Aristotle.

Aristotle's History of animals. In ten books online

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after this are the entrails.

7. This is the nature of the stomach of animals with horns,
and no teeth in the upper jaw. But they differ from each
other in the form and size of these parts ; and because the
cesophagus is sometimes united to the middle, and some-
times to the side of the stomach. Most animals which have
teeth in both jaws have but one stomach, as the man, dog,
bear, lion, and the wolf. The thos' has all its intestines like a
wolf. All these have but one stomach, to which the bowel
is united. But in some of these the sfcomach is larger, as
the hog and the bear; that of the hog is marked with a
few smooth lines. In other animals the stomach is less,
not indeed much larger than the intestine, as the dog, lion,
and man. In the forms of their bowels other animals
are divided into two classes, resembling these types ; for in
some the stomach resembles a dog's, in others a nog's, both
the greater and lesser animals in the same way; and tiie
atomachs of various animals differ in size, form, thickness,
^?"*y»f| and the position of the junction of the oesophagua.

> 7dib oust, peihapf alfo canii auieiis.



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B. II.] THB mSTOBT 07 AVnCALS. 43

8. And the nature of the bowels differs in the before-nained
•nitnals, tiioee, namely, whi<^ have not, and those which hare
teeth in botii jaws, in size, thickness, and folding. The intes*
tines of the ruminants are all large, and so are the animals
themselves ; tiiereare a few small animals of this dass, and
there is no homed animal which is very smalL And some
have appendages to the intestines, for none of the animals
with teeth in b>th iaws have straight intestines. There are
enlargements in the bowels of the elephant, which ffive it
the appearance of having four stomachs ; in these tike food is
detained, and apart from these there is no receptacle for the
food. Its intestines are verj like those of the hog, except
that the liver is four times peater than that of the ox, and
othar parts also ; the spleen is small in proportion to its sixe.

9. The stomach and intestines of oviparous quadrupeds
bear a similar proportion to each other, as in the land and
marine tortoise, the lizard, and both kinds of crocodiles,^
and similar quadrupeds ; for they have one simple stoma<^
in some it is like that of the hog, in others like that of the
dog.

10. The class of serpents in almost every part *of their
body resemble the saunans, which have feet, and are ovi-
parous, if we add to their length, and take awav the feet ;
for snakes are covered with scales, and have their upper
and lower parts like saurians, except that they have no tea*
tides, but, like fish, two passages united in one, and a
large and doven uterus, but in other respects their in-
testines are so like those of saurians, except that from
their dongated figure their intestines are long and narrow,
that they might oe mistaken for them, from their similari^.

IL lor the trachea is very long, and the oesophagus still
longer, and the commencement of the trachea is dose to
the mouth, so that the tongue appears to lie beneath it.
The trachea appears to be above the tongue because this
last can be retracted, and is not always in one posi^on, as
in other animals. Their tongue is long, thin, and black,
and can be put forth for some distance. The tongue of
serpents and saurians is distinct from that of all otbec
anmuJs, for the extremity of the tongue is cloven; this is
most remarkable in serpents, for the extremities of their
* (kooodihtniktioiiisiidLtMrUiUUiOb



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4



i ' 4li ras HIBTOBT 07 AKIHALS. [B. It.

; tongues are like hain. The seal also has a forked tongue.

The serpent has a stomach like a veiy wide entrail, like
that of the dog, afterwards a yeiy long and thin intestme,
which is alike to its extremil^.

12. Behind the pharynx is a small kidnej-shaped heart,
so that at times toe apex does not appear to be directed
towards the chest, next to this is a single lung, divided hj
a muscular passage, rerj long, and descending a long
distance from the breast. The liver is long and simple,
the spleen small and round, like that of the saurians.
The gall resembles that of fish, in water serpents it is
situated on the liver, in others generally upon the intes-
tines. They all have pointed teeth, and as many ribs as
there are days in the month, for they have thirty. Some
persons sav that in one respect serpents resemble the
young of the swallow, for if tneir eyes are pierced with a
pointed instrument, they will grow a^ain, and if the tails of
serpents or lizards be cut off, they will be reproduced.

13. The same remarks will apply to the intestines and
stomachs of fishes, for they nave one simple stomach,
but it differs in form, for in some fishes it is like a bowel,
as in the one called scarus, and this is the only fish that
i^pears to ruminate, and the size of the intestines is
simple and folded together, for it can be resolved into one,
by unfoldinc it. The appendages of the stomach appear
to be pecuUar to fishes and birds, for birds have iinem
above the stomach, and few in. number, but in fish they
are above, and around the stomach. Some have many ap-
pendages, as the gobius,^ galeus,* perca, scorpios,' citharus,^
trigla,*^and spams.* But the cestrais has many on one side
of tiie stomach, and only one on the other. Some have
onlv a few, as the hepatus* and the glaucus,* and the chrv-
Bophrys' also has only a few, but some individuals diner
from others, for one chrysophrys has many, another has
only a few. There are some fish which have none of them,
as most of the cartilaginous genera; others have a few,
and some a great many, and alTfiyili have these appendages
very near the stomach itself.

* Gobi<\ gndgeon. * Shark. * Cottoi soorphii.

* VnhMf PleiuoiiaetM fbombiu. ' * KuUut fiurmuleatiis.

* SfMMmt maioft. ^ Xhentif hepttuf. * FMteUy Oobio goto.



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B. II.] THX HI8T0BT 07 AKIIIXLS. . 45

14. Birds have tbeir internal parts different from each
other and from other animals ; for some have before the
stomach a crop, as the domestic fowU pigoon, doTO, and
partrid^. The crop is a lar^ and hollow skin, into which
the food is receiyed Wore it is digested. Hence from the
OBSophagos it is narrower, then wider, and where it descends
into the stomach it is smaller.

15. In most birds the stomach is fleshy and thick, and on
the outside there is a strong skin, whico is separated from
the fleshy part. Some birds have no crop, but instead of
it a wide oesophagus, either wholly so, or in the part extend-
ing to the stomach, as in the colceus,* rayen, and crow.
The quaU has the lower part of the OBSophagus broad, the
s^gocephalus has it smiul but wider, and so has the owL
But the duck, goose, gull, diver, and bustard, have a wide
and broad oesophamis, and so have many other birds.

16. And some have a part of the stomach itself like a
crop, as the cenchreis;* and there are some which have
neither oesophagus nor a wide crop, but a lai^ stomach ;
these are small birds like the swaUow, and the sparrow.
A few have neither a crop, nor a wide oesophagus, but a
very lone one ; these are oirds with a long neck, as the por-
phyrion.' Almost all these emit a moister excrement tnan
other birds.

17. The quail has these peculiarities, for it has act^p, and
before the stomach a wide and broad oesophagus. And the
crop is at a creat distance from the j^art of the oesophagus
before the belly, considering the size of the bird. Birds
have generally a small intestine, whidi is single when un«
foldeo, and birds have appendages, a fiew,as I mive said^and
not placed above, as in nsh, but below, near the end of the
intestine. Some birds have not these appendages, though •
they generally have them, as the domestic fowl^ partridge,
dudEy night-raven,* localus,* ascalaphus,* goose, bnstara,
owl. Some of the small birds have them, but they Me yeij
minute, as the sparrow.



t Three kiadt of birds are called by tfait aams. Ccrraa
dnonediik, end Pelioaiiue gfaenhis. *MootuiiraiM

* Faliee^>r]^^rioA. « Izdeaayetisofax. * Bone kind of



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48 THS HiiTOBT OT AiaiuLS. [b. nx.



BOOK THE THIRD.



Chapteb L



1. Ws hare treated of tbe other internal parts of animals,
their number, their nature and varieties. It now remains for
us to speak of the organs of generation. In females these are
always internal ; but there is much difference in males, for
some sanf^eous animals hare no testicles at all, in others
tivqr are interoal ; and in some animals with internal tes-
ticles, thej are placed near the kidneys, in others near the
abdomen ; in other animals they are extemaL The penis
of these last is sometimes united to the abdomen, in others
it is loose as well as the testicles ; but in promingent and
retromingent animals it is suspended from tbe abdomen
in a different manner. Neither fish nor any other animal
with gills, nor the whole class of serpents, haye testicles ;
neither has any apodal animal which is not internally yiyi-
parous.

2. Birds have testicles, but they are internal and near
the loins, and so have oviparous quadrupeds, as the lizutL,
tortoise, and crocodile, and among yiyiparous animals, the
r hedgehog. In some yiyiparous animals they are situated in«

tenudly upon the abdomen, as the dolphin amons apodal
y creatures, and the elephant among ouaorupeds. £i other

* animals the testicles are external. It has oeen previously

observed, that the manner and position of their junction with
the abdomen is various, for m some they are joined on and do
not hang down, as in swine, in others tney hang down as in



8. It has also been observed that neitiier fishes nor serpents
have teetides, but they have two passages hanging down on
each side of the spine from the diaphragm, and uiese unite
in one passaee abSsve the anus, by above, we mean nearer
tbe Spinal CMumn. At the season of cdtioin these passages
are fiill of semen, which exudes on pressure; the dinerenoes



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B. ni.] THE HI8T0BT Of AiniLiLS. 47

among these may be seen by diBsection, and in another place
they will each 1>e considered more particularly.

4. All oriparous animals, whether bipeds or qnadrupedi^
have their testicles placed in the loins below the diaphragm,
some of a white colour, others ochreous, but in all sur-
rounded with small reins ; from each of these a passage is
produced, which afterwards become united in one, and, as
in fish, open near the anus. This is the penis, which is in«
conspicuous in small animals ; but in the larger, as the ^;oose
and such like, it becomes more conspicuous immediately
after coition.

5. And these passages, both in fish sad other animals^
are joined to the loins below the stomach and between the
entrails and the great yein, from which passages proceed to
each of the kidneys ; and, as in fish, the semen may be seen
entering them at the period of coition, when these passages
become rery conspicuous, but when this season is passed
the passages again become iuTisible. Bo also the tcvtides
of birds are either small or entirely invisible when not excited,
but when ur^ t>j desire they become very large ; this is so
remarkable in pigeons and partrid^^ that some persouB
have supposed that they had no testicles durins winter.

6. In some of those animals in which the testides are j^laced
forwards, they are internal and upon the abdomen, as in the
dolphin ; in others they are externally conspicuous n{>on the
extremity of the abdomen. These animab are similar in
other respects, but differ in this, for in some the testicles
are uncovered, and others that have external testes they sre
placed in a scrotum.

7. This is the nature of the testicles of all viviparous ani-
mals with feet : from the aorta, passages like veins proceed
to the head of each testicle, and two others from the kidnqrs,
these last are full of blood, but those from the aorta con^
tain no blood. From the head of each teetide to the tes-
ticle itself, there proceeds a thicker and more muscular pas-
sage, whicJi is in each testide refiected back to the head of
the testide, and from this point they again unite upon the
penis towards tiie fore-part of it.

8. And both these passages which ar6*refiected back upon
themsdves,and those which are seated upon tiie testidesy
sre covered with the same membrane as the testes thani*



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iS THE HI8T0BT 07 AXtUAlB. [b. III.

nelvesy so that rxciesB this membraoe is taken away, tliey all
appear to be one passage. These last passages, which are
seated upon the testicle, contain sanguineous fluid, but less
than those above from the aorta; but in the reflected
passages of the duct which is upon the penis, the fluid is
white. A passage also leads from the blinder, and is united
to the upper part of this duct^ which is enclosed in the part
called the penis as in a husk. The accompanying diagram
will illustrate the position of these parts.

9. The origin ot the passage firom the trachea, a ; the head
ofthe testes and the descenoing passages, 6 6; the passages'
which proceed from these, and are seated upon the testide,
te; the reflexed passages which contain the white fluid,
dd; tiie penis, e; the bladder,/; the testicles, sf 9* But
when the testicles are cut out or otherwise destroyed, the
upper passages are retracted ; in^^oung animals castration
is j^erformed by bruising the testicles, in older animals by
excision. Audit has bappened that a bull has begotten
young if admitted to the female immediately after castra«
tion. This is the nature of the testicles of animah.

10. The uterus of the females that possess this organ is not
of Ae same nature, nor alike in all, but they difler from
each other both in viviparous and oviparous animals. The
uterus is double in all those animals in which it is situated
near the external oi^gan of generation, one part lying on the
right side, the other on the left, but the origin is one, and
there is but one os uteri, which is like a very fleshy tube,
and inmost animals, especially those of a lar^ size, it is
cartilaginous. One part of this organ is called the uterus
and ddphys (whence the word adelphii brothers), and the
vagina and os uteri are called metra.

11. In all viviparous animals, whether bipeds or quadru-
peds, the uterus is placed below the diaphragm, as in the
human female, the bitch, sow^ mare, and cow, and it is the
same in all homed animals. At the extremity of the uterus
most animals have a convoluted part called the horns ; these
are not distinct in all oviparous animals ; but in some birds
they are placed near the diaphragm, and in some fishes
beloWy as in the viviparous bipeds and quadrupeds. But
they are tUn, membranaceous, and long, so that in very small
fish each part of the roe appears as one ovum, as if the fish '



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B. m.] VIU HI8T0BT 07 AKIICALS. 40

wliich are said to have a crumbling roe bad but two ora, for
it is not one ovum but many, and therefore it may be resolyed
into many.

12. In the uterus of birds the ragina is below, fleshy and
tough, but the part near the diaphragm membranaceous and
yery thin, so that the eggs appear to be outside the uterus.
In large birds the membrane is more conspicuous, and if
inflated through the vagina, it swells and enlarges at places ;
in small birds these pa^ are not conspicuous. The uterus
of oviparous quadrupeds, as the tortoise, lizard, fro^, and
such Ukc, is of the same nature, for the vagina below is one
and fleshy, but the division and the ova are higher up and
near the diaphragm.

13. In those apodal creatures which are outwardly vivi*
parous and inwardly oviparous, as the sharks and selachea
—[The selachea are apodal, furnished with cills, and vivi-
parous] — the uterus is divided, and as in birds, it com*
mences below and extends towards the diaphragm. The
ova are situated between the division, and above near the
diaphragm ; and the animal is produced from the ovum afWr
this has descended into the open space.

14. The difference between the uteri of these flsh and
others may be studied more accurately in drawings of dis*
sections. Serpents also differ much both among themselves
and from other animals, for all serpents except the viper are
oviparous ; this one is viviparous, though at first internally
oviparous, wherefore, in many respects, its uterus resembles
that of the cartilaginous fishes. The uterus of the serpent
is long, like the body, and descends downwards, beginning
from one duct and continuing on either side of the spine as
far as the diaphragm, as if ei^ were a passage, in whidi the
ova are placed in order : these ova are not extruded singly,
but connected together like a chain.

15. In all animals that are eitiier internally or extemallT
viviparous, tiie uterus is situated above the abdomen; in aU
oviparoua creatures it is placed below, near the loins. Thmo
that are externally viviparoua, but intemall;^ oviparous, par-
take of both characters, for the lower part m which the ova
are situated is near the loins, the other part whence the ova
are extruded above the intestinea. And there is also tiiis
difference in the uteri of animala: those whiA have hocna



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60 T9£ HI8T0BT Or JLKUCALB. . [B lit

and not teeth in both jaws hare cotyledons in the pregnant
utenia, and some of those also with teeth in both jaws, as the
hare, the mouse, and the bat. But other firiparous animals
with teeth in both jaws, and with feet, have a smooth uterus.
The embryo is not united to the cotyledon, but to the
womb. This is the manner of the internal and external
heterogeneous parts of animals,

Chaptie II.
1. Of the homogeneous parts of animals, the blood is com-
moato sanrameous animals ; and so is the part in which it
is contained, which is called a rein ; analogous to these, in
exsanguineous animals are the serum and the fibre, lliat
which especiall;^ constitutes the body is flesh or its analopie :
the bone and its analogue; the spine and the cartilage.
Kext to this we place the skin, membranes, sinews, hair,
nails, and their analogue ; after these, adeps, fat, and ezcre^
mentitions matters ; then are fieces, phlegm, and bile, both
the yellow and the black.

2. But inasmuch as the blood and the veins seem to
occupy the chief place, we will first of all speak of these,
both lor other reasons, and because former writers do not
appear to have described them rightly. The difficulty of
understanding them is the reason of their errors, for in
dead animals, the nature of the principal veins is obscure,
for they collapse as soon as the blooa has escaped, and it
pours out of them as from a vessel. No part of the bodj,
except the veins, contabs any blood, except the heart, which
has a little ; but it is all in the veins. In living creatures
their nature cannot be distinguished, for they are internal,
and out of sight ; so that those who consider them onlj in
dead and disMcted animals, cannot see their principal ori-
gins. But some, by the examination of emaciated persons,
nave distinguished the origin of the veins, from the appear^
ance of those which are extemaL

8. For Syennesis,Va Cyprian physician, speaks thus:
^The larger veins are thus constituted. From the navel
around tM loins, through the back to the lungs, under the
breasti ; that from the right to the left, and that from the

* fl^eniient, a phy ticisa of Crpnis. Tcfj littk is known of him i
ks mifi bsfo fired m or before the fourth eoitiiry B.a . j



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B. in.] THB HI8T0BT OF XKJMAXJI. 01

left to the right. That from the left, through the lirer to
the kidney and the testicle ; that from the right to the spleen,
the kidney, and the testide, and from thence to the ^nis.'*

4. Diogenes* of ApoUonia writes thus: ''The Tems are
thus placed in man. There are two reiy large (mes, which
extend through the stomacli by the spine of the back, one
" to the right and the other to the Idft, each to the 1^ nearest
itself, and upwards to the head by the collar>bone, andthrough
the neck. From these great reins others extend through the
whole of the body, from the right to the right side, and from
the left to the left side. The largest are two from the heart,
surrounding the spine of the back ; and others, a little higher
up, through the breasts under the arm-pits, each to the hand
nearest itself; and the one is called the splenetic, the other
the hepatic Tein.

6. ** The extremity of these reins is divided, one branch
goes to the thumb, and another to the wrist, and from these
many small branches are extended upon each hand, and the
fingers ; and others, smaller still, branch off from these first *
veins, from the right side to the liver, from the left to the
spleen and kidneys. The veins, which go to the legs, are
divided near the junction, and extend through the whole
thigh ; but the largest of these extends to the back of the
thigh, and appears thick ; another, less thick, passes through
the inside of the thigh, and afterwards veins extend by the
knee to the leg and foot. As on the hands, they are distri-
buted upon the tarsus of the foot, and from thence to the toes.

G. **A. number of small veins are distributed on the
stomach and the lungs. Those that extend to the head,
through the jugular region, appear large in the neck. Erom
the extremity of each of these many vems are distributed
upon the head, some on the right siae to the left, others on
the left side to the right, they all end near the ear. And
there is a second vein upon the neck on each side, 8ome>
what less than the other, to which the principal veins of j

the neck are united. These pass inwards, through the
neck, and from each of theih veins pass beneatji the
shoulder-blade and to the hands ; and near the splenetic and

^ ])ioffeiMtof ApoUcmiawMsaammontiiatiinlphilofopherof Ci^
in the fifth oentii^ B.a Ho wrote a work, wtpi #6#imc, in which ho
tvetted of ttotiiiol phfloiopl^ m tho widoii toiM of Iho wordot ftw firog*
JMti 010 itm ffitenti of whidi this «Mlod bf Aristotlo is the kMifMk



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5S THX HI8T0BT 01* AimCALS. [b. III.

hepatic Teins there appear othon a little less, which thejr
difide when any disease attacks the skin ; but the heiMitic
and splenetic reins are dinded for any disease in the neigh-
bouriiood of the stomach.

7. Other reins pass from these, beneath the breasts;
and there are other small ones, which proceed from each of
these through the spinal marrow to the testicles, and others
beneath the skin, through the flesh, reach^ the kidneys ; in
men they terminate upon the testicles, in women on the
uterus. The first reins from the stomach are wider, and
literwards become smaller, until thej pass orer from the
rieht to the left, and from the left to the right ; these are
cidled the spermatic reins. The thickest blood is beneath
the flesh, but that which is in excess in these places be-
comes thm, and warm, and frothy." These are the opinions
of Syennesis and Diogenes.

8. Polybus* writes thus : ''There are four pair of reins, one
from the back of the head through the neck, on the outside,
near the spine on either side, as far as the thighs and the
lees, afterwards through the legs to the ancles, on the out-
side, and to the feet. Wherefore, in complaints of the back
and thigh, they diride the reins upon the poplitic region, or
ancles, on the outside. Another pair of reins pass from the
head, by the ears, through the neck, these are called the
insular reins ; and others within, near the spine, lead by the
loms to the testicles and the thighs, and through the poplitic
region on the inside, and through the leg to the inner part
of the ande, and the feet ; whereforo, in complaints of^the
Icrins and testides, they bleed in the poplitic region and andes.

9. ** The tiiird nair of reins, from the temple through the
neck, and beneath the scapula, reach the luncs ; those from
the right to the left, under the breast, to the spleen and
kidneys ; and those frt>m the left to the right side, from the
lungs, under the breast, and lirer, and udney ; and both
end beneath the testides. The fourth pair from the forepart
<»f the head and the eyes, under the neck and collar-bones ;
fitMD thence they extend through the humerus to the dbow.
and through the cubitus to the wrist and the fingers, and
throng the lower part of the arm to the arm-pitiy and the

> F^7bai|apopaorH^poaralif,aniiti?t ofthtkUndor Obtt ha
-""-•^"-1 to Usk




Online LibraryAristotleAristotle's History of animals. In ten books → online text (page 6 of 39)