulates with an ass,
or a he ass with a mare, abortion is more frequent than be-
tween congeners, a horse with a mare, or two asses together.
"When the horse and ass are mixed together, the period of
^tation follows from the male parent I mean to say that
It UkeB the same time as if the parents had been congeners ;
but in size, form, and strength the produce of their union
generally resembles the femue parent.

8. If the union takes place mquently, and sufficient time
is not allowed to intervene, the female soon becomes barren.
For which reason those who attend to this business do not
permit them to have continual intercourse, but interpose a
proper interval The mare will not admit the he ass, nor
the she ass the horse, unless the he ass has been suckled by
a mare. They are careful, therefore, to admit only those
asses which they call hippothelo, ie. asses which have been
tackled by a mare. These copulate by force in the pastures^


1. Tex oreua (mule) mounts and copulates after shedding
the first teeth, and when seven years old is able to engender;
and the ^;innua is produced wnen he mounts upon a mare.
After this bene tongeroontinuea to. copulate. The female


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oreut also his been impregnated, but tbe fostns bis nerer
been known to come to Maturity. The bemioni (female
mules) of SjTia, near Phonucia, admit tbe male and pro*
create. The kind, however, though similar, is not the same.
Those which are called ginni are [>roduced from a mare,
when the foetus has received some injury in the uterus, like
dwarfs amonff men and metachoera among swine; and the
ginnus, like the dwarf, has a large genital organ.

2. The hemionus has a long Dfe; for thej have been
known to live for eighty jears, as in Athens, when thej
buUt the temple, this individual, though failing with age,
helped in drowinc, and went beside them, and encou-
raged the joke mmes to their work, so that an edict was
made, commanding the corn-dealers not to drive it awar
Srom the vessels filled with com. The female mule (oreus)
pNm% old sooner than the male. Some nersons say that she
IS purified when making water, but tne male ages more
rapidly from smelling the urine.

8. This is the manner of the reproduction of these ani-
mals. Those who are emploved in bringing up these animals
recognise the young from the old in this i^-ay. If the skin,
when drawn back irom the cheek, soon recovers its shape,
the animal is young; if the skin o(mtinues wrinkled for a
long while, the creature is aged.

Chaptxb XXV.

1. Thb camel is pregnant ten months, and always produces
.a single young one, for this is its nature. They separata
nthe young camel from the herd at a year old. The camel

will live more than fifty years. The season of parturition
^is in the spring, and the romale continues to give milk until
,she conceives again. Their flesh and milk are exceedingly

sweet. The muk is drunk mixed with two or Area times

its quantity of water.
2. Elephants begin to copulate at twenty years old. When

the female is impregnated, ner period of gestation, some ner-
r sons say, is a year and a half; oth^ people make it three
.years. The difficulty of seeing their copulation causes this

difference of opinion respecting the pencil of gestation. The
r female produces her y?*xB8 bending upon ner haunches.

Her pain is evident The cal^ when it la bom, socks with


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its month, and not with its proboscis. It can walk and see
as soon as it is born.

3. Wild swine copulate at the beginning of winter. They
produce their young in the spring. For this purpose the
lemale gets awaj into inaccessible and precipitous nlaces,
where tnere are caves and plenty of shade. The males re-
main with the females for thirfy days. The number of pi^
and the period of gestation are the same as in the domesti-
cated h<n^ and their voices are much alike : the female,
however, grunts more and the male less. The castration of
the male makes them larger and more fierce, as Homer
writes. ''He brought up a castrated wild boar, which was not
like a beast fed upon food, but resembled a woody moun-
tain peak." Castration takes place from a disease like a
swellme in the testicles, which tney rub against the trees
and so destroy them.

Chaptu XXVI.

1. The female deer usually copulates, as I observed before,
from allurement ; for she cannot endure the male on account
of the hardness of the penis. Some, however, endure copu-
lation as sheep do. When sexual desire is felt, they lie
down beside each other. The male is chan^ble in his dis-
position, and does not unite himself to a single female, but
in a short time leaves one for another. The season for
sexual intercourse is in August and September, after Arctu-
rus. The period of gestation is eight months. The female
becomes pregnant in a few days, and frequently in one day.

2. She generally produces one &wn, though some have
been known to bear twins. She produces her young bv the
road side, for fear of wild beasts.^ The growth of the &wna
is rapid. The female has no purification at other times, but
after parturition her cleansing is sanguineous. The female
usually conducts her fiiwn to some accustom^ place, which
serves them for a refuge. It is usually an opening in a
rock, with but one entrance, where they can defend them"*
selves against those who would attack them.

8. There are fables about their long life. They do not^
however, appear to be worthy of credit ; and the period of
ttestetion and growth of tiie young does not a^jee with the
habits of long-Uved animals. In the mountain called £1**'


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Shois, in Arginusa, in Aaia, where Alcibiades died, all she
eer have their ears dirided, so that thej can be known if
thej migrate to another place, and eren the foetiu in utero
has this distinction. The females haTO four nipples, like

4. As soon as the females are impregnated, the males go
and live apart from them, and, uKed b^ their sexual desuesy
they each eo apart and make a hole, m which thej emit a
strong smell like he goats, and their faces become bhu*k, br
•being sprinkled like those of goats. This continues till
after ram, when thej turn again to their pasture. The
animal acts in this waj on account of its yiolent sexual de*
sires and its fatness. In summer time this is so great
jthat thej cannot run, but are taken bj those who pursue
them, even on foot, in the second or third race.

5. Ihej frequent the water both on account of the heat
and the difficultj of breathing. At the period of sexual
intercourse, their flesh is inferior both in taste and smell,
like that of he-goats. In winter thej are thin and weak,
and in the spring are most active for the chase. When
chased, thej sometimes rest awhile, and remain standing till
their pursuers come up with them, when thej start amsh.
Thej seem to do this from a pain in their mtestines; for
their yiscera are so thin and weak that if they are onlj
struck gentlj thej are ruptured, though the hiae remains


1. Beabs perform the act of sexual intercourse in the man*
ner alreadj described, not mounting upon eadi other, but
lying down upon the ground. The female is pregnant thirtj
days, when she produces one or two, or at uie outside ftre
cubs. The foetus is smaller, in proportion to the site of jtbe
parent, than that of anj other animal; for it is less Aan a
weasel, and greater thui a mouse. It is without hair and
blind, and its legs and almost all its parts are without
joints. Its season of sexual interco ur s e is in Mutfa.
The cubs are bom at the time of concealment. At this
season both the female and the male are yerj fat When
thej hare brought up their joung, they al^w themielfss
in the third month of the 9gtmg. The poronpiBS also


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eonceals itself, and is pregnant for the same number of
dajs, and in other respects resembles the bear. It is rerf
diificiUt to capture the she bear when pregnant.

Chapteb XXVIIL

1. It has already been obsenred that the lion both copulates
and makes water backwards. Thej do not copulate and
produce their young at all seasons of the year, though they
produce annually. The young are produced in the spring.
The female generally produces two, never more than six,
and sometimes only one. The fiible which says that the
uterus is ejected in parturition is a mistake. It has arisen
firom the rarity of the animal, those who inrented the fable
being ignorant of the true state of the case. The race of
Uons is rare, and not to be found in ever? place, but only in
the country between the Achelous and tbe Nessus in the
whole of Europe. The young of the lion are very small at
their birth, so that they can hardly walk at two months old.
The Syrian lions produce five times ; at first five cubs, and
then one less every time. After this they produce no more,
but continue barren. The lioness has no mane, though the
lion has. The lion only sheds its four canine teeth, two
above and two below. They are shed when the animal is
aix months old.

2. The hynna is of the colour of the wolf, but it is more
bairy, and has a mane alonff the ridge of its back. It is a
mistake to say that each individual has the sexual organs of
both sexes. That of the male resembles the same orsan in
the wolf and the dog. That which has been imagined to be,
the female organ is placed beneath the tail, and it resembles!
that of the female, but is imperforate, and the anus is be-
neath it. The female hvena has an organ similar to that,
which bears its name in the male. It is placed beneath the*,
tail, and is imperforate. Beneath this is the anus, and below
this again the true genital organ* The female hyena has an
uterus like that of other animals of the class, but the female
is rarely captured. A certain hunter said that he caugb^
deven hy»uas of which only one was a female. . ^

8. Hares copulate backwards, as I formerly observed, for^
it is a retronungent animaL Tbej eopulate and produce


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their joang at all seasons. Thej become pre^nt a second
time while they are pregnant, and produce their joimg ererj
month. Thej do not produce their young continuaUj, but
as many days as may oe intervene. The female has milk
before the young are produced. As soon as her ^oung are
bom, she copulates again and conceires while giving milk.
The milk is as thick as that of the sow. The young are
bom blind, like those of many animals with divided feet.

Chaptxb XXTX.

1. The fox copulates, mounting on the back of the female.
The young are bom blind, like those of the bear, and are
even more inarticulate. When the seascm of parturition
approaches, the female goes apart^ so that it is rare to take
a pregnant fox. When the young are bom, the dam licks
them, in order to warm and mature them. She never pro-
duces more than four.

2. The periods ofgestation and parturition, both in point of
time and tne number of the young, are the same in the wolf as
in the dog, and the young are blind, like those of the dog.
Thev copulate at one season of the year, and the young are
produced in the beginning of summer. A fabulous story
18 told of their parturition ; for they say that all the sbe
wolves produce their young in twelve days in the year ; and
the reason which is given for this fable is this, that during this
number of days Latona was brought from the Hyperborean
regions to Delos, in the form of a wol( for fear of Juno.
Whether this is or is not the period of parturition has never
yet been ascertained. At present it only rests upon tra-
dition. It does not appear to be tme, nor that other tale
which says that wolves only produce once in their life.

8. Cats and ichneumons produce their young in the same
maimer as dogs, and live upon the same things. Ther live
about six years. The young of the panther an hcfm blind.
They are never more than four in number. Tbib jackal
is impregnated like a bitch, and the young are bom blind.
They produce two, or three, or four. Its kngth towards
the tail is great. Its height is smalL ItmnsTayswiftiy,
although its legs are short; but on aocount of the softness
of its tissues it can leap a great distance.

4. In Syria there are animals called ksaiioDi whkli aie


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178 Tin HI8T0BT OT AKniALS. [B. Tt.'

different from those deiiTed from a mixture of tbe horse and
ass, though tbey^ resemble them in appearance. As the wild
ass is named from its resembhmoe to the domestic kind, the
idld asses and the hemioni differ from the domestic race in
speed. These hemioni are derired from their own congeners,
of which this is a proof. For some came to Vhrjm in the
time of Fhamaces, the father of Phamabasus, and remun
there stilL There are nowonlj three, though they saj that
at first there were nine.

Chavtsb XXX.

1. Thb reproduction of mice is more wonderful than thi^t
of any other animal, both in number and rapidity. For a
pregnant female was left in a Tessel of com ; and after a
abort time the Tessel was opened, and a hundred and twenty
mice were counted. There is a doubt respecting the re-
production and destruction of the mice which live on tiie
ground ; for such an inexpressible number of field mice have
sometimes made their appearance that very little food re-
mained. Their power of destruction slso is so great that
some smsll farmers, having on one day observed tlu^ their
.com was ready for harvest, when they went the following
day to cut their com, found it all eaten.

2. The manner of their disappearance also is unac-
countable ; for in a few days they all vanish, although be-
forehand they could not be exterminated by smoking and
digging them out, nor by hunting them and turning swine
among them to root up their runs. Foxes also hunt them
out, and wild vreasels' are very ready to destroy them ; but
they cannot prevail over their numl>ers and the rapidrfey of
their increase, nor indeed can anytiiing prevail over toem
bat rain, and when this comes they disappear veiy soon.

8. Li a certain part of Persia the female fcDtus of tiie mice
are found to be pregnant in the uterus of theb parent.
8omepe<q»le say and affirm that if they lick salt ther become
pregnant without copulaticm. The E^Tptian mice nave hair
nearly resembling that of the hedgehcjg. There are other
kinds which so upon two feet» for their fore feet are small
and their hina feet large.' They are tery numerous. There
•re also many other kbds of mice.

* Pttrbspt MRtl^ MtMtda vsio» or wsttcl. - c^

* 8«bot» D^ gwbOhii^ sr D. jaeolat.


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1. Ths drcamstances attending on the growth of man, from
his conception in the womb even to old age, derived from his
peculiar nature, are after this manner. We have alreadv-
treated of the distinctions of the male and female and their
-parts. The male begins to have semen at about the age of
fourteen complete. At the same time hair begins to appear on
the pubes. As Alcmax>n of Crotona says that flowers blossom
before they bear seed, about the same period the voice begins
to become more harsh and irregular. It is neither miite
harsh, nor deep, nor all alike, but it resembles a discoraant*
and harsh instrument. This is called r^ayi^w^ to have a
Toice like a goat.

2. This is more conspicuous in those who attempt the
^tification of sexual desires ; for those who are vehement
in these desires rapidly pass into a man's voice. In those
that refrain themselves the contrary occurs. In those who,

. like some singers, endeavour to avoid this change, the voice
will continue for a long while, and never undergo any great
i. change. The breasts tdao and pudendum not only increase
c in size, but their general appearance is changed. At this
I period of life, if a person is urged to the emission of semen,
rthe discharge is accompanied with pain as well as pleasure.

3. About the same period also tne breasts of females en-
'i large, and the catamenia make their appearance. They re-
vsemble the blood of a newly killed animal. In young girls

onl^ do they appear white, especiaUy if ther make use of
' fluid food. Thn complaint stops the growtn and ureakens
" the body of nrls. Tne catamenia usiully appear when the
^ mamma are Mout two finders high. The voice of girls also
• becomes deeper at this period, for on the whole the voice of
women is more acute than that of men, and the voioe of
girls than that of <dd women, as the voice of boys is more

V 2


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acate than the voice of men. The voice of female children
ako is more acute than that of males, and the windpipe is
more acute in girls than boys.

4. They also want especial care at this period, for their
sexual desires are very strong at the commencement, so
that if they now take care to avoid every excitement, except
such as the change of their body requires, without using
venery, they genendly remain temperate in afler-vears. For
^rls who indulge in venery when voung, generally crow up
intemperate ; and so do males if they are unguarded either
one way or both ways ; for at this age the ducts open, and
afford an easy passase for the fluid through the body, and
at the same time the memory of past pleasures causes a
desire for present gratification.

5. Some men never have hair on the pubes from their
birth, nor seed, on account of the destruction of the parts
appropriated to the semen. There are some women also
who never have hair on the pubes. The male and female
also change their habits or sickness and of health, and
the proportions of their body, whether slight or stout,
or or a good habit. Some thin boys after they attain
puberty Income stout and healthy, in others the contrary
takes place. This is the case also with females ; for whe-
ther boys or girls have their bodies loaded with excre-
mentitious matter, this is separated in the one by puberty,
in the other by the catamema. Thev become more healthy
and thriving when that which haa prevented health and
growth IS removed*

0. Those which are of the contrary habit of bodv become
more thin and delicate ; for their naturally healtbv condi->
tion is separated in the puberty of one sex, and the cata;i
menia of the other. There is also considerable variety in
the bosoms of young girls, for in some they are very large^*
in others small. This generallv takes fhce in those girto
which have much sup^uous humour, for when the cata^
menia are about to appear, but before ^ej arrive, the more
fluid the patient is, the more necessary it is that thebreasta
should increase until the catamenia make their appearance^
and the breasts, which then begin to increase, remain so afters'
wards. In youths and afled men the breasts are more con-,*
fgrnunm, and mors like tnoae of females; and in those wlu^-


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B. Til.] THX HI8T0BT 07 AITIICILS. 181

are of a soft habit of bod j, and are omooth and not fbU of
veins, and in dark persons also more than fair ones.

7. Until twentj-one years of age the semen is nmmK*
ductire, a ftiwmauls it b ss em gs ^f s wtil a , th e iigh fce y s snd giris
produce ■mull ^^^ imporfsst rhililrrii : this is also the case
with other animals. Young girls- oonceive more readily,
but after conception suflT er more in iMffturitAm^apd thei r
.b odies frequently become unperie ct^ Men ofSioient pais«
sioDS, and ii^6U6ll thai li&?U iHirne many children, grow old
more rapidly than others ; nor does there appear to be any
increase aft^ they have borne three children. Women ef
yiolent sexual d^res become more temperate after they
hare borne sereral children.

8. Women who have attained thrice seven yean are well
adai|ted for child-bearing, and men also are capable of be-
coming parents. ^TEin seminal fluid is barren. That whidi
is lumpy begets males ; what is thin and not dotted, females.
The beard also appears* on the chin of men at the same

Chapteb n.

1. Thb fntnmmift npimnr Trhinrthgrnmi ja nn the wnni^, frrrm
which some persons wouTd arguelhat the moonisajQinale,
for the purincation of women and the waninp'SFihe moon
occur toother, and repletion occurs again in both after the
purification and wamng. In few women the catamenia
occur everr month, but in most at eveiy third month.
Those in whom they continue for only two or three days
escape with ease: it is more difficult for those in whom
it continues for a longer time, for they sufTer during the
^hole period. In some the purification takes place all at
once, in others by degrees ; in all, howeTer, the pain is oon-
sideiable as long as they are present. In many wo*
men, when the catamenia are nearly ready to appear, the
womb sufiers so much from strangulation and disturbance^

natmrally takes place immediately after
women, and those who do not ^en oom-
y barren. Some women, "howiBver, who
rtruated, conceive. Such persons contain
much of. the fluid as is usually left behind


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after the purification^ but not so much as to make its ap-
pearance extemallj. Some women in whom the uterus has
closed immediately after the purification, conceire eren while
menstruating, but do not conceive afterwards. The cata-
menia sometimes occur eren in pregnant women. Such
women usuaUj bear imperfect children, and their offspring
either do not grow up, or are weakly.

8. It firequentlj happens that m>m the want of sexual
intercourse, orjfrom jouth and the period of life, or from
long abstinence, the uterus descends, and^the catamenia
occur sereral times in the month, until thej conceive ; after
which the parts return to their proper place ; and sometimes
even in women with a good habit of bodj, if the humours
are abundant^ an effusion of the semen tskes place if it is
too moist.

4. It has alreadj been observed that this purification is
more abundant in women than in anj other creature. In
animals that are not viviparous no symptoms of anything of
the kind occur, for this superfiuous matter is returned into
their own body, for in man^ the females are superior to the
males in size, and in many it is turned to the formation of
plates, or scales, or abundance of feathers. la viviparous ani-
mals with feet, it is turned to the formation of hair and bulk
of body (for man is the only animal that is smooth^, or of
urine ; for in almost all animals this secretion is thick and
abundant. In women, on the contrary, all the superfluous
matter of the body is directed to this purification.

^ 5. The case of the male is the same, for in proportion to
his size, man emits more semen than other animals ; (where-
fore, also, man is the smoothest of all animals,) and among
men those which abound in humours, and are not very fiiU
fleshed, and fiur men more than dark ones. So also among
women. For in those that are full fleshed, the grei^ter part
of the secretion goes to the supply of the body, and in tii*
act of sexual intercourse, fSur women have naturally more
seminal fluid than dark ones. Liquid and acid fixiids also
^ this kind of intercourse.

CHAxm in.

L It is a sign tiiat women have eonosived when the pudea*
dnmiemainsdij after coition. If the labia are snmthtlMrf


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will not oonceiTO, for it alipt oat ; nor wfll ther if the labia
are thick : but if there is a tentation of rooghneet and re-
aistanoe when touched with the finger, and the labia are *

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