Arsenius John Baptist Vuibert.

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that his foes and the foes of the republic, whom he classed
together, should on his arrival suffer condign punishment.
On hearing this, both the senate, now half filled with Marians,
and^the populace, were terrified ; and immense preparations
were made to resist him. Fortunately for Sulla, his oppo-
nents had now, Cinna being dead, no one of sufficient influ-
ence and military reputation to assume the supreme com-
mand. Their vast forces were scattered under different
generals ; they were themselves divided by mutual jealousies,
and their soldiers felt neither confidence in them, nor
enthusiasm in the cause. Still, if all the Italians had
remained faithful to the Marian party, the resistance would
have proved well-nigh insuperable. Wishing, therefore, to
detach them from his enemies, Sulla forbade his troops to
do to their town or fields any injury, and he formed separ-
ate treaties with all those who consented to receive his over-
tures, securing to them all the rights and privileges of
Roman citizens which they enjoyed. But with the Samnites
no such accommodation was possible. Their object in join-
ing the Marian party was to use it, first to conquer, and next
to destroy Rome ; and, under the indomitable Pontius Tel-
esinus, they were resolved to fight to death.

Sulla Defeats His Enemies in Italy (b. c. 83-82). —
Sulla advanced unopposed, as far as Campania. Here he
gained his first victory, defeating the consul Norbanus, whom he
forced to take refuge in Capua. The soldiers of Scipio, the
other consul, deserting his standard, joined those of Sulla.
Many distinguished Romans, among others M. Crassus and
M. Lucullus, also took up arms in his behalf; and Cn. Pom-
pey, then only 23 years of age, levied three legions to employ

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474 ANClfeNT ftOMfi. Chapt. XXIV.

in his service. Yet it was not till the following year (b, c. 82),
that the struggle was brought to a decisive issue. Both the
consuls of this year, the younger Marius and Papirius Carbo,
were defeated, and the latter was even compelled to embark
for Africa. But Rome, meanwhile, had nearly fallen into the
power of its worst enemies, the Samnites and Lucanians.
Their leader, the indomitable Pontius Telesinus, made a sud-
den descent upon it, intending to burn and raze it to the
ground. Sulla barely arrived in time to prevent the execu-
tion of this design. A desperate encounter took place at the
Colline gate. Sulla's left wing, which he personally com-
manded, was routed ; but Crassus, with tne right, broke
the enemy's ranks, and retrieved the day. 50,000 men are
said to have fallen on each side ; and 8,000 Samnites, who
had surrendered on promise of their lives, were next morning
butchered in cold blood. Pontius, with many officers of dis-
tinction, had perished during the engagement ; others, who
had been taken, were slain on the spot after the fight.
Marius caused his own slave to dispatch him ; Sertorius fled to
Spain; and thus the war in Italy was now virtually at an end.
Proscription (Dec. to Tune, 82-81 b. c). — Sulla, not
content with having subdued his enemies in the field, resolved
to extirpate the popular party, root and branch. Lists of
proscription were set up at Rome and throughout Italy.
All persons on those lists were outlaws ; their property was
confiscated to the state; their children and grandchildren
lost their votes in the comitia, and were excluded from all
public offices. Whoever killed a proscribed person, or
revealed his place of concealment, received two talents as a
reward ; whoever sheltered him, was punishable with death.
From the Dec. of 82 to the following June, this system of
authorized murder was continued. No one was safe; for
Sulla gratified his friends by placing on the fetal lists their
private enemies, or persons whose property was coveted by
them * An estate, a house, or even a piece of plate, was to
men of no political party often a death-warrant. Of senators

♦Although the confiscated property belonged to the state, and had
to be sold by public auction, the friends and dependents of Sulla
purchased it at nominal prices, as no one durst bid against them.
Oftentimes, Sulla did not require the purchase money to be paid
at all ; and, in many cases, he gave such property to his favorites
without even the formality of a sale. Catiline, m particular, was the
recipient of golden favors at Sulla's hands ; and Crassus, 'the richest
of the Romans/ now laid the foundation of his enormous wealth.


fe. c. 81-79. sulla's bicf ATonsttifc 475

perhaps 200, of knights near 3000, and of the common peo- 1
pie an Unknown multitude were slain. But far more sweep 8
fn# still and indiscriminate was the destruction of the Italians*
The inhabitants of those towns which had fought against
Sulla, were deprived not only of the Roman franchise lately
conferred on them, but of their lands. These were dis-
tributed among Sulla's veterans, of whom 120,000 were
setded * in colonies from end to end of the peninsula. While
Sulla thus established throughout Italy a population devoted
to his interests, he created at Rome a kind of body-guard
for his protection, by giving the citizenship to some 10,000
freedmen, late slaves of the proscribed, who were now called
Cornelii after him their patron.

Sulla's Dictatorship and Legislation (b. c. 81-79).
— After the battle of the Colline gate, Rome lay at the feet
of Sulla. So soon, therefore, as the death of both the consuls
permitted it, he caused one of his creatures to be appointed
interrexy and the latter caused Sulla to be invested with the
dictatorship. This office he was empowered to retain at his
own discretion, and he used its unlimited prerogative to
restore, as far as possible, their ancient influence to the sen-
ate and nobility. Hence, he gave again to the senators the
exclusive possession of the highest tribunals, and made them
independent of the censors ; he deprived the comitia tribute
of their legislative and judicial functions ; he took away from
the tribunes their vetoing power on senatorial legislation;
he decreed that the holding of the tribunate was a bar to
being ever a candidate for any of the higher magistracies,
and that none but senators could become tribunes.

Abortiveness of Sulla's Legislation. — The efforts
of Sulla to restore permanendy the ascendency of the senate,
proved wholly abortive. The selfish and corrupt aristocracy
used their newly-recovered influence only for their own
aggrandizement. The consequence was a general disgust in
the capital and throughout the provinces. In eight years,
the people regained their power. But, as neither class was fit
to rule, anarchy followed ; and the Romans, in the end, had
to submit to the despotism of the empire.

Death of Sulla (b. c. 78). — After exercising absolute

* Thus was an industrious agricultural population supplanted by
an idle and licentious soldiery, among waom Catiline found most
of his adherents. Etruria had perhaps a larger number of these
colonies, than any other part of Italy.


476 ANCIENT ROMfi. Chapt. XXV.

power for about two years, Sulla resigned the dictatorship,
and retired to his estate at Puteoli, where, surrounded by the
beauties of nature and art, he gave himself up unreservedly
to those literary and sensual enjoyments in which he had
always taken so much pleasure. But the days of the enfee-
bled, worn-out statesman were numbered. He was now tor-
mented by the loathsome pedicular disease ; and, before many
months, he whose hands were stained with the blood of so
many thousands, died in consequence of the rupture of a

His Funeral. — The senate, faithful to the last, decreed
to Sulla the honor of a public funeral. This the consul
Lepidus in vain attempted to prevent Sulla's veterans were
summoned from their colonies, and Q, Catulus, L. Lucullus,
and Cn. Pompey, placed themselves at their head. Lepidus
was obliged to yield, and the gorgeous pageant remained
undisturbed. The magistrates, the senate, the equites, the
priests, and the Vestal virgins, as well as the veterans,
accompanied the funeral procession to the Campus Martius.
Hitherto it had been the custom of the Cornelia gens to bury,
and not burn, their dead. But, in accordance with Sulla's
own wish, who feared for his remains those insults which he
had heaped on Marius's, his corpse was burnt, and the ashes
thrown into the Anio. A monument was erected to him in
the Campus Martius, with this epitaph supposed to have been
written by himself: " Here lies Sulla, who never was out-
done in good offices by a friend, nor in acts of hostility and
revenge by an enemy. "


Wars with Sertorius, Spartacus, the Pirates, and Mithri-

dates. — b. c. 79-61. — Pompey — Crassus — Lucullus.

First Exploits of Pompey (b. c. 82-80). — The rise of
Cneius Pompey to public station, was unusually early. His
father Cn. Pompeius Strabo, a soldier of fortune, was consul
in b. c. 89, and commanded an army against the Italians in
the social wan Young Pompey, then only seventeen, served
under him during this and the two following campaigns.

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fe. C. 82-80. kiSE Ofr POMPftV. 47J7

Cradled, as it were, in the camp, he made it his object from
the first to secure the attachment of the troops ; and in this
he succeeded so well that, on Sulla's return from the east,
in B. c. 82, though still so young and holding no public
office, he was able to raise an army of three legions. With
these he gained a brilliant victory over the Marian generals,
and on joining Sulla was received by him with the greatest
distinction. Upon the conclusion 01 the war in Italy, Pom-
pey was sent first into Sicily, and afterwards into Africa,
where the Marian party still held their ground. His success
was rapid and decisive ; and Sulla, beginning to grow jealous,
required him to disband his troops in Africa. Pompey
replied by leading his victorious-army to Rome. Numbers of
the citizens flocked out to meet him ; and the dictator him-
self, thinking it best to head the procession, hailed the youth-
ful conqueror with the tide of Magnus (the great). Pompey,
though not yet a senator, demanded a triumph. Sulfa at
first refused ; but, pleased with the spirited answer of the
young general, who bade him ' consider there were more
persons ready to adore the rising than the setting sun,' he
yielded ; and Pompey, then a simple knight, and only 24
years of age, entered Rome in triumph (b. c. 80).

Pompey and the Nobles (b. c. 79-77). — Pompey again
exhibited his power, the following year, in successfully pro-
moting the election of M. iEmilius Lepidustothe consulship
against the wishes of Sulla The latter contented himself
with warning Pompey, as he met him returning from the
comitia, " Young man, it is time for you to be awake ; for
you have strengthened your rival." But Pompey was not
wanting to himself. When Lepidus, on the death of Sulla,
sought even by force of arms to repeal the dictator's laws,
Pompey threw his weight into the scale of the other consul,
Q. Catulus ; and, as his lieutenant, contributed gready to the
victories gained over Lepidus. The latter, after sustaining
several defeats in Italy, fled to Sardinia, where he soon died.
But, as his party still held out in the Cisalpine, Pompey went
- thither to quench the last embers of rebellion. Soon, how-
ever, the senate beginning to distrust him, ordered him to
disband his army. Under various pretexts, he kept his men
together ; and, before long, the growing power of Sertorius
compelled the senate to send him to Spain with the title of
proconsul (b. c. 76).
Sertorius in Spain (b. c. 82-72). — Sertorius, a Sabine


47 8 ANCIEMT ROME. Chapt. XXV.

by birth, had taken a prominent part in the civil wars, but
was untainted with the guilt of the proscriptions. The ablest
and the best of the Marian generals, he received the govern-
ment of Spain in B. c. 82. Here he was hailed as a deliverer
by the natives, whom he flattered with the hopes of estab-
lishing an independent state, which might bid defiance to
Rome. His influence was enhanced by the superstition of
the people. He was accompanied on all occasions by a tame
fawn, which they believed to be a favorite spirit. So attached
did they become to his person, that he found no difficulty
in collecting an army, with which he defeated all the generals
sent against him by Sulla. Even Metellus, who had been
consul, and in whose abilities much confidence was placed,
could not cope successfully with him ; and it became neces-
sary to send Pompey, to prosecute the Spanish war in con-
junction with Metellus.

Pompey ends the War in Spain (b. c. 76-72). — Pom-
pey, on his arrival, found that he had a more formidable
enemy to deal, with, than any he had yet encountered. He
suffered several defeats ; ana, on one occasion, would have
incurred a very severe loss, had he not received timely aid
from Metellus. As the latter was much older than Pompey,
this gave Sertorius occasion to remark at the time, " lithe
old woman had not come to his assistance, I would have
given the boy a sound flogging, and sent him back to Rome."
In course of time, however, the influence of Sertorius over
the Spanish tribes became somewhat impaired, and he had
to contend with the jealousy of his chief Roman officers. At
last, his own lieutenant, Perperna, who aspired to the
supreme command, caused him to be assassinated during a
repast to which he had invited him. By this treacherous
act, Perperna ruined both himself and his party. In his
first encounter with Pompey, he was defeated, made prisoner,
and put to death. As Metellus had taken no part in the
final struggle, Pompey obtained the credit of ending the war.
He, moreover, in reconstituting the government of Spain, dis-
posed not merely of offices, but of estates and territories, in
such a way as to bind to himself a multitude of partisans,
clients, and dependents.

Spartacus. — The struggle against Sertorius and Perperna
was not yet ended, when a righteous retribution overtook
the Romans for their love of the cruel sports of the amphi-
theatre. The gladiators were generally prisoners taken in


b. c.'jy'jfin ISe sbrVICE' W&. 479

war, and sold to persons who trained them in schools, to
be let out to pretors or ediles, on occasions of public enter-
tainment. There was such a school at Capua; and, among
the gladiators, was a Thracian, named Spartacus, originally a
chief of banditti. This man planned an escape with some 70
of his comrades, and led them to a crater of Vesuvius, then
an extinct volcano (b. c. 73). Here he was joined by such
multitudes of slaves, gladiators, Apulian shepherds, and
Marian veterans, that his numbers were successively estimated
at forty, seventy, and a hundred thousand.

War of the Gladiators (b. c. 73-71) : Crassus. — For
upwards of two years Spartacus was master of Italy. Not
only were several pretors, but even both the consuls of the
year 72, ignominiously defeated. At last, in 71, the com-
mand was intrusted to Crassus, who, in the absence of Pom-
pey, was the ablest general of the republic. Six legions were
given him, in addition to the remains of the consular armies
already in the field. Crassus, after restoring discipline
among his soldiers by decimating them, led them against
the rebels. The gladiators were driven to the extreme
point of Bruttium, and shut up in Rhegium by superior
numbers and strong lines of circumvallation. Having
attempted vainly to cross the straits into Sicily, Spartacus
forced his way through the lines of Crassus and swept north-
ward, but was overtaken with the main body of his followers.
A desperate battle ensued, in which Spartacus was slain with
40,000 men. About 6oco were taken prisoners, whom
Crassus impaled on each side of the Appian road, between
Rome and Capua. A body of 5000 fugitives fell in with
Pompey, then returning from Spain, and were also extermin-
ated. For this trifling advantage, Pompey took to himself
the credit of concluding the servile war, and wrote to the
senate, " Crassus, indeed, has defeated the enemy, but I
have extirpated them by the roots."

Pompey and Crassus Consuls (b. c. 70). — Pompey and
Crassus now approached the city at the head of their armies,
and each laid claim to the consulship. Neither of them was
by law qualified for the office. Pompey had filled as yet no
subordinate civil magistracy, had not even been questor, and
was only in his 35th year. Crassus was still pretor, and two
years ought to elapse before he could become consul. But
both generals having mutually agreed to support each other's
candidacy, the senate dared not openly resist Pompey,


4 8o ANCIENT ROME. Chapt. XXV.

moreover, declared himself the advocate of popular rights,
and promised to restore the tribunitian power. He was
elected by acclamation, and entered the city in triumph, Dec.
31st, B. c. 71. On the day following, he inaugurated his first
consulship. One of his first acts was the bringing of a law
for the restoration of the tribunitian power, which was passed
with litde opposition. Pompey lent also the weight of his
influence to the pretor L. Aurelius Cotta, when the latter
proposed a bill whereby the judices (judges) were to be
taken in future from among the senators, the knights, and the
officers of the treasury (Jribuni ararii). By these acts Pom-
pey broke with the aristocracy, and became the popular hero.

The Mediterranean Pirates. — By the conquest of
Greece thousands of expert mariners had been driven from
the continent to the islands, and from the islands to their
ships. The victories of the Romans in Asia, together with
the frightful iniquities of proconsular rule, increased the
number of those hardy adventurers ; and, when Sulla required
Mithridates (b. c. 84) to dismande his armaments, the sailors,
carrying off their vessels to the fortified harbors of the
pirates in Cilicia and Crete, their chief strongholds, further
added to their power, so that they soon became absolute
masters throughout the Mediterranean. The Romans,
whose attention had lately been wholly absorbed by the
social and civil wars, were at last aroused to a sense of their
danger. In the year 78 b. c. a war was began, which, though
carried on for several campaigns, left the pirates as formid-
able as ever. Driven from one point, they reappeared at
another ; and, not content with plundering wealthy cities and
distant coasts, they made descents upon the Appian road,
and carried off Roman magistrates with their hctors. All
communication between Rome and the provinces was cut
off by sea, or at least rendered extremely dangerous. The
corn-ships of Sicily and Africa, upon which Rome to a great
extent depended ior its subsistence, could not reach the city,
and the price of provisions in consequence rose enormously.
Such a state of things had become intolerable, and all eyes
were now directed to Pompey.

The Gabinian Law.— At the beginning of b. c. 67,
the tribune A. Gabinius brought forward a bill, proposing
that the people should elect a man of consular rank, to be for
three years invested with absolute power over the Mediter-
ranean and its coasts for go miles inland, and to have tie


B. C. 67. THE GABINXAN LAW. jfil

disposal of 120,000 foot, 5000 horse, 500 galleys, and 6000
Attic talents. Though the bill did not actually mention
Pompey, its object was clear. The aristocracy were in the
utmost alarm. Yet, despite their strenuous opposition, sup-
ported by the eloquence of Q. Catulus and Q. Hortensius,
the bill was passed, and the price of the provisions at Rome,
immediately fell — a fact which showed the immense confi-
dence which all parties placed in the military abilities of

Pompey Destroys the Pirates (b. c. 67). Pompey's
plans were formed with great skill, and crowned with complete
success. He divided the Mediterranean into 13 portions, ap-
pointing a commander for each. His lieutenants, thus distribu-
ted, hunted the pirates out of every bay and creek,while he
with a select squadron sweeping the middle Mediterranean
chased the enemy eastward. A period of forty days sufficed
to clear the western seas, and restore the communication of
Italy with Spain and Africa. Then, after spending a short
time in Italy, Pompey again sailed, and within 49 days
forced the pirates to the Cilician coast. Here, after killing
a number ot them and making besides about 20,000 prisoners,
he compelled the rest to surrender. Thus within the space
of three months was the war terminated.

The Second Mithridatic War (b. c. 83-82).— Murena,
whom Sulla had left to hold command in Asia, was eager to earn
the honor of a triumph. Pretending, therefore, that Mithri-
dates had not yet evacuated the whole of Cappadocia, he
invaded Pontus first in 83, and again in the ensuing spring.
Mithridates, wholly unprepared for so flagrant a breach of
the treaty lately concluded with Sulla, was taken by surprise,
and offered no opposition to the first incursion of the
Romans. But, when Murena reappeared, he met and
defeated him on the banks of the Halys. At this juncture,
peremptory orders from Sulla required Murena to desist
from hostilities, and the king of Pontus consented to with-
draw into his own territory. Thus ended what is commonly
called the second Mithridatic War.

Preparations of Mithridates. — Mithridates was
aware that Sulla's present intervention, as well as his former
peace, was but a makeshift for the occasion ; and that the
naughty republic would never suffer the massacre of her
citizens in Asia to remain unpunished. His own ambition
too was now, as before, encouraged by the disaffection of


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the provincials. Hence all his efforts were directed towards
the formation of an army capable of contending with the
soldiers of Rome. With this view, he armed his barbarians
after the Roman fashion ; and, aided by Marian refugees,
strove by thorough discipline to bring his troops up to a
state of real efficiency. Having further strengthened himself
by concluding an alliance with Sertorius, upon the death of
Nicomedes in, king of Bithynia, he resolved to oppose the
Roman occupation of that country (b. c. 74).

Beginning of the Third Mithridatic War (b. c. 74).
— Mithridates took the field at the head of 120,000 foot and
16,000 horse, trained to the use of Roman weapons, and
relieved from the luxurious encumbrances usually fetal to
Oriental armies. He had, in addition, 100 scythed chariots
and a fleet larger than any which the Romans could com-
mand. The two consuls of tnis year, L. Licinius Lucullus and
M. Aurelius Cotta, had been dispatched to Asia; but neither
was in time to oppose the first irruption of Mithridates. The
king of Pontus traversed without obstacle afmost the whole
of Bithynia ; and, when at length Cotta ventured to give him
battle under the walls of Chalcedon, his army and fleet were
totally defeated. Hence Mithridates proceeded to lay siege
to Cyzicus, both by sea and land.

Siege of Cyzicus (b. c. 73).— The brave resistance of
Cyzicus allowed Lucullus time to reach the scene of hostili-
ties. But, not being strong enough to raise the siege by
direct attack, from an advantageous post near by he con-
tented himself with cutting off the supplies of the besiegers
by land, while the storms of winter prevented them from
receiving any by sea. Thus it was not long before famine
began to be felt in the camp of Mithridates ; and, all his assaults
upon the city having failed, he was obliged early in the fol-
lowing year to abandon the enterprise.*

Mithridates Expelled from Pontus (b. c. 72). —
Mithridates withdrew by sea with part of his troops, directing
his generals to lead the rest by land to Lampsacus. But
both the fleet and the land-army were overtaken by the
Romans, and signally defeated. Bithynia was freed of its
invaders, and the war was transferred into the heart of the
king's dominion. Here Mithridates, who had raised a fresh
army, was again put to flight, and followed so closely by the
victors that he must Jiave fallen into their hands, had not a
mule laden with gold been let loose between himself and his


& C. 74-63. THIRD MITHJODAT1C WAR. 4^3

pursuers. This treasure diverted the attention of the soldiers ;
and thus a more important prey — the king himself— escaped

Tigranes. — Expelledfrom Pontus, Mithridates fled into
Armenia, to claim assistance of his son-in-law, Tigranes.

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