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oak does not contain the blue tannin of the latter, but ex-
clusively a green tannin. In like manner, other parasites
are shown not to absorb the peculiar principles of their
hosts.

A(5tion of Hydriodic Acid upon Silicon Cblorids. —
A. Besson. — Dry hydriodic acid is without adion on
silicon chloride at ordinary temperatures. At elevated
temperatures, we obtain partial substitution produds.
The author obtains Si2Cl3X as a colourless liquid which
distils at 113 — 114** and does not solidify at 6o\ It is de-
composed by water and by exposure to air and light. A
second chloriodide, SiaCljIa, accompanies the former in
small quantities. It distils at 172% and is also decom-
posed by water.

Transformation of Sodium Pyropbotpbite into
Phosphite. — L. Amat — The author examines the
conditions of this change, namely, the influence of
dilution, of the proportion of acid and of the kind of
acid. The hydrochloric and nitric acids adt the most
energetically, the sulphuric and the phosphorous less so,
and the acetic acid least energetically of all the acids
examined.

On Platinum Bromonitrites— M. V^xes.— The series
of bromonitrites includes the platonitrite, the plati-
bromononitrite, the platibromonitrosonitrite, and the
bromoplatinate.

The Disaggregation of the Neutral Salts of Amines
of the Patty Series by means of Water.— Albert Col-
son. — The salts of the amines capable of restoring the
blue colour of litmus which have been reddened by the
mineral acid with which they have been combined, are
decidedly disscciated by water, even about 5o^

New Compounds of Pyridine. — Raoul Varet. — The
compounds formed are the pyridine bromoxincate, bromo-
nickelate, bromocuprate, argentoiodide, and argento*
bromide. The argentochloride, if it exists, is not stable
at the ordinary temperature. The affinities of the haloid
sahs of silver for pyridine decrease from the iodide to the
bromide and the chloride, the inverse of what takes place
with ammonia.

Theory of the Phenomena of Dyeing. — L^o Vignon«
— All the phenomena of dyeing necessitate two essential
conditions : — The presence of acid or basic fundions in
the material to be dyed ; the presence of the same func-
tions in the colouring matters. The sole exception of
this rule is that of the tetrazo colouring matters, which
are taken up by cotton without a mordant, in an alkaline
bath, and which will require a special study. We are
entitled to say that the phenomena of dyeing obtained
with soluble colouring matters are of a purely chemical
order, and that the rules of chemical adtion are sufficient
for their explanation.

NOTES AND QUERIES,

%* Our Notes and Queries column was opened for the purpose ol
giving and obtaining information likely to be of use to our readers
generally. We cannot underttke to let this column be the means
of transmitting^ meiely private information, ur such trade notices
as should legitimately come in the advertisement columns.
Fancy Soaps and Perfumery.— A correspondent desires the

name of the most recent work on this sabjeA.



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178



Meetings for the Week.



fCRBMieAl.NBWt,
I April 10, i89f«



An Explosion.— Could aoy of your corrMpondentt explain the
following :— One eveniog, wbue gettinf my lantern ready for exhibi-
tion, I bad attached the tubing to the oxygen cylinder, bot found it
wat leaking at the coupling. 1 had to re-adjutt this several timet,
and, of course, each time turning on and off the eat: the latt time I
turned it on, the regulator, which wat of the bellowt pattern, or
exaAly like an oxygen bag, exploded with a very loud report equal
to a 4-bore gun, accompanied with a flash of li^ht at least 15 inchea
in diameter. I at once turned off the gas, bot in tbe few seconds a
portion of the metal was fused. Now there waa no light nearer than
the gas-light in the hall 10 feet off—and we know oxygen is not in-
flammable of itself— nor wat the hydrogen turned on ; to what could
have cauted the explosion with combustion ? No doubt pressure
would have caused tbe collapse of the regulator, bot whence the fire ?
Unless there was friAion, toe fire must nave come from within.— H.
D. B.

MEETINGS FOR THE IVEEK.

If OMDAY, X3th«— Medical, 8.30.

— Society of Arts, 8. ** The Decorative Treatment of

Natural Foliage,*' by Hugh Stannot, F.R.I.BJi.
TUKDAY, 14th.— Inttitnte of Civil Engineers, 8.

— Royal Medical and Chirurgical, S.30.

— Photographic, 8.

— Royal Institution, 3. ** The Geography of Africa,**

by J. Scott Keltte, P.R.G.S.

Society of Arts, 8. •* Decorative Plaster Work ;

Stucco Work," bv G. T. Robinaon, F.S.A.

Wbdmbsdat, X5tb.— Meteorolocical. 7.

— ^ Microscopical, 8.

^— Society of Arte, 8. " The Soorcet of Pelroleom

and Natural Gat," by Wm. Topley, G.R.S.
Thuksday, x6tb.— Royal. 4.30.

^— Royal Societv Club, 6.30.

Institute of EleArical £ngineera, 8.

— Chemical, 8.

— Royal Institution, 3. " Recent Bpedtrotcqpic In-

vettigatioot," by Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.K.8.
Fkioay, 17th.— Quekett, 8.

Physical, 5. (x) ** On a Property of Magnetic

Shunts," by Prof. S. P. Thompson. (2) *' An
Alternating Current Influence Machine," by James
Wimshorst.

Royal Institution, 9. " Magnetic Rocks," by Prof.

A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S.
Saturday, x8tb.— Royal Institution, 3. '* The Dynamo,** by Prof.
SilvanuB P. Thompson, D.Sc, B.A,

PATENTS.

Provisional ProteAion, from £2 2**

Lowest cost of complete Englfsh and Foreign on application.

Also, Designs and Trade Marks. Inventions financed.

WALLACE WEATHERDON, A CO.

RBOISTBRBD PATaMT AOEMTS,

57 ft 58, Chancery Lane, and xi, Southampton Building*, W.C
^ BsUblished X849.

"Taboratory-spectroscopes

Of Every Description.

A. EILGEH, Optical Instrnxnent Maker,

204, STANHOPE STREET,

London, N.W.



FOREIGN BOOKS.

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London, W.C,

IMPORTERS OF FOREIGN BOOKS,

Supply all Booka reviewed in this Journal or elsewhere within the

shortest notice.

Daily Parcela from the Continent.



TO BE LET OR SOLD.

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sea. Leases over so years unexpired. Area about 5 acres. Large
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adapted to Tin Works, Steel Works, Chemical, Wagon, EIraric, or
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Cornbill, London.

FOR SALE. — The Chemical Gazette.
Complete Set (unbound and oncat), 17 volumes; from Novem-
ber, X842, to December, x8s9>~ Address, ** Publisher*" Cb^micai
Naws office Boy Court, Lndgate Hill, London, B.C.



MESSRS. MACMILLAN & CO.'S

STANDARD BOOKS OH CHEMISTRY.

NEW AND THOROUGHLY REVISED EDITION.
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A COMPLETE TREATISE ON INORGANIC AND
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ROSCOE,P.R.S..and Prof. O.SCHOKLEMMER. F.R.S. 8vo.
Vol. III.— THE CHEMISTRY OP THE HYDROCAR.
BONS, and their Derivatives, or ORGANIC CHEMIS-
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%* In coHseqittnce of the rapid progress of Jhi chemistry of thi
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alt the more important work published up to the date 0/ going to press.
. . . The^ would draw special attention to the renewed discussioa
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IRON ;— ** One of the best treatises in our language."
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B.Sc. (Vic). Ph D., F.R.S. Revised and Enlarged by W. TATE.

Assoc.N.S.S. (Honours), F.C S. Wiih Preface by Sir H. E.

ROSCOE. B.A , Ph.D.. F.R.S , M.P. New Edition.
*o* This edition has been revised and enlarged and carefully
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Demy 8vo., zos. net.

OUTLINES , OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY. By

WILHELM OSTWALD, Professor of Chemistry in tbe Uni-
versity of Leipzig. Translated, with the Author* sanaion, by
JAMES WALKER, D.Sc. Ph.D., Aisistant in the Chemical
Department, University of Edinburgh.
*«* This book is designed to meet the requirements of the student
who, while not intending to devote himself to the detailed study ofGene^
ral Chemistry, still wishes to follow intelligibly the progress recently
made in this important branch of science. The book has already
established itself tn Germany as the standard text-book on the suiy'ect.
TIMES :— " One of the most iroporcant features of this treatise
is tbe prominence it gives to tbe exposition o( what tbe Author
calls the epoch-making theories of solution aod eleftrolytic dissoda^
tion, due respeaively to Van't Hoffand Arrbenius.**

ACADEMY:—** All these svbjedlsare handled with maiterlydearw
ness. Tbe book, moreover, is written in an interesting manner, and
we are sure that it will prove an attraftive and valuable addition to
tbe library of all students and teachers of chemistry.*'

WORKS BY PROF. IRA REM8EN.

(;rown 8vo., 6s. 6d.
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CHEMISTRY (INORGANIC CHEMISTRY). By

the Same.

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for Beginners. By the Same.

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the Same.

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"aSju?.??"'} ^<» Method for the Discovery of Paint Spectral Bands.



179



THE CHEMICAL NEWS.

Vol. LXIII., No. 1638.



ON THB

CAUSE OF THE ODOUR EMITTED

BY THB SOIL OF A GARDEN AFTER A

SUMMER SHOWER.

By Dr. T. L PHIPSON, F.C.S., &c.

This sobjed, with which I was occupied more than
twenty-five years ago, appears from a paragraph in the
last number of the Chemical News (vol. ixiii. , p. 176) to
have recently attraded the attention of Professor Berthelot
and M. Andi6. I find, on referring to my old notes, which
are dated 1865, that it is doubtful whether 1 ever published
the results of these observations, and as the distinguished
chemists I have just named have not quite solved the
problem, I hasten to give the results I obtained so long
ago.

After a considerable number of observations, I arrived
at the conclusion that the odour emitted by soils and
sedimentary strata after a heavy shower of rain in summer
was doe to the presence of organic substances closely
related to the essential oils of plants, and it appeared
evident to me that, during the hot dry weather, these
porous surfaces absorb the fragrance emitted by thousands
of flowers, and give it up again when the rain penetrates
into these pores and displaces the various volatile sub-
stances imprisoned therein, which are only very slightly
Bolable in water. I believe that many kinds of soil possess
this property, but those on which my observations were
first made were the chalk soils of Picardy, in France. I
sfoand that not only chalk, but also marls, compad lime-
tones, phosphatic rocks, and some kinds of schists and
amphibolites are porous enough to possess it to such a
degree as to emit a decided odour when they are strongly
breathed upon.

Finding the property of which I speak very remarkable
in certain chalk rocks of Picardy, I endeavoured to ascer-
tain the nature of the substance, or substances, to which
it was o^ed. I dissolved a very large quantity of the
chalk in dilote hydrochloric acid, and passed the carbonic
acid through various media, water, alcohol, weak potash
•ointion, and dilute acid ; but none of these liquids ap-
peared to arrest the passage of the odoriferous substance.
The only liquid which I found would retain it was an
aqoeous solution of bromine. This arrested it, and when
the bromine solution was afterwards carefully evaporated
at a low temperature, a yellowish produd, soluble in
alcohol, and having a strong odour of cedar wood, was
obtained, which, from its chemical and physical properties,
appeared to be very similar to, if not identical with,
bromo-cedren, derived from essence of cedar.



THE VOLATILITY OF HYDROGEN SULPHATE

AT THE ORDINARY TEMPERATURE

OF THE AIR.

By ARTHUR COLEFAX, BJ^.

In the Chemical Nbws (vol. Ixiii., p. 151) there appeared
a paper by G. A. Koenig entitled ** Is Sulphuric Hydrate
Volatile at the Ordinary Temperature of the Air ? " In
this commtmication Mr. Koenig records an observation
which has come under his notice pointing to an affirma-
tive answer to the question his paper proposes. Some
skeleton crystals of metallic iron had been placed on a
watcb^glassy supported on an iron triangle in an ordinary



desiccator containing hydrogen sulphate, and had after
nine months become coated with a white crust of anhy-
drous ferrous sulphate.

In the course of my work on phenuvic acid {your. Chaiu
Sotf., March, 1891, p. 190) I made some curious observa-
tions in connedion with the neutral body obtainable from
this acid by elimination of carbonic acid. Schlcesser
(Annalen, 250, p. 223) had noticed that a portion of the
white crystalline solid placed over hydrogen sulphate in
a desiccator had, in twenty- four hours, become for the
most part, liquid. 1 submit a short account of some ex-
periments made, in the hope of gaining information as to
the nature and cause of this change, which seemingly bear
out Mr. Koenig*s experience.

A portion ofthe white crystalline neutral body (phenyl
methylfurfuran, according to Paal) which had remained
quite unchanged in the air for three weeks, was placed in
a perfedly clean desiccator over pure sulphuric acid. The
substance (about i grm.) was in the centre of a larga
watch-glass, supported on a glass triangle. In four hours,
the previously white crystalline neuUal body had become
brown and slightly moist, and in twenty-four hours was
dark brown and quite moist. Other portions of the same
sample of neutral body were then placed over different
drying agents, withthe following results :—

Over Phosphoric Anhydridt no change was observable

after fourteen hours.
Ovtr Calcium Chlorids no change after the same length

of time.

In order to ascertain whether the rapid change over hy-
drogen sulphate was due to impurities in the acid, the two
following experiments were made :—

A quantity of the neutral body exposed over calcium
chloride in a desiccator in which was a small vessel con-
taining a solution of sulphur dioxide showed, even after
twenty-four hour^, no tendency to change.

To a solution of potassium nitrite in water, in which a
small quantity of the neutral body was suspended, suffi-
cient hydrogen sulphate was added to evolve traces of
hydrogen nitrite. The experiment was made in a small
glass stoppered cylinder. Even after many hours no
change was noticeable.

This rapid change over sulphuric acid was not an
isolated occurrence. I noticed it always when I placed
anv of the neutral body in a desiccator containing pure
sulphuric acid. The desiccator was never exhausted ; the
experiments were made at the ordinary pressure.



NEW METHOD FOR THE DISCOVERY OF

FAINT SPECTRAL BANDS.

Application to the Spectrum op the Hydrocarbons.

By H. DBSLANDRBS.

The band-spedrum attributed to the hydrocarbons or to
carbon alone is furnished by the sources of light most
commonly used ; it is also found in the solar spedrum
and constitutes to a great extent the spedrum of comets
and of a certain class of stars. Its importance is there-
fore very great.

The author has studied this spedrum by a novel
method which enables him to complete it and to
add to it with certainty three new bands, i./., x 438T9,
^ 437'i3» A 436*5« These bands are not given by
the combustion of the hydrocarbons, but they accom-
pany the ordinary bands of the hydrocarbons and of
cyanogen in the eledric arc, and in the combustion of
cyanogen. They were consequently at first, e.g,^ by
Liveing and Dewar, ascribed to this latter gas.

Now, the application of the general law of the distribu-
tion of bands which the author proposed (Comptts Rtndus^
1887) for the spedra of bands, enables us to conclude that
the bands in question b^lon^ certainly to the group of the



Digitized by "^^SiKJKJWvC



i8o



The Earths of the Cerium and Yttrium Group.



I Crbiiical Rbw
I April 17, 1891.



Sbribs I.



N.



i6x-59
X77-48
19360



Interval.



15-89
x6'za



Spectra of thi Hydrocarbons in Numbers of Vibrations,
Sbues II. Sbribs III. Sbubb IV.



x63'39
X7903
X94*95
2x1*69



In.



15-64
15-92
x6*Z4



Sbribs III.



165-09
x8o'i8
19615
ax2*o8

228 '2Z



In.



15-39
15-67

i5-9a
i6-X3



N.



x66*6i
18x78



In.



X5-X7



228-76 ^589



Sbubb V.



N.

167-94
182*91



213*45
229*09



In.
14-97

30-54
16*64



hydrocarbons. This application is summarised in the
following table, which shows these three bands and the
sixteen known bands of the hydrocarbons arranged in five
series, in which the intervals of the bands, according to
the law, increase in arithmetical proportion : the series
being, moreover, superposable. The bands, expressed in
the nambers of vibrations, are arranged in the five
perpendicular series, so that the equal intervals of the
series are on the same horizontal line. At the points of a
series where a band is wanting, the interval is equal to
the sum of the corresponding intervals of the other series.

According to this table, we may, with the sixteen
known bands, on setting out with seven of these bands
find by calculation exadly the nine others. On carrying
out the calculation under the same conditions we obtain
the three bands in question, which in numbers are repre-
sented bv N 228-21, N 228*76, N 229-09. These three
bands belong to the groups of the hydrocarbons.

We may even, by carrying out the calculation further,
obtain the position of bands still more refrangible,
e,g., \ mm 408*35 and X «■ 408*17. But, according to all
analogies, these bands must be very faint and lost in the
very strong bands of the cyanosen group.

However this may be, by adding the three new bands
the group of the hydrocarbons, considered as a whole,
takes a form more systematic and regular, and approxi-
mates more closely to the band speAra of nitrogen, the
only ones which have as yet been studied in a complete
manner. These various speAra, as their study is carried
sufficiently far, approach a common uniform type, the
constancy of which is due to the similar variations of the
whole numbers which govern them.

This application of the law of the distribution of bands
forms a new method for the discovery of faint bands which
are lost in a mixture of groups of different bands. It is
the first instance of the discovery by calculation of new
bands in band- speAra.— Com^^^s Rcndus,



STUDIES ON THE EARTHS OF THE CERIUM
AND YTTRIUM GROUP.*

By A. BETTENDORFF.
Oondoded from p. 173).

The plates of zirconia first used by Linnemann were
prepared by means of strong pressure and fixed in small
platinum plates. They require to be very carefully
handled in order to be moderately permanent. Dr. W.
Kochs, a tutor in this University, succeeded in fritting
this infusible earth by a peculiar treatment, and moulding
it permanently into any desired form. He found cylinders
of 0*02 m.m. in length and 0*008 m.m. in diameter most
convenient for illumination. I am indebted to his kind-
ness for a number of such cylinders, which, along with
the small accompanying oxy hydrogen lamp, can be
obtained at a very moderate price from the mechanician
Wolz, of Bonn.

* FrpQ l^itbig's AntuUen,



I As already remarked, the last mother-liquor obtained in
purifying the lanthanum-ammonium nitrate — the 23rd —
showed no trace of absorption lines, and the crystallisa-
tions previously separated out were perfedlv pure lantha-
num-ammonium nitrate. This double salt which was
first obtained by Sainte-Claire Deville, and was opticaily
and crystallographically examined by Descloizeaux, leaves
on ignition perfedly white lanthanum oxide, which was
dissolved in nitric acid, precipitated with pure oxalic acid,
ignited again, and served for a series of determinations of
equivalents, 0=15-96, 8=31-98.

x. 0-9X4)6 grm. lanthanum oxide yielded x-5900 grm*
lanthanum sulphate.

2. 0*9395 grm. gave 1*6332 grm.
3- 0*9133 „ x*5877 „

4. x*o65X „ x*85i5 „



X. Equivalent RO = ro8'X4 ;

2. »iM 9, — xo8*X5;

3« M "io8*r5;

4. I, OC108-X6;



RaOj



324"4a
"324'45
=32445
»3a4'4«



Hence the atomic weight of lanthanum may be calcu*
lated as R 92-X9 or R X3828. P. T. Cleve in his last

determmations made it R 138*22.

It seemed to the author not superfluous to examine the
spark spedrum of the lanthanum chloride obtained from
the oxide to become certain of its identity with other
oxides of lanthanum previously obtained. The mono-
prismatic spedroscope used for this purpose had, as I
believe, been standardised according to the method first
indicated by Angstr6m and Thal^n, and subsequently
used by Lecoq de Boisbaudran, G. Kriiss and Nilson, by
determining the position of a great number of the Fraun-
hofer lines as well as of the lines of the metals. The
wavelengths of these lines were taken from the measure*
ments of Angstrdm and Thalin, which are given in M.
Kaiser's text-book. For the produdlion of the sparks there
was used a Ruhmkorffs coil, a small Leyden jar, and a
Bunsen battery of four elements. The striking distance
of the sparks was 0*01 metre. The solution of lanthanum
chloride was placed in a small glass tube placed verti-
cally, and closed at both ends with corks through which
a platinum wire topped with a conical caibon could be
made to slide. The lower carbon cone was fixed so that
its base just dipped into the solution of lanthanum. In
this manner there was obtained a lanthanum spedrum of
extraordinary brightness and permanence. For com-
parison the author gives the measurements of R. Thalea
as taken from M. Kaiser's manual.

Thaldn, who conduded bis experiments with an
apparatus of higher dispersion, gives also a great number
of lines the values of which are intermediate between
those quoted. In general the wave-lengths found agree
well with Thalen's figures, and bear witness to the
accuracy of the author's spedral apparatus. Still there
remain some discrepancies which need explanation. Thus
among Thalen's values, as quoted by Kaiser, the lines
X4824, A46551 and A4086, are printed in lar^e figures as



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CBIMlCAt NbWS, I
April 17, X89X 1



Boiler Deposits.



181



^6393
6294
6248
5807
5794
5765
5599
5535
5504
5455
5376
5340
5302
5182
5152
512a

5"3
4920
4898
4860
4821
4817



TbAldn.

A6393
6294
6249
5807
5794
5761

5599
5534
550a

5455
3376
5340
5301
5183
5x56
5122

5"4
4920

4899
4860

4824



Tbal«n



M797


X4796


4738


4739


4688


4687


4667


4668


465a


4655


4630





4604


4605


4558


4558


4522


4522


4430


4430


4384


4383


4354


4354


4330


4330


4295


4295


4286


4286


4238


4238



Online LibraryArnold BennettChemical news and journal of industrial science → online text (page 48 of 88)