Aristotle.

Aristotle's History of animals. In ten books online

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one, both beneath the chin and upon it ; in others, theee
parts are smooth, and the beard is on the cheeks. Those
who have smooth chins are least likely to become bald. The
hair grows in some diseases, as in phthisis especiallj,
and in old age, and upon dead bodies, and the hair Deeomes
harder instrad of softer. The same is the case with the
nails. In persons of strong passions, the hair that is bom
with them decreasee. while that which comes after birth in*



10. Hioss who suflbr fWmi enlarged veins are kss'likel/



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M THX HI8T0BT OX* AIOILIlLS. [b. UL

to become bald ; and if they haye this disease after they are
•', J bald, the hair sometimes ^ws again. The hair, when

I' * ; cut off, does not grow again from the extremity, but in«

f; ; creases by growth from the root. The scales of fishes

fi ' become har£r and thicker, and in those that are growing

I thin and old they become still harder. The hair and wooi,

r . of old animals becomes thicker, though the quantity de«

; creases ; and the hoofs and claws enlarge as the^ grow old,

n ' and the beaks of birds. And the daws grow in the same

[( \ray as the nails.

, j 11. Feathered animals, like birds, do not change their

; ) ' colour by ace, excepting the crane, for this bird is ash-

^ coloured, and becomes black by age. But from the change

of season, when it becomes cold, some of those baring but
one colour, bUck or my, become white, as the crow,
sparrow, and swaUow ; but none of those which are white
become bUck. At different seasons of the year many birds
chance the colour of their plumage, so as to render it mfficult
for &ose who are not acquaintea with tbem to recognise
them.

12 And man^ animals change their colour with a change
of water; for in one place they are bUck, and in another
white ; and the same thing takes place at the season of co-
ition. There are many waters of such a nature that if
•beep drink of them before sexual intercourse, they produce
UadL lambs ; as at that which is called the cold riyer in the
Thracian Chalcis (in Astjrritis). And in Antandria there
are two riyers, one of which turns the sheep white, the
other black ; and the Scamander appears to make the sheep
ydlow, wlterefore some people tlunk that Uomer called
the Scamander the Xanthus.

13. Other animals haye no hair internally, nor upon the
bottom of their feet, though it is on the upper part. The
hare alone has hair on the inside of its cheeks, and upon
its feet, and the mysticetus* has no teeth in its mouth,
but hairs, like hog*s bristles. The hair, if it is cut oi!^
increases below, but not aboye. Feathers do not grow
either aboye or below, but fall out. The wing of the oee,
if it is plucked off^ does not grow acain, nor that of any
other cmtore whidi has an undiyided wing; nor does tbie



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eting of the bee grow after it is plucked out, but the tnimal
diM.

CnAPTEB XI.

1. Thxbe are membranes in all sanguineoua animals. Mem-
brane is like a dense thin skin, but it differs in kind, for it t
is neither divisible nor extensible. There is a membrane ¥
round every bone and every intestine, both in the greater \\
and smaller animals ; they are inconspicuous in small ani- f^
rnsls, owing to their thinness and small size. The principal p
membranes are two, which surround the brain, one round t
the bones of the head, and this is stronger and thicker than
that round the brain itself; and after these, the membrane
which surrounds the heart. A thin membrane does not
unite after it has been cut asunder, and the bones, when de-
prived of their membranes, become inflamed.

2. The omentum is a membrane. All sanguineous ani-
mals have an omentum ; in some it is fat, in others it con-
tains no fat. In viviparous animals, with cuttme teeth in
both jaws, it has its origin and is suspended from the middle
of the stomach, where it app^urs like a suture of this organ.
In those that have not teeth in both jaws, it is suspended
in the same wav from the principal stomach.

8. The bbdcfer also is membranous, but its character is

different, for it is extensible. All animals have not a

bladder, but all viviparous animals have this organ, and the

tortoise alone of oviparous animals. When the bladder is | ; 1

cut it does not re-unite, except at the very origin of the

urethra, or only very rarelv, for it has happened sometimes.

No moisture passes into the bladder of dead animals ; but

in living creatures there are dry compounds, from whidi are

formed the stones that are found in persons labouring under

this disease ; sometimes they are oi such a nature in the

1 bladder as to differ in nothing from shells, l^iis, then, is

i the nature of veins, sinews, and skins, and of muscle and

\ membrane ; and of hair, nails, daws, boob, horns, teeth and

i beaksi and of cartilage, bone, and their analogues.

y Chaptbb XIL

; 1. Ib aU sanguineous animals, flesh, and that which is liie

\ flesh, ii between the skin and the bcmeyor what is analogoua

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to bone ; for the same relation which a apine bears to a bone,
18 iJso borne by flesh to that which is like flesh, in animals
possessing bones and spines. The flesh can be divided in
ererj direction, and so is unlike sinews and reins, which
can onlj- be divided in their length. The flesh disappears
in emaciated animals, giving place to veins and fibres. Those
animals which can obtoin abundance of good food have fat
instead of flesh.

2. Those that have much flesh hare smaller veins and
redder blood, and their intestines and stomachs are small ;
but those which have large veins and dark blood, and large
intestines and great stomachs, have also less flesh, for those
that have fat flesh have small intestines.

Chaptxb XIII.

1. Anxps and fat difler from each other, for fafc is alwajs
brittle, and coagulates upon cooling, but sdeps is liquid, and
does not coagulate; and broths made from animals with
adeps do not thicken, as from the horse and hog, but that
maae from animals with fat thickens, as firom the sheep and
goat These substances also differ in situation, for the
Sdeps is between the skin and the flesh ; but the fat only
exists upon the eztremilj of the flesh. In adipose animals
the omentum is adipose, in fat animals it is fattj : for the
animals vrith cutting teeth in both jaws are adipose, those
that have not cutting teeth in both jaws are fat.

2. Of tho viscera in some animals the liver is full of
adepa, as in the cartikginous fishes, for oil is procured from
these during the process of decomposition, the cartilagi-
nous fish are particularljr free from adeps on their fle^i,
but the adeps is separated on the stomach. The fat also
of Ashes is adipose, and does not coagulate ; and some '
animals are furnished with adeps on the flesh, and others
i^Mrt from the flesh; and those creatures in which the
adept is not separated from the flesh have less of this
•obstance on the stomach and omentum, as the eel: for
these creatures have little fat on the omentum. In most
animals the adeps collects principallj upon the abdomen^
espedall J in those which take little exercise.

8. The brain of adipose animals is unctuous^ as in swine ;
that of fatty animals la dry. Of all the viscera the kidnej*



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t are Buironnded by the greatest quantity of adepa in all ani«
' mala ; that on the right tide is alwara the leaat adipose ;
and let there be erer so much adeps, there is always a spaoo
left between the kidneys. They are also the most fatty of
the viscera, and especially in sheep, for this animal some*
times dies from the entire concealment of its kidneys in fi^
This excessive fat around the kidneys arises mm good
pasture, as in the Leontine territory of Sicily ; wherefore
also in the evening they drive away the sheep which have
been feeding during the day, in order that they may take
' less food.

4. The fat around the pupil of the eye is common to all
animals ; for all have fat m this part, that possess it, and are
not hard-eyed. Fat animals, ooth male and female, are
more inclined to be barren, and all old animals become fat
more readfly tlian voung ones, especially when thev increase
in depth, having obtained their proper width and length.

Chaptsb XIV.

1. The following is the nature of the blood. This is most
essential and common to all sanguineous animals, and is not
superadded, but exists in all animals that are not in a perish-
ing condition. All the blood is in a vessel called the veins,
but in no other part of the body, except the heart. The
blood of all animals has no sense of touch, nor has the excre-
mentitious matter in the stomach ; neither have the brain, nor
the marrow, any sensation of touch ; but wherever the flesh
is divided, the olood flows in the living subject, unless the
flesh is pNerishinff. It is the nature of the blood to have a
sweet juice, as lon^ as it is healthy and a red colour, and
that is bad which either by nature or disease is black. Tbe
best kind of blood is neither very thick nor thin, unless it
is vitiated either b^ nature or disease.

2. In living animals it is always warm and moist, but
when taken out of the animal the blood of all creatures eo-
agulales, except that of the stag and deer, and periiaps soma
others of the same nature. The blood of all other creatnrei
coagulates, unless the flbre is taken out of it. Bullock's
blood coagulates faster than that of anv otiier animals.
Amongst sanguineous animals, those which ace both inter-
nally and externally viviparous, have the most blood, and

t S



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68 THS HI8T0BT 07 AVIHALB. [b. ITI.

after tbem the OTiparous Banguineous animals ; thoae which
are well disposed, either hy nature or by health, have not a
great deal of blood, as in those that have just drank ; nor
a Tery little, as in those which are Teiy fat. Fat animals
baTe pure blood, though the quantity is small ; as they be«
come more fat they lose a portion of their blood, for fat is
free from blood. Fat is not corruptible, but blood and the
parts that contain blood are Tery corruptible ; of these the
parts surrounding the bones are most corruptible.

8. Man has the thinnest and purest blood, that of the ox
and ass is the thickest and blackest of all Tiviparous ani«
mals. The blood is thicker and blacker in the lower than in
the upper parfc of animals. The blood palpitates in the veins
alike m all animals ; this alone of all the fluids exists in every
part of the body of living subjects, and as long only as ther
are alive. The blood first of all exists in the heart of all
animals before it is distributed through the body. When de-
prived of their blood, or if the greater part escapes, theyfaint
awar ; but when a very great deal is lost, they die. When
the blood becomes very much liquefied, illness ensues, for it
becomes like serum, and flows through in such a manner,
that some have perspired blood ; and when taken out of the
body, it does not coagulate into a mass, but into separate
and divided portions. ^

4. In sleeping animals, the blood in the extremities
is diminisheo, so that it does not flow freely when they
are pricked. Blood is formed fit>m serum, and fat from
blood. When the blood becomes diseased, hsmorrhoids
are produced, either in the nose or anus, and a disease
called ixia.' When the blood becomes corrupted in the
bod^, pus is formed, and from pus a scab. The blood
in females differs from that of males, for it is more thick
and black in females of similar health and age. In the
whole of the body the quantity of blood is less in females.
bat internally they are more full of blood. Of all females,
women have the most blood, and the catamenia are more
abuiulant in tbem than in other females.

5. When thk bk)od is diseased, it is called a flooding.
Wcnnen have a less share in other diseases; but a few are
afllieted witb 1x1% and with bamorrboida and bleeding

> Tariooie vsina.



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B. m.] Tme bistobt ot ajhualb. 60

from the nose ; when any of these take place, the catamenia
decreaae. The blood difllen in proportimi to the age in quan«
titjr and appearance, for when Terj joun^, it is » ore like
aenmi, and verj abundant ; in the aged it is thick, black,
and in lees quantity ; in those in the prime of life it is be-
tween thetie. In aged persona the blood coagulates quickly
in the bodj, or on the surface ; but in joung persons this
does not take place. Serum is imperfect blood, because it
has not ripened, or because it haa become more fluid.

Chaptbb XY.

1. CoKCEBKiKC^ marrow, for this is one of the fluids which
exist in some animals. All the natural fluids of the body
are contained in vessels, as the blood in the Tcina, and the
marrow in the bones, and others in membranes, skin, and
cavities. The marrow is alwim full of blood in jroung ani-
mals ; but when they grow older, in the adipose it becomes
adipose, in fat animals fatty. There is not marrow in all
the bones, but only in those that are hollow, and not even
in some of these, for some of the bones of the lion have no
marrow, others but little ; wherefore some perscms say the
lion has no marrow at all, as was before observed. In the
bones of swine there is very little manow, in some none at
aU.

Chaptxb XVI.

1. Thssb fluids are nearly always co-existent vrith animal
life ; but milk and the spermatic fluid are nroduced after-
wards. Of these the milk is always secretea in those ani-
mals in which it is present. The spermatic fluid is jiot
secreted in all, but in some as in flshes are what are called
melts. All animals having milk have it in the mamma.
AU animals that are both internally and externally vivi-
paroua have mamma, that is, all that have hair, as man^ and
the horse, the cetacea, as the dolphin, seal, and whale^ tat
these also have mamma and milk.

2. Those animals that are only externally viviparous, and
oviparoua animals, have neither mamma nor milk, as fish,
and birds. All milk has a watery serum, which is cslled
whey, anda substantial pari called curda; thetiiicker kinds
of m^ have the most curds. The milk of animals withonl



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70 THB HI8T0BT 07 AKIIUU. [b. TW

cattiDff teeth in both jaws, coagulates, wherefore cheese is [
made m>m the milk of domestic animals. The milk of those
with cutting teeth in both jaws does not coaralate, but re«
■embles their adeps, and is thin and sweet ; the milk of the [
camel is the thinnest of all, next is that of the horse ; in
the third place that of the ass. Cow's milk is thicker.

8. Under the influence of cold, milk does not coagu-
late, but becomes fluid ; by heat it is coagularted, uid be*
comes thick. There is no milk in any animal before it
has conceiTod, or^ but rarelj ; but, as soon as it has con- '
ceiTed the milk is produced ; the first and last milk are
useless. Sometimes milk has come in animals not with
^oung, from partaking of particidar kinds of food; and even
in aged females it has been produced so freely when sucked,
as to afford nourishment for an infant. And the shepherds
round ^ta, when the sheeoats will not endure the approach
of the nudes, cut their udders riolentl^ against a toom, so
as to cause pain; at first, when milk^, they produce
bloody, and afterwards putrid milk, but at last their milk
is as ffood as that of those which have young ones.

4. The nudes, both of man and other animals, rarely pro-
duce milk ; nevertheless, it is found in some cases : for in
Lemnos, a he-goat has given from the two nipples, which
are always found on the penis, so much milk, tnat cokes of
cheese were made from it. The same thing happened to
another he-goat, which was produced from this one ; but
such thincs as these are considered ominous : for, on inquiiy
beinff made of the god of Lemnos, he replied that there;
diomd be an additional supply of cattle. A small quantity of!
milk has been forced from some men after puberty ; from
others a great quantity has been produced by suction.

5. Thm is a fatness in milk which becomes oily when
it is cooked. In Sicily, and other countries, when there is
an abundant supply of goat's milk, they mix ewe's milk'
with it, and it coaffidates readilv, not only because it con-
tains d)ttndance of curd, but slso because it is of a drier
nature. Some animals have more milk than enough for the
support of their offspring, and this is useful for making
eheese, and for puttinff as£ae. The best is that of the sheep
and goats, and next, that of the cow. Mare's milk and ass^,
Milk ive combined with the Fhiygian cheese. There ii



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B. in.] TBE BIfiTOBT 07 iLKIlULl. 71

more cheese in the milk of the cow than of the goat : for
the shepherds saj, from an amphora of goat's milk thej can
make nineteen cakes of cheese, each worth an obelus, and
thirtj from cow's milk. Other creatures have onlj enough
for their jouns, and no superabundance useful for making
cheese, as all those animals which have more than two mom-
me, for none of these have a superabundance of milk, nor
will their milk make cheese.

6.^ Milk is coagulated by the juice of figs, and bj rennet ;
the juice is t>la<^ upon wool, and the wo<d is washed in a
little milk ; this coa^lates upon mixture. The rennet is a
kind of milk, which is found in the body of sucking animals.
This rennet is milk, containing cheese, for the milk be-
comes cooked bj the heat of the body. All ruminating ani-
mals contain rennet, and the hare among those with cutting
teeth in both jaws. The older coogulum is the better,
for such rennet is useful in diarrhoea, and so is that of the
hare. The rennet of the fawn is the best.

7. The greater or less quantity of milk drawn from
those animals which have milk, differs in the size of the
body, and the variety of the food. In Phasis there are very
small cows, each of which gives a great deal of milk ; and
the large cows of Edrus give an amphora and half
of milk from each of their two mamm® ; and the person
who milks them stands up, or only leans a little, because
he cannot reach them sitting down. The other animals of
Epirus are large except tl^ ass, but the largest are the
cows and the ctogs. These large cattle require more pas-
ture ; but the country has a great deal so excellent, that
they can be changed to fit places every hour. The <ncen
are the largest, and the sheep, called Pyrrhic ; they have
received this name from king I'yrrhus.

8. Some kinds of food check the milk, as the medic grass,
especially in ruminating animals. The cytisus ana oro-
bus have a very different effect; but the flower of the
cytisus is unwholesome, and causes inflammation; the orobus
doea not a^;ree with pregnant cattle, for it causes diifioulty
of parturition. On the whole, those animals which are
able to eat the most food, as they are bettor adapted {or
parturition, will also give the most milk, if they have enough
nod. Some of the ftitulent kinds of food, when giTsn to



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72 THX HI8T0BT 07 AKIlf AL8. [ll. III.

animals, increase the quantitjr of milk, as beans given freely
to the sheep, goat, ox, and chimoera,* for thej caus^ the udder
to be distended ; and it is a sign that there will be plenty
of milk when the udder is seen below before parturition.

0. The milk lasts a long time in those that have it, if
thev remain without sexual intercourse, and have pjroper
food ; and in sheep it lasts longer than in any other animals,
for the sheep may be milked for ei^ht months. Altogether
the ruminating animals produce milk in greater abundance,
and more fitted for making cheese. Around Torona the
cows fail in their milk a few days before calving, but give
milk all the rest of the time. In women dark-coloured
milk is better for the ehildren than that which is white ;
and black women are better nurses than white women. The
most nutritious milk is that which contains the most cheesOi
but that which contains less cheese is better for infants.

chaptib ivn.

1. All sanguineous animals eject the spermatic fluid ; the
ofBce it penorms in generation, and how it is performed,
will be treated of in another place. In proportion to his
size man ejects more than other animals. This fluid, in ani-
mab covered with hair, is glutinous, in others it is not du-
tinous; in all it is white, so that Herodotus is mistaken
when he says that the Ethiopians have black semen.' The
semen comes out white and thick if it is heathy, but a(W
ejection it becomes thin and black ; it does not tldcken with
cold, but becomes thin and watery, both in colour and den-^
•ity. By heat it coa^ates and thickens, and when it has
been ejected for any time into the uterus, it comes out more
thick, and sometimes dry and twisted together. That which
is firoitful sinks in water, but the barren mixes with it. All
that Ctesias said about the semen of the elephant is iUae.

I Boms kind of doiDMtieraitk bat not known*
•HtrodotQi,itLo.97,10L



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BOOK THE FOURTH.

Chaptsb I. .

1. Wb hare bitberto treated of Banguineous animals, the
parts possessed by ail as well as tbose wbieb are peculiar to
each class, and of tbeir beterogeneous and bomoffeneous,
tbeir external and internal parts. We are now iU>out to
treat of ez*sancuineous animals. Tbere are manj classes
of these, first of all the mollusca.* These are ez^sanguineous
animals, which have their fleshy parts external, and their
bard parts internal, like sanguineous animals, as the whole
tribe of cuttle-fish. Next the malacostraca, these are
animals which have tbeir bard parts external, and tbeir in*
terior parts soft and fleshy; their hard parts are rather liable
to contusion than brittle, as the class of carabi and cancri.

2. Another class is tliat of the testacea. Tliese are ani-
mals which bare their internal parts fleshy, and tbeir ex-
ternal parts hard, brittle, and fragile, but not liable to
contusion. Snails and ovsters are iustances of this class.

8. The fourth class is that of insects, which includes many
dissimilar forms. Insects are animals which, as their name
signifies, are insected either in tbeir lower or upper part, or in
both ; they baTe neither distinct flesh nor bone, but something
between both, for their body is equally hard internally and
externally. There are apterous insects, as the julus and
Bcolopendra; and winged, as the bee, cockchafer, and wasp ;
and in some kinds there are both winged and apterous in-
sects; ants, for example, are both winged and apterouSi
and so is the glowwonn.

4. These are the parts of animals of the dass moUnsca (ma*
lada) ; first the feet, as they are called, next to these the
bead, continuous with them ; the third pari is the tlbdommk^
which contains the riscera. Some persons, speaking inoor*
rectly, call this the head. The fins are placed in a eircia
round this abdomen. It happens in many of the malaoil^
that the head if placed between the feet and the abdomen.
1 Iht Oephsbpodii



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74 THX HI8T0BT OF JLKnCALB, [b. IT.

I 6. All the polypi, except one kind, have eight feet, with >

\ A double row of Bucken. The sepia,* teuthis,' and teuthos^ '

I possess as a characteristic part two long j^roboscidiform mem-

oers, which have rough suckers at their extremities, with:

which they seize their food and bring it to their mouth ; and .
. when a storm arises they weather it out, fastening these ^

members upon a rock, like an anchor. They swim by means
! ^ of the fin-like members which are attached to the abdomen. ,

There are suckers upon all their feet.

6. The polypus^ uses its tentacula both as feet and hands,
for it brinn its food to its mouth with the two that are above :
tlie mouth, and it uses the last of its tentacula, which is
the sharpest of all, in the act of coition ; this is the only
one which is at all white, and it is divided at the extre-
mity, it is placed upon the back ; and the smooth part, in
front of which are the acetabula, is called the back. In
front of the abdomen, and above the tentacula, they have a
hollow tube, by which thev eject the sea>water which they
have received into the abdomen, if any enters through the
mouth. This part varies in position, and is sometimes on the
right side, sometimes on the left, and by this its ink is
ejected. I

7. It swims sideways upon the part called the head, |
stretching out its feet ; as it swims it is able to see forwards, <



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