Aristotle.

Aristotle's History of animals. In ten books online

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into their points of difference and agreement ; and after-
wards we will endeavour to inquire into the causes of
these things, but it will be a more natural arian^ment to
do so when we treat of the history of each. For it is evident
from these things what they are, and what we have to de*
monstrate.

5. Our first subject of consideration must be the parts of
which animals are made up, for these constitute the chief
and the whole difference among them ; either because the^
have them or are without them, or these parts vary in posi-
tion or arrangement, or in any of the dim;rences mentioned
before, in form, size, proportion, and difference of accidents,
first of all, then, we will consider the parts of the human
body ; for, as every one can best understand the standard of
money with which he is most familiar, so it is in other things.
And of necessity, man must be the best known to us of all
animals. Theparts of the body are, indeed, plain enough to
every one*s common sense ; but, that we may not forsake our
arrangement, and majr have reason as well as perception, we
will speak, first of al( <^ the organic, andafterwi|rds<^iho
simple, part8«

Chapt£b Vn.
1. Thxsb are the principal parts into which the whole body is
divided. The h^bd, neck, trunk, two arms, and two hgL

:. ^ Animalf with long hmr on their ttik.
' Ginirat it the oApring of » mnla md intrt. Book vL S4^ 1*
* BamiomiB, perhm thoibel of » hone tad wild mb^ sad fO dfis«

tiaol from ofeni^ the SMd of the 1



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12 THS HISTOBT 01* UTIILIlLS. [b. 1.

The whole cavity, from the neck to the pudenda, is called
the trunk. Tliat part of the head which is coyered with
ha^ is odled the crv^nium, the fore part of this is called the
amciput. This is the last formed, oeinff the last bone in
the body which becomes hard ; the hinder part is the occi-
put, ana between the occiput and sinciput is the crown of
the head. The brain is placed beneath the sinciput, and the
occiput is empty ;' the cranium is a thin spherical Done covered
with asldn without flesh. The skull has sutures : in women
there is but one placed in a circle ; men have generally three
joii^ in one, and a man*s skull has been seen without an j
sutures at all. The middle and smooth part of the hair is
caUed the crown of the head ; in some persons this is double^
for there are some people double-crowned, not fit)m any for*
mation of the bonoi but only from the division of the hair.

Chaptm vm.

1. Thz part immediately beneath the cranium is called the
fSM» in mankind alone, for we do not speakof thefaceof afish
or of an ox ; the part immediately beneath the sinciput and
between the eyes is called the forehead. Those in whom
this feature is large are tardy ; those who have a small fore-
head are easily excited; a broad forehead belongs to those
who are liable to be carried away by their feelings ; a round
forehead is a sign of a passionate disposition.

2. Under the forehead are two eyebrows; if they are
straight, it is a mark of a gentle disposition ; the eyebrows
bent down to the nose are an evidence of an austere tem«
per ; if they incline towards the temples, of a mocker and
■coffer; if toey are drawn down, it is a sign of an envious
person. Beneath those are the eyes, which by nature are two
m number: the parts of each eye are,first, the upper and under
eyelid, the edges of which are fiirnished with hair. WitUn
the eve, the moist part with which we see is odled the pupil ;
roona this is the iris, and this is surrounded by the white.
Two comers of the eye are formed at the junction of the ^e-
lidsione in the direction of the nose, the other towards the
temple. If these comers arelarge, they txt asign of an evil
disposition; if those near the nose are fleshy, and have a
MWoOai appearancei they are an evidence of wickedness.
* Thli mktdw is tgsin rspMled in Oh. xiii.



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^. I.] THX HI8T0BT Ot AKI1UX8. 13

8. All other dasaes of animals haTo qrea, except abeU-fiah,
and aome other imperfect creaturea, and all Tiviparoua
animals except molea hare ejes. A person might, howeveTi
conclude from the following observation, that it haa qrea,
though it is quite without them, for it certainly doea not
see at all, nor naa it any external eyea; but, when the skin is
taken off, there ia a place for the eyea, and the iria of the
eye ia in the place which it would naturally occupy on the
outside, aa if they had been wounded in their birth, and the
tkin had grown over the place.

4. The white of the e^e is generally the same in all animala,
but the iria is rery di^rent. In some it is black, in othera
decidedly grey, in others dark grej, and in aome it is the
colour of the goat's eye, and this is a sign of the best dis«
position, and ia most to be priied for acuteness of vision.
Man is almost the only animal which exhibits a variety of
colouring in the eye ; there are, however, some horses with
grgreyes.

5. The eyes of some persons are large, others smaU, and
others of a moderate size — the last- mentioned are the best.
And some eyes are projecting, some deep-set, and some mo-
derate, and those which are deep-set nave the most acute
vision in all animals ; the middle position is a si^ of the
best disposition. Some people have an eye which la perpe*
tually opening and closing, others have an eye always intent,
and others a moderately-intent eye : this last is the best dis-
posed ; of the others, the one is impudent, and the other a
sign of infirmity.

Chaffeb DL

1. Tns part of the head by which we hear, but do not breathe,
ia the ear ; for Alcmaeon is mistaken when he saya tiiat
goats breathe through their ears. One part of the ear haa not
received anj name, the other part is called the lobe. The
whole ear is made up of cartilage and flesh. Internally,
the ear haa the nature of a diell, and the last bone is simi*
lar to the ear itself. The sound xeachea thia part last^ aa
it were in achamber. GRiere is no passage from theearinto
the brain, but thereiatotheroof of the mouth; andavein
extends firom the brain to each ear.^ The eyea also are con*
nected with the bnun^ and each eye ia placed upon a yein.
I XusUehisQ tabs. .



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14 9HS HI8T0BT OY AVIHALd. [b. t.

2. Man is the onl^ animal with ears that cannot more them.
Among animali which have the faculty of hearing ; some have
ears, and others, as winged and scal^ creatures, hare no ear,
but an open orifice in the head ; all Tiviparous animals, except
the seal, and the dolphin, and other cetacea, haye ears ; the
•elache also are Tiriparous. The seal has open orifices by
which it hears ; the dolphin can hear, though it has no ears ;
all other animals can move their ears, but man alone does
not moTe them.

8. The ears (of man) lie in the same circle with his ejeB,
and not aboTe them, as in some quadrupeds. The ears are
either smooth, haury, or moderate. These last are the best
for hearing, but they do not in any way indicate the dis«*
position. They are large, or small or middling, or they are
erect, or not at all, or omy moderately erect. The moderately
erect are a sign of the best disposition ; large and erect ears
ore an eyidence of foolish talking and loquad^. The part
of the head between the eye and the ear is callea the temple.

4. In the middle of the &ce is the nose, the passac^e for the
breath, for through this animals inhale and exhale, and
through it also they sneeze ; this is the expulsion of a con-
eentn^ed breath, and is the only kind of breathing which is
esteemed ominous or sacred : moreoyer, inhaling and exhal-
ing is into the chest, and without the nostrils it is impossible
to inhale or exhale, for inhaling and exhaling is from the
breast by the windpipe, and not from an^ part of the head.
But it is possible to liye without this respiration through the
nostrils. The smell also resides in this part ; this is the sense
of odour. The nostril is yery moyeable, and not naturally
immoyeable like the ear.

5. One part of the nose, namely, the dirision between the
nostrils, is cartilaginous, but the passage is empty, for the
nose is formed of two diyisions. In the elephant, the nostril
is yery large and strong, and it answers to the purpose of a
hand, for the animal can extend it, and with it take its food,
and conyey it to its mouth, whether the food is moist or dry.
Diis is theonly animal that can do so.

*6. There are also two jaws, the upper and the under. All
f!«™«l« moye the lower jaw, except the riyer-crocodile, and
tins moyes the upper jaw only, lielow the nose are two lips,
the tfiA of whicn is yery moyeable. The mouth is toe .



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B. I.] THE HI8T0BT OV AKIKALS. 15

centre of the jaws and the lips. The upper part is called
the roof of the mouth, the lower, the pharjrnx. The ton^e
is the orean of taste. This sense resides in the tip, an^ if
food is placed on the hroad part of the tongue, the taste is
less acute. The tongue partakes of all the other sensations,
as harshness, heat, and cold, as well as that of taste, in com*
mon with the rest of the flesh.

7. The flat part of the tongue is either narrow or moderate
in size, the mcKlerate is the hest, and most apt for dear eloca«
tion. The tongue may he either too loose, or tied down, as in
stammerers and inarticulate speidcers. The flesh of the
tonffue is porous and spongj. The epiglottis is a portion
<^ the tongue, the double part of the mouth is the tonsils ;
that in many divisions the gums, they are fleshy, and in
them are fixed the bony teeth. Within the mouth theie is
another part, the urula, a pillar filled with blood. If this pari
is swelled with relaxation, it is called a grape, and chokes.

Chapteb X.

1. Ths neck is the part between the head and the trunk ; the
front part is called the larynx, behind this is the OBSophagus.
The Toice and the breath pass through the front part, the
trachea, which is cartilaginous, but the oesophagus is fleshy,
and placed fiEuiher in, near the Tertebra or the neck. The
back of the neck is called the epomis. These are the parta
as far as the thorax. The parts of the thorax are some be-
fore and some behind. First of all, below the neck is the
br^ut with two mamm® ; on these are two nipples, through
which the milk of the female passes. The mamma is porous.
There is also milk in the breasts of men. The flesh of the
mamma in men is thick,in women it is spon^and full of pores.

2. The part below the thorax, in front, is the belly, and of
this the navel is the centre. Beneath this centre, tiie part on
each side is called the iliac region; the part in the centre, be*
neath the navel, is called the hypogastric imon ; the lowest
part of this is cidled pubes ; above the naviu is the epigaa.
trio region ; the lumbar r^on is situated between the epi*
gastric and iliac regiona.

8. Of the hinder parts the Iwa forms the division of the
body, whence also its name is derived (Ufi^ quasi Im^pk).
The part of the central region which is like a seat iatiiebat*



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16 THX HISTOBT OY AVIMIXB. [b. !#

lock ; that on wbich tbe thigh turnB| the cotyledon. The
peculiar part of women is the uterus ; of men tiie penis, it
18 external, at the extremity of the trunk in two parts ; the
upper nart is fleshy and smooth, and is called glans ; this is
ooverea with an anonymous skin, which, if it is cut asunder,
does not unite again, neither does the cheek nor the eyelid.

4* Common ^ this and the glans is the prepuce, the re-
maining part is cartilaginous, readily increases in size, and
it is dnwn in and out, contrary to that of the class of ani*
mals called lophuri. Beneath the penis are two testicles,
amrrounded by a skin called the scrotum ; the testicles are
not of the same natureas flesh, nor are they made of flesh.
In another place we shall treat of the nature of all these
parts more accurately.

5. The pudendum muliebre is contrary to that of the
male, for it is hollow under the pubes, not projecting like
that of the male, and the urethra is outside the womb, for the
passage of the semen of the male, and for the fluid excre-
ment of both. The part of the body which joins the neck and
the breast is called the jufi:ulum ; that which unites the side,
the arm, and the shoulder is the arm-pit. The region
letween the thigh and the hypogastric rerion is called the
^in ; the part common to the thigh and the buttock on the
inside is the perineum, that of the thigh and buttock on tbe
outside is called hypoglutis.

6. We haTo prenously treated of the trunk. The hinder
part ct the breast is called the back : the parts of the back
are two shoulder blades and the back-bone ; below the thorax,
and opposite the stomach, are the loins ; the ribs belong
boUi to the back and the front of the trunk, and are eight
on each side, for we hare nerer heard anything worthy of.
credit concerning the Ligyes, who aresaidtohaTesoTen ribs.

Chaptsb XI.

1. Mxs has uroerand lower side, the front and the back, and
light and left Bide. The right and the left are nearly alike in
tmnr parts and in erery particular, except that the left side
ia tiie weaker ; but the back parts are not like the front ;
nor the lower parts to the upper, except in this particular,
iiiat the parts below the hypogastric region are full-fleshed
or lean in proportion to the uce, and the arms also answer



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B. I.] THV HI8T0BT OF AJSTUXIS. 17

to the proportdon of tbe legs. Thoee persons who hsfe a
short humerus have also generally a short thigh : thoee who
have small feet have also small hands.

2. One of the double narts of the body is the arm. The parts
of the arm are the shoulder, humerus, elbow, cubitus, and the
hand ; the parts of the hand are the palm and five fingers ; the
jointed put of the finger is the condyle, the nnjointed part
the phalanx. The thumb has but one joint, all the rest have
two. The bendinff of the arm and finger is always inwards.
The arm is also bent at the elbow : the inner part of
the hand is called the palm; it is fleshy, and divided
by strong Hues. Long-lived persons have one or two linea
which extend through tbe whole hand ; short-lived nersona
have two lines not extending through the whole hand. The

C' ' t of the hand and arm is the wrist. The outside of the
d is sinewy, and has not received any name.
8. The other double part of the lM)dy is the leg. The
double-headed part of the leg is called the thigh, the move-
able part is called the pateUa^ that which Ium two bones
the tibia ; the front of this part is the shin, the hind part
the calf of the leg. The flesh is full of sinews and veins; in
those persons who have large hios, the flesh is drawn np«
wards towards the hollow part nnaer the knee, in thoee who
have not it is drawn down. The lowest part of the shin is
the ankle, and this is double in each leg. The part of the
leg with many bones is called the foot, the hind part of which
is the heel. The Aront part is divided into five toes ; the
under part^ which is fleshy, is called the sole of the foot;
the upper part, (the instep,) is sinewy, and has not re-
ceived any name. One part of the toe is the nail, the other
is the joint; the nail is on the extremity of the toe, and the
toes are bentinwards. Those who have the sole of the foot
thick, and not hollow, but walk upon the whole of the foot,
are Imavish. The common joint (n the thigh and the kg is
the knee.

CHAfTSB Xn.
1. Thiss parts are possessed in commonby the male and fe-
male; the positionof the external parts, whether above or be-
low, before or behind, on the right side or tiielefti will appear
onmere inspection. It is necessaiy, however, to enonnnat^





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18 TIIB HI8T0BT OT AIOICALS. [b. I.

them, for the reasons wbich I hsTe mentioned before, that
its proper place being assigned to each part, an j JUfference in
their arrangement in man and other animals may be less
likely to escape onr notice.

2. In man, the parts of the body are more naturally di-
vided into npner and lower than in any other animal, for all
tiie upper ana lower parts of his body are arranged accord-
ing to the order of nature abore and below $ in the same
war, also, the fore and hind parts, and those on the right
ana left, are placed naturally. But in other animals some
of tiiese parts are either not at all so placed, or they are
mudi more confused than in man. The head is placed abore
the body in all animals, but in man alone, as we hayesaid|ia
this part corresponding to the order of all things.

8. Next to the head is the neck, then the breast and the
back, the one before and the other behind; and each of them
in the following order: — the stomach, loins, pudendal
haunch, then the thi^h and W, and, last of all, the foot.
The legs have the joint bent forwards, in which direction
also is their manner of walking, and the more moreable part
of the legs as well as the joint is bent forward : the heel is be-
hind. "Each of the ankles is like an ear. From the right and
left side come arms, having the joint bent inwards, so that
the flexures both of the legs and arms are towards each other,
especially in man.

4. The senses and the organs of sense, the eyes, nostril,
and tongue are in the some position, and in the antmorpart
of the iK^y ; but the hearing, and itsorsan, and the ears are
at the side, and upon the same circumference as the qr^s.
Manhas the eyes doser together, in proportion to his site,
than other animals. The sense of touch is the most accurate
of the human senses, and next to this the taste. In theiest
of his senses he is fiir surpassed by other animals.

Chaptsb xni.

1. Teb external parts of the body are arranged in this
manner: and, as rhave said, are for the most part named and
known mm habit But the internal parts are not so well
known, and those of the human body are the least known*
8o that in order to explain them we must compare them with
the same parts of those animals whidi are most nearly allied.



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B. I.] THI HISTOBT 0? AVIMAL8. 10

2. First of all, the brain ii placed in the foro-^art of the
heady and it occupies the same position in all animals that
hare this part, wmch belongs to all san^;uineous and oepha-
lopodous animals. In proportion to his sixe, man has the
largest brain of all animals, and the moistest. Two mem-
branes enclose the brain : that outside the skull is the strcmff-
est ; the inner membrane is slighter than the outer one. uk
all animals the brain is in two portions. The cerebellum is
placed upon the brain at its lowest extremitf. It is different
from the brain both to the touch and in appearance.

8. The back of the head is emptf ana hollow in all ani-
mals in proportion to their size, for some hare a large head,
but the part lying under the face is less in those animals
which have round faces ; others hare a small head and lar;^
jaws, as the whole tribe of LophurL In all animals the brain
IS without blood, nor does it contain any veins, and it is
naturally cold to the toudi. The greater number of animals
hare a small cavity in the centre of the brain. And round
this a membrane filled with Toins : this membrane is like
skin, and encloses the brain. Above the brain is the ilbooth-
est and weakest bone in the head — ^it is called sinciput.

4. Three passages lead from the eye to the brain ; the
largest and the middle-sized to the cerebellum, the least to
the brain itself. The least is that whidi is nearest the noetaril;
the greater are parallel, and do not meet ; but the middle-
sisea passages meet: this is most evident in fidies, and
those passages are nearerto the brain tiian the la^rgeri but
the least separate from each other, and do not meet.
^ 5. Within the neck is the OBSophagus, which also de-
rives its additional name, the isthmus, firom its length and
narrowness, and the trachea. The trachea lies in mmtof
the OMophagus in all animals which possess this part, that ia,
all animals which breathe from the lunffs. The trachea it
cartilaginous in its nature, and contains out little blood s it
is surrounded with many smooth rings of cartilage, and it
lies upon the upper part tovrards the mouth, opposite the pas-
sage nrom the nostnl to the mouth, wherefore, also, if anr
liquid is drawn into it in drinking, it pisses out of themoota
throudi the nostrils.

. 6. fietween the passages is the epiglottis, which can be
Sdded over the passage which extends from the tndiea to tho

2



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20 THS HIBTOBT OT AKIlfALt* [b. L

mouth ; b j the epiglottis the passage of the tongue is closed^
at the other extremity the trachea reaches to the middle
of the lungs, and afterwards divides to each side of the lungs.
For the lung is double in all animals which possess this
part, thouffh the division is not so marked in viyiparous ani-
mals, andleast of all in man. ^ The human lungs are ano«
malous, neither being divided into manj lobes, as in other
animals, nor being smooth.

7. In oviparous animals, such as birds and the oviparous
quadrupeds, the parts are very widely separated, so that
ihej appear to have two lungs ; they are, however, only two
divisions of the trachea extending to each side of the lungs ;
the trachea is also united with the great vein and with the
part allied the aorta. When the tnchea is filled with air,
it distributes the breath into the cavities of the lungs, which
have cartilaginous interstices ending in a point ; the passa^
of these interstices go through the whole lungs, always divid-
ing from greater into less.

8. The heart is connected with the trachea by fatty and car-
tilaginous muscular bands. There is a cavity near the junction,
and in some animals, when the trachea is filled with breath,
this cavity is not always distinc;uishable, but in larger ani-
mals it is evident that the breath enters it. This then is the
farm of the trachea, which only inhales and exhales breath,
and nottung else either dry or moist, or it sufiers pain till that
Irhich has passed down is coughed up.

9. The oesophagus is joined to the mouth from above, near
the trachea, being united both to the spine and the trachea
br membranaceous ligaments. It passes through the dia-
pbra^ into the cavit^ of the stomach, is fleshy in its nature,
and is extensible both in length and breadth. The human
ftomadiis like that of a dog, nota great deal lar^^r than the
entrail, but Uke a wide bowel; after this there is an entrail
■imply rolled together, then an entrail of moderate width.
The lower part of the abdomen is like that pf ahog, for it is
wide, and^&om this to the seat it is short and thick.

10. The omentum ia united to the abdomen in the middle,
and 18 in its nature a fatty membrane, as in other animals
with a single stomach and teeth in both jaws. Themesente-
rimn ia over the bowels ; it is membranaceous, broad, and fat ;
it IB united to tiie great vein and the aorta ; through it extend



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B. I.] THS HI8T0BT OT JLKI1CAL8. • 21

Bitnr ntunerous yeins at its ionction with the intettmety
rMching from above downwaj-os. This is thenatureof the
OBSophaguSy trachea^ and the parts of the abdominal cavity.

Chjlptbb XIY.

1. Thb heart has three cavities : it lies above the lungs, near
the division of the trachea. It has a fat and thick membrane,
by which it is united to the great vein and the aorta, and it
lies upon the aorta near the apex ; and the apex is placed in
the same situation in all animals which have a chest ; and in
all animals, whether they have or have not a chest, the apes
of the heart is forwards, though it often escapes notice by
the change of position in the parts when dissected. The
gibbous portion of the heart is upwards ; its apex is gene-
rally fleshy and thick, and tLisre is a sinew in the cavities.

2. In all other animals which have a chest the heart is placed
ixi the centre ; in man it is rather on the left side, inclining
a little from the division of the mammo towards the left
breast in the upper part of the chest ; it is not large ; its
whole form is not long, but rather round, except tluit the
extremity ends in a point It has three cavities, as I have
said. The greatest is that on the right, the least on the
left, the middle one is of intermediate sise. They are all
perforated towards the hmm. It has both the two smaller,
and all of them perforated towards the lungs, and this is
evident in one of^the cavities downwards from its point of
attachment.

8. Near the principal cavity it . is attached to the great
vein to which also the mesenterium is united, and in the



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