Arnold Bennett.

Chemical news and journal of industrial science online

. (page 31 of 88)
Online LibraryArnold BennettChemical news and journal of industrial science → online text (page 31 of 88)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

President, 1875— 1877.

1. Specimen of gun-cotton prepared according to pre-
sciption of Schonbein, by F. A. Abel, Aug., 1846, in the
Royal College of Chemistry.

2. Specimens illustrating researches on the stability of
gun-cotton, 1863— 1865.

3. Sample ot gun-cotton manufa^ured by Hall and
Son, 1846, buried after explosion at the works, until 1864.

4. Preparations of nitro-glycerin and of gun-cotton
(glyoxiline), 1867.

Digitized by


CmmcAL Nbwe, \
March 6, 1891. 1

Chemical Society^s jubilee.


5. Specimens of granulated gun-cotton, 1876.

6. Specimens of compressed gun-cotton, Abel's system.

7. Gun-cotton slab fired through from a Martini- Henry
rifle, without being exploded.

8. Gun-cotton slabs perforated by the eledric discharge
without ignition.

9. Explosion vessel used in researches on gun-cotton,

10. First explosion vessel used in Abel and Noble's
researches on nred gunpowder, &c., 1871 — 1880.

NoU, — Largest powder-charge exploded in the vessel,
ajlb. ; pressure developed, 43 tons per sq. in. ; largest
gun-cotton charge exploded, 14 oz. In larger vessels
of the same model, 2a lbs. of powder have been ex-
ploded, and gun-cotton has been detonated with de-
velopments of nearly 70 tons pressure per sq. in.
IX. Vacuum bomb used in researches on the combustion
of gunpowder and gun-cotton in rarefied atmospheres,

12. Specimens of ** cordite," the new smokeless powder.

13. Photographs showing the 6-in. quick-firing gun,
fired with black powder and with cordite (smokeless

(Exhibited by Sir F. A. Abel).

Sir Henry Roscob, M.P., F.R.S.,
Prebident, 1880—1882.

A complete series of specimens of vanadium com-
pounds : —

Vanadium ore. Roasted ore. Ammonium vanadate.
Vanadium pentoxide. Vanadium trisulphide, disulphide,
and pentasulphide. Silver hypovanadate. Sodium hypo-
vanadate. Hypovanadic tetrachloride and disulphate.
Lead hypovanadite. Aqueous solutionsof vanadium di-
oxide, trioxide, tetroxide, pentoxide, dichloride. trichloride,
tetrachloride, and vanadyl trichloride. Divanadyl mono-
chloride. Lead metavanadate. Ammonium metavanadate.
Vanadium mononitride, trioxide, pentoxide, silicon alloy,
and platinum alloy. Vanadous sulphate. Vanadium oxidi-
bromide and trichloride. Vanadyl trichloride. Vanadium
tetrachloride (decomposed) and dichloride. Potassium
anhydrovanadate and anhydrochromate. Vanadium
metal, pentoxide, and nitride. Barium hypovanadate.
Vanadic vanadate. Ammonium magnesium phosphate
(from Berzelius's vanadium). Metavanadic acid. Sodium
anhydrovanadate. Ammonium hypovanadate. Hypo-
vanadic hydrate. Thallium tetravanadate, decakaivana-
date, and hexakaivanadate. Silver odakaivanadate.
Metavanadic acid. Ammonium vanadate and vanadite.
Vanadium sesquioxide. Artificial vanadinite. Ammonium
metavanadite. Sodium orthovanadite. Silver ortho-
vanadite. Sodium orthovanadite (fused mass) and pyro-
vanadate. Pyrovanadate of lead. Sodium odavanadate.
Barium pyrovanadate. Stiver pyrovanadate. Vanadyl
dichloride. Calcium divanadate. Sodium vanadate-

(Exhibited by Sir H. E. Roscoe).

J. H. Gilbert. LL.D., F.R S.,
President 1882— 1883.

Dr. Gilbert, having been engaged with Sir J. B. Lawes
in the condud of the Rothamsted Investigations from
1843 up to the present time, sends the following illustra-
tions of some of the lines of inquiry undertaken : —

Apparatus used in an investigation by Messrs. Lawes,
Gilbert, and Pugh, in the years 1857, 1858, 1859, and
x86o, to determine whether plants assimilate free or un-
combined nitrogen. The plants were grown in ignited
pumice or soil (with plant- ash added), either with no
other supply of combined nitrogen than that contained in
the seed sown, or with the addition of known and limited
quantities of combined nitrogen ; and they were supplied
with washed air, and washed carbonic acid. The con-
ditions of growth were, therefore, those of sterilisation ;
and there was, under such conditions, no gain from free

nitrogen, in the growth of either Gramine«, Leguminos«,
or other plants.

Plate of Gramineous plants grown in 1857 ^^^ '^5^ !
and coloured photograph, of coloured scale-drawings, of
Leguminous plants ^rown in x86o.

1 hree enlarged Photographs, of Leguminous Plants
grown in Experiments in 1889. on the Question of the
Fixation of Free Nitrogen ; in some cases with sterilisa-
tion, and in others with microbe-seeding of the soil.
With suitable microbe infection of the soil there was
abundant formation of the so-called ** Leguminous
nodules '* on the roots of the plants ; and there was, co-
incidently, very considerable fixation of free nitrogen.
The evidence at present at command points to the con-
clusion that the free nitrogen is fixed in the course of the
development of the organisms within the nodules, and
that the resulting nitrogenous compounds are absorbed
and utilised by the higher plant.

Coloured Drawing, by Lady Lawes, of the Rothamsted
Rain-gauges. For the purpose of accurate measurement
of the rain, and of obtaining sufficient quantities for
analysis, a large gauge of one-thousandth of an acre area
has been in use since the beginning of 1853; also an
ordinary funnel-gauge of 5 inches diameter ; and these
are represented in the drawing. An 8-inch ** Board of
Trade " copper-gauge has also been in use since January,
1881. The funnel portion of the large gauge is construded
of wood lined with lead ; the upper edge consisting of a
vertical nm of plate glass, bevelled outwards. The rain
is conduded by a tube into a |;alvanised iron cylinder
underneath, and when this is full it overflows into a second
cylinder, and so on into a third and fourth, and finally
into an iron tank. Each of the four cylinders holds rain
corresponding to half an inch of depth, and the tank an
amount equal to 2 inches. Each cylinder has a gauge-
tube attached, graduated to read to o'ooa inch, but which
can be read to o'ooi inch. Small quantities are transferred
to a smaller cylinder with a gauge-tube graduated to
o'ooz, or one-thousandth of an inch.

Coloured Drawing, by Lady Lawes, of the Rothamsted
Drain-guages. The three '* drain-gauges,** each of one-
thousandth of an acre area, for the determination of the
quantity and composition of the water percolating
respedively through 20 inches, 40 inches, and 60 inches
depth of soil (with the subsoil in its natural state of
consolidation), have been in use since September, 1870, —
that is, for a period of more than twenty years. The
gauges were construded by digging a deep trench along
the front, gradually undermining at the depth required,
and putting in plates of cast-iron (with perfurated holes),
to support the mass. The iron plates were then kept in
place by iron girders, and the ends of the plates and of
the girders supported by brickwork on three sides.
Trenches were then dug bit by bit round the block of soil,
which was then enclosed on each side by walls of brick
laid in cement. Below the perforated iron bottom a zinc
funnel, of the same area as the soil, was finally fixed, and
the drainage water is collected and measured in galvanised
iron cylinders, with gauge-tubes, as in the case of the

Photograph of a case (now in the Science Museum,
South Kensington), illustrating the influence of different
manures on the botanical composition of the Mixed
Herbage of Permanent Grass-land.

A set of bound volumes of Rothamsted Memoirs, &c.,
published 1847 to 1890, inclusive. Also the annual
** Memoranda " for 1890.

Book of Drawings and Plans of the *' Lawes Testimo-
nial Laboratory,*' Rothamsted, Herts.

(Exhibited by Sir J. B. Lawes and Dr. Gilbert.)

W. H. Pbrkin, Ph.D., F.R.S.,
President, 1883—1885.

Bromacetlc acid. Dibromacetic acid. Dibromacet-

Digitized by



Chemical Section of the Prankhn Institute.

i Chbmical Nbws,
1 U^nh 6. 1S91.

Glyoxylic acid (crysd. CzHaO^), Calcium glyoxylate.

Diethyl tartrate. Diethyl diacetotartrate. Diethyl
benzoyltartrate. Diacetoracemic anhydride. Diethyl

DibromoBuccinic acid.

Tartaric acid (inadive, from argentic dibromosuccinate).

a Azoamidonaphthalene.

Mauveine. — The base of the maave dye ; the first of
the coal-tar colours ; discovered in 1856.

Mauveine hydrochloride. Mauveine hydriodide. Mauve-
ine sulphate. Mauveine acetate. Mauveine carbonate.
Nitrate of parasafranine (prepared from Mauveine).

Salicyl aldehyde (salicylol). Salicylaldehyde and acetic

Coumarin (from Tonka bean). Coumarin (artificially
prepared). Propionic coumarin. Butyric coumarin.
Valeric coumarin. Chlorocoumarin. Tetrachlorocouma-
rin. Bromocoumarin. a Dibromoconmarin. j9 Dibromo-
coumarin. Coumarilic acid. Potassium coumarilate.
Baric sulphocoumarilate. Bromopropionic coumarin.

Anthracene. Anthraquinone. a Dibromanthraquinone.
P Dibromanthraquinone. Barium disulphoanthraquinon-
ate. Monochloranthracene. Dichloranthracene. Mono-
bromanthracene. Dibromanthracene. Dichloranthracene
and Picric acid. Sodium disulphodichloranthracenate.
Strontium disulphodichloranthracenate. Barium disulpho-

Anthraflavic acid. Diacetylanthraflavic acid. Barium

Isoanthraflavic acid. Anthrapurpurine (sublimed).

Alizarine (sublimed). Acetylalizarine. Diacetylaliza-
rine. Bromalizarine. a Nitroalizarine. a Amidoalizarine.

Phenylacrvlic acid (cinnamic acid). Phenylacrylic-
crotonic acid. Phenylacrylicangelic acid.

Cumenylacrylic acid. Cumenylacryliccrotonic acid.
Cumenylacrylicangelic acid. Sodium cumenylcrotonate.

Methylparoxyphenylacrylic acid. Methylparoxyphenyl-
acrylate of methyl. Methylparoxyphenylcrotonic acid.
a Methylorthoxyphenylacrylic acid. $ Methylorthoxy-
phenylacrylic acid. $ Methylorthoxyphenylcrotonic acid.
fi Methylorthoxyphenylangelic acid. Barium fi Methyl-

Cinnamonylacrylic acid. Cinnamonylcrotonic acid.

Isobutenvlbensene. Isobutenylbenxene dibromide. Iso-
propylallylbenxene. Isobutenylvinylbenxene (Iso butenyl

Parallylanison (anisoll, made artificially). Orthoallyl-
anisoll. Butenylanisoll. Iso butenylanisoil.

Vinylbenxene (cinnamene), polymerised. Vinyl-p-
anison, polymerised. Vinyl-o-anisoil, polymerised. Vinyl-
isopropylbenxene, polymerised.


Acetomalic anhydride. Maleic anhydride (obtained by
distillation of the above).

Chlorofumaric acid. Amidofumaramide. Potassium
chloromaleate. Ethyl chlotomaleamate.

Diphenyleneketone oxide.

Nitrophenyldiaxobenzeneacetonitrile. Nitrophenyldia-

Tritolylenetnamine. Tolyltriparalolylenetriamine.

Butyrylphenol. Propionylphenol.

(Exhibited by Dr. Perkin.)

Dr. Hugo MOllbr, s.*'


Monday, gtb.— Medical, 8.30.

Society of Aru, 8. «• Photographic Chemiatry," by

Prot R. Meldola, F.R.S. '* '

TuBtDAY, loth.— Inttitnte of Civil Engineen, 8.

- Royal Medical and Chirorgical, 8.30.

Photographic, 8

Royal InstitutioD, 3. " The Stmdure and Func-

uon» of the Nervous System," by Prof. Vidor
Horsley, F.R.S.

Society of Arts, 8. ** Eoamelling and Dsmatcea-

ing/^ by J . Starkie Gardner.
Wbdnesday, I xtb.— Society of Arts, 8. •* Eledtridly in Relation to
the Human body," by H. Newman Lawrence
and Arthur Harries, M.D.

Geological, 8.

Pharmaceutical, 8.

Thursday, xatb.— Royal, 4.30.

Mathematical, 8.

Institute of Eledlrical Engineers, 8.

Royal Institution, 3. »• Modern Chemistry in Rela-

tion to Sanitation," by Professor C. Meymott
Friday, i3th.<-Royal Institution, 9. '• The Culture of the Sincinc
Voice," by Felix Semon.

Society of Arts, 4 30. " The Science of Colour," by

CapUin Abney.

Astronomical, 8.

Saturday. 14th.— Royal Institution, 3. " The Forces of Cohesion,"
by The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigb, t.R.S.

Digitized by


Obbmical Nbws, I
Mmrch 13, 1891. j

Synthesis of Proteic Substances.



Vol. LXIII., No. 1633.




The synthesis of Ditrogenous substances, so- called
proteic, entering into the constitution of the tissues and
the liquids of the living organism, is a problem so
complex that we cannot hope to find its complete solu-
tion by a single effort, however suitably direded.

The results of the experiments which the author
submits seem to him calculated to lead to the objed, and
to furnish a good clue to the way to be followed. From
this point of view they merit notice.

In an extended series of researches which have formed
the snbjed-matter of several memoirs presented to the
Academy, the author has made known the terms result-
ing from the decomposition of the proteic matters, albu-
menoidf, or others, by hydratation, under the influence
of bases (baryta). For the better understanding of what
is to follow, the author recapitulates and sums up the
most important results of his researches.

1. Proteic matter, when it is hydrated in presence of
baryta at a temperature higher than zoo*, utilises approxi-
mately as many molecules of water (H2O) as it contains
atoms of nitrogen.

2. A fraAion of the total nitrogen, varying with the
nature of the substance employed from i to |, is separated
out in the form of ammonia. There is observed at the
same time the liberation of oxalic and carbonic acids in
such proportion that for 2 molecules 2NH3 of free
ammonia we find i molecule of free bibasic acid (COa
and C2Ha04).

3. The other terms of the decomposition are all amido-
compounds. The elementary composition of their mixture
answers exaAly to an expression of the form


with a slight excess of oxygen.

4. This mixture is formed of two series of terms : the
one, of the form C6Ha6+xN02 (^ = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), are
amido-derivatives of the fatty acids CnHanOj, which may
be obtained synthetically by the adion of the chlorine
derivatives of the fatty acids upon ammonia. The others
of the form CcHic.iN08(C»4'5) in*y be regarded as
anhydrides of the amido-oxyacids —


The author has some years ago realised the synthesis
of compounds of the form CiiHaii- iNOa (leuceines), pre-
senting the same charaders as those obtained by the
hydration of the proteic substances by the adion of the
ethylenic bromides upon the zinc compounds of the fatty
amido-acids CnHan+xNOa.

A proteic substance such as albumen may be legarded
in broad outline as formed of —


Oxalic acid.

+ 3(CmHa«+iNOa)+3(CHH,»-iNOa)-8HaO
. , '

or CqH2q'SeOi2[q^3{m + H)] = Cg ^2^2q-S^sOs,

If we put 9B28, the foregoing formula leads to numbers
which approach closely to those obtained by the elemen-
tary analysis of albumen. It is distindly understood that
there is here no question of a molecular formula.

After this study of an analytical order, which the author
believes be has pushed as far as possible, the inverse

problem presents itself. Can we, with the elimination o
water, re-combine the above amides and amido-compounds
of a relatively simple constitution so as to form complex
bodies approaching to the proteic matters by their consti-
tution and the totality of their chemical charaders ? In
other words, can we effed the synthesis of a proteic sub*
stance by setting out from the simple proauds of its
decomposition by hydration ?

As numerous attempts made in this diredion remained
fruitless, the author was led to fear that on the decom-
position by hydration render the influence of baryta, there
may be produced inter-molecular transpositions of tba
kind which saccharose undergoes when it is split up into
ladic acid. If it were thus, the process of the synthesis
of the proteic matters would be much less simple, and in
place of consisting merely of the reunion of several
molecules with the elimination of water (as it happens in
the formation of the compound ethers and the neutral
fatty matters), it might be complicated by a molecular
transposition inverse of that proauced by the alkalies— a
transposition which chemists are not yet able to realise
at their will.

The author's recent experiments tend to remove Chit
cause of complication. He has, in fad, succeeded in
forming a nitrogenous compound, which, from its charac-
ters, should rank in the class of the proteic compounds.
It has been obtained by eliminating water, and combining
the ultimate and crystallisable prcSluds derived from the
decomposition of albumen and nbrine under the influence
of baryta.

The mixture of amido-compounds (CmHaM^-iNOa and
CflHaM-xNOa), along with about xo per cent of urea,
finely ground and dried at iio% was intimately mixed with
li parts by weight of phosphoric anhydride. The whole
was heated in a flask in the oil bath.

Below z2o" no change was produced, and the mass
remains in a state of powder. About 225* the dehydrating
adion begins and terminates in a few instants. The phos-
phoric anhydride is rapidly hydrated at the' expense of the
water, the elements of which are drawn from the amido*
compounds. The mass becomes pasty, and solidifies
into a compad compound without turning appreciably

After cooling it is dissolved in a small quantity of
water and several volumes of alcohol are added to the
solution. We obtain thus a copious precipitate which is
washed in alcohol and re* dissolved in water. The sola«
tion is filtered to eliminate a little insoluble matter. It is
then freed from phosphoric acid by means of a slight
excess of baryta — an excess which is separated by pre-
cipitation with an equivalent dose of sulphuric acid. The
liquid is filtered again and concentrated in the water-
bath, giving an amorphous produd soluble in water, and
precipitatable by alcohol in white cnrdy dots.

The substance thus obtained presents great analogies
to the charaders of the peptones. Its aqueous solutions
are precipitated by tannin, picric acid, mercuric chloride,
acid mercuric nitrate, Millon*s reagent, potassium di-
iodide and iodo-mercurate and phosphotungstic acid in
presence of hydrochloric acid, phosphomolybdic acid, lead
acetate and sub-acetate. It is not precipitated, at least
in the cold, by potassium cyanide in presence of acetic

If mixed with caustic potassa and some drops of solu-
tion of copper sulphate, it takes a rose-red colouration.
This synthetic pseudo peptone, if heated with nitric acid,
after evaporating off the excess of acid, gives a yellow
residue which turns orange with ammonia, and which, if
heated, is abruptly decomposed with produdion of a
swollen mass of carbon as it happens with gelatin.

If heated upon a sheet of platinum it is carbonised and
tumefied, giving off the charaderistic odour of burnt
animal matter.

It will be interesting to submit to this readion, one by
one, the various amido-derivatives of the proteine com«
pounds, so as to determine which of them play an indis-

Digitized by



Determination of Water in Superphosphates.


Chsmical NsW8,
March 13, 1891.

pensable and preponderating part in the formation of the
proteine molecules.— Comp^/s Rindus^ Vol. cxii., No. 4,
p. xq8.




(Concluded from p. 1x5).

Thk mono«calcium phosphate dried at 205° was treated
with water. The solution contained traces of free
phosphoric acid, and a considerable quantity of mono-
calcium pyrophosphate. When the watery solution had
been boiled with nitric acid there were found 16*2 per cent
of phosphoric acid, but only 2-3 per cent before boiling.
The calcium meta-phosphate eliminated had the following
composition : —

Pa05 =» 70*02 per cent.
CaO « 27-35 „

If dried at 210* it lost 21*5 per cent of water. The
residual vitreous calcium meia-phosphate is not soluble
in water ; in the aqueous solution there were found o'86
per cent soluble phosphoric acid.

The finely pulverised meta phosphate was thoroughly
washed and dissolved in aqua regia or undiluted sulphuric
acid. The analysis gave:—

PaOj 70-53 per cent.

CaO 2728 „

The chemical process is in this case very simple ; the
mono-calcium pyrophosphate loses i mol. of water and
becomes metaphosphate, CaHaPi07 = Ca(P03)a+H20.

The vitreous metaphosphate formed adheres so firmly
to the sides of the glass or platinum capsules that it is
difficult to determine the remaining matter soluble in

In all the experiments above mentioned it is necessaiy
to spiead out the mono-calcium phosphate uniformly in
the capsule in oruer to obtain concordant results as in
this manner the temperature adti uniformly upon the
mono-calcium phosphate. The results obtained by drying
the mono-calcium phosphate at different temperatuies are
given in the form of a table. The percentage of mono-
calcium phosphate decomposed by exposure for an hour
to different temperatures varies from 1*84 at 105** to 48*20
at 20o^ These results do not agree with the experiments
of Birnbaum and Drewson.

The chemical process on the desiccation of mono-
calcium phosphate may thus be represented :—

Influence of temperature at 200** for one hour—

^ .fCa(P03)a+CaaPa07.

Further desiccation at 200^ effected the following
decomposition :—

FinaUy> if the pyrophosphate is completely decomposed
at 2x0° into calcium metaphosphate and water : —
All these transformations, on drying at 210°, may be
expressed aa follows :—


On Normal Butylaminea.— A. Berg.— The author
obtains these substances by causing ammonia in a hydro-
alcoholic solution to aa upon normal butyl chloride.—
Comfto fi0n4uh Vol. cxii.. No. 8.

# FrpBi tjje ^tmchri/t ^nttl. ChtmU.


February igth, 1891.

Or. W. J. RU88BLL, P.R.S., President, in the Chair.

Cbrtificatss were read for the first time in favour of
Messrs. Walter Johnson Cooper, High Street, Mitcbel-
dean, Gloucester; Charles F. Forshaw, LL.D., D.Sc ,
Bradford, Yorks ; John Alfred Foster, Royal Naval Col-
lege, Greenwich; Claude Hooper Bater, 4, Westbank
Terrace, Gibson Street, Hillhead, Glasgow; William Lr.
Hiepe, Ph.D.,21, Acomb Street, Manchester; F. Stanley
Kipping, Ph.D., D.Sc, 7, Milbome Grove, South Ken-
sington ; Charles Ainsworth Mitchell, 27, Farnley Road*
South Norwood ; Percy Morrice Randall, 3, Belsize Park

Messrs. Holland Crompton, R. H. Davies, and Bernard
Dyer were appointed by the meeting to audit the
Treasurer's accounts.

The following were duly eleded Fellows of the Society
• —Messrs. Jol n Charles Aydans; Henry Austin Apple-
ton; Charles Norrish Adams, M.A. ; John Frederick
Bloomer; Clay:on Beadle; Robert John brown; Thomas
Byrne ; Arthut Cole, B.A. ; Arthur Colefax, B.A., Ph.D. ;
Charles Henry Corbett ; Hendrie Thomas Donovan ;
Robert Bond Greaves; Ernest F. Hooper; Frederick
William Harrold ; Moses William Jones ; Henry Charles
Jenkins ; Frederick Herbert Moore; Reginald Tom Mar-
shall ; Edgar J. Millard ; William Morley Martin ; Arnold
Whitaker Oxford ; Michael Samuel Pickering ; Williaai
Jackson Pope; Tom Kirke Rose; R. Stockdale; Matthew
Carrington Sykes ; Herbert D. Shaw ; R. Greig Smith ;
Kenelm Edward Symes ; Howard C. Sucr6 ; A. H. Tapp ;
Frederick William De Veiling, B.A. ; David Wilkinson ;
Thomas M. Wyatt ; Stephen Newcombe Wellington ;
Dr. W. Will.

The following papers were read :~

9. ** The Action 0/ Reducing Agents on aoL-diacetylpen-
tane. Synthesis of dimeihyldihydroxyhepiamethylene**
By F. Stanley Kipping, Ph.D., D.Sc, and W. H. Per-
kin, Jun., Ph.D.. F.R.S.

On reducing oa'-diacetylpentanc COMe*[CH2]s*COMe
{Trans. Chem, iioc, vol. Ivi., 330), dissolved in moist
ether, with sodium, it is converted into a colourless liquid
of the composition CgHxgOa. The method of prepara*
tion, properties, and some derivatives of this redudion
produA are described in the paper, and also various
experiments made with the objedt of determtn ng its

The author's investigations have shown that the
reduAion produdt must be regarded as a dimethyl-
dihydroxyheptamethylene of the constitution

CHa< I


This conclusion is based on the following considera-
tions : — The reduction produd is formed by the addition
of two atoms of hydrogen to diacetylpentane, and may,

Online LibraryArnold BennettChemical news and journal of industrial science → online text (page 31 of 88)