Arthur Bunyan Caldwell.

History of the American Negro and his institutions; (Volume 1) online

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I 1917 \

I A. B. Caldwell Publishing Co. |


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Copyright, 1917,


This first volume of Tlie History of the American Negro and
Hig Institutions, Georgia Edition, is not complete and exhaus-
tive. It is merely a beginning and is offered to the public with
the hope that it may prove of genuine interest and helpfulness,
especially to those ten million American citizens who have more
or less of African blood, and whom we know as Negroes. They
are a very vital part of our civic life ; and coming out of genera- >
tions of slavery, which was itself preceded by a long period of '
mental and moral darkness, they have during their first half
century as free American citizens undergone changes and de-
velopments of which comparatively little is known except in the
most fragmentary way, even by their closest white neighbors;
and^Iie~Negroes themselves have had no means of acquiring any
comprehensive knowledge of the achievements of theit race.
There has heretofore been no publication covering this field
in a large way, though it is one of vital concern to the whole
American nation in general and the Negroes in particular, and
affords much material of the most thrilling interest to the student
of human nature and of human history. It is a story of heroic
struggle crowned with noble achievement. Perhaps no other'
phase of American life presents as much fine story-material as
does the experience of the American Negro since Emancipation.

It is true that, daily and hourly, the press of the country
grinds out matter of one kind or another pertaining to the
Negro. Much of this is characterized by shallowness and levity,
and deals in an exaggerated way with their crimes and foibles ;\
while that which deals with the achievements and accomplish-
ments o't the better and more successful element of the race
passes almost unrecorded and without notice.

We are not unmindful that there have appeared from time to
time important publications from the hands of capable writers
which are true to life and of incalculable value ; but they touch
only here and there the broader field which in this work we are
endeavoring to cover with some thoroughness.

We undertake to tell in the biographical department of in-

dividual struggles and triumphs, as the most tangible, concrete
examples of their life and work. These biographies are written
from an appreciative point of view. Our effort has not been to
criticise nor to find fault. Rather it has been our effort to find
what is worthy and what is best, and by sympathetic treatment
make a work which will be a source of helpful inspiration to
the present and succeeding generations. At the same time truth
has been prized more highly than a good story, and the biogra-
phies have been made as accurate and as true to life as possible.
It is not improbable that here .and there errors may have crept
in, and we cannot vouch for the entire correctness of every
statement where we are dependent upon others for facts. Nor
do we expect every one to agree with all we say, since different
men see things differently. We do believe, however, that with
the care that has been exercised in the preparation of this
volume, we have approached near enough to accuracy to make
the work one of real value and creditable to all who are identified
with it.

As the title indicates, it is contemplated that the completed
work will cover the entire American field in all its important
phases, one or more volumes being devoted to each state where
there is sufficient Negro population to warrant it, and the other
states being grouped. We have endeavored to set a high stand-
ard in this, the first (Georgia) volume.

We wish to tender our most cordial thanks to that long list
of colored men and women, too numerous to mention here by
name, who by their hearty co-operation have made it possible
to build a work of this character.



Adams, John Henry 92

Alexander, William G 615

Allen, George Wesley 64

Allen, Peyton Austin 34

Alston, Matthew Monroe 460

Anderson, Henry Harrison 219

Atwatek, Anak Thomas 273

Barco, Edward Burl 238

Bell, Luther H. A 465

Bivins, Willlvm Grant 215

Blanton, N. E 145

Black, Nathan Lane 676

Bonner, Coleman L 536

Borders, Noah 342

Bouey, Forrest Lee 194

BowEN, John W. E 81

Bracy, Dock 127

Branch, Richmond V 374

Bridges, Fr^vnk Randall 450

Brinson, Eugene J 37

Brinson, Marcellus F 271

Broughton, John B 413

Brown, Cyrus 267

Brown, Dillard H 67

Brown, John Henry 188

Bryant, Alonzo William 617

Bryant, Peter James 331

Bullard, Charles A 463

Burns, Andrew A 564

Butler, Joel Landrue 22

Byrd, William 440

Cain, Commodore 1 142

Cannon, Danile W. . . ' 31

Cannon, William S 96

Cantrell, Joseph 1 535

Carson, John W 553

Carter, James E 575

Carter, Raymond H 322

Carthan, Taylor 525

Gartwright, W. C 598

Gary, Alice Dugged 175

Clark, Alexander E 371

(Jlark, Noah Webster 632

Cobb, Andrew J 243

Cobb, Mrs. Helena B 246

Combs, Oswell A 438

Cook, Nathan 249

Cottrell, Samuel D 528

Crawford, Doc Dugas 279

Creagh, Joseph James 478

Crolley, John 276

Cunningham, Geo. A 523

Daniel, Robt. Toombs 323

Datcher, William 113

Davis, Benjamin J 441

Davis, Samuel G 482

Dawson, Sampson S 511

Dickson, William Harrison 51

DoRSEY, John Franklin 529

Douglass, Dennis F 545

Doyle, Newton Alex 293

Drew, Wesley Wm 165

DuGGED, William H. S 178

DwELLE, George Henry 18

DwELLE, Georgia 378

DwELLE, Thomas Henry 121

Elder, Thomas Jefferson 533

English, James W 559

English, Robert 491

Epton, John Belton 577

Evans, Pheolian A 202

Farmer, William Edward 380

Fambro, John L 217

Fitzgerald, Charles H 621

Fleming, James Robert 584

Flemister, Henry Lewis 259

Flipper, Joseph Simon 11

Floyd, William W 423

Fountain, William A 428

FoBBEs, William Ryley 514

FoRTSON, Henry Early 108

Gaines, Carlton Wilson 494

Gallimore, Donald W 573

Gordon, Frederick M. . 489

Granberry, Isaiah 236

Greatheart, Patrick W 446

Green, Eustace Edavard 15

Gregg, Franklin 70

Griffith, Rort. H 505

Hadley, James A 604

Hall, John Henry 385

Hall, Louis Emory 497

Hall, Samuel D 383

Hamilton, Alexander D 86

Harper, L. H 649

Harper, Luther S 554

Harris, Judia Jackson 642

Harbison, Granville W 667

Henry, James M. J 506

Hill, Lyndon Marcus 307

HiNES, James Thomas 399

Hines, William A 315

Holland, Richard Allen 624

Holmes, R. R 344

Holmes, William A 567

Holsey, Charles Wesley 449

HoLSEY, James Henry 283

Holsey, Lucius H 433

HoRNSBY, Walter S 124

HoRTON, John Henry 426

HosKiNs, Chas. F 77

Hubbard, William M 562

Hudson, Harrison 626

Hudson, William R 347

Hughes, Jere F 457

Hughes, William L 487

Humbert, Samuel Scipio 328

Hunter, James M 591

Hunter, Miles ^^^

Jackson, John Warren 303

Jackson, Mary C 359

Jackson, Newsome D 265

James, Sanford F 395

Jenkins, Jabez 483

Johnson, Charles J 58

Johnson, Calvert P 636

Johnson, Edavin Posey 169

Johnson, Henry Hal 589

Johnson, James Solomon "^^

Johnson, Joe Thomas ^t

Johnson, Phillip Dowell *^^

Johnson, Roman J ^r*^

Johnson, William G *^^

Jones, Blanton J

Jones, Ralph E "iyl

Jones, William Warren ^/^

Jordan, John Henry ^*^

Jordan, Louis W. P *°^

JOSEY, T. W ^*^


Keith, Perry A ^"^

King, Griffin D "^^^

Lemon, George W. ^^^

Lennon, George H t.^'

Linton, Thomas Joseph ^^'^

Lovejoy, John D ^^^

Lumpkin, Thomas A *^

Lynch, Samuel E '

Mack, Isaiah "'^^

Maddux, Jacob B '

Madison, James W " ;;

Manning, Cornelius M ^^^

Marshall, Shadrach R ^^^

Mathis, Amos A TIt,

Maxwell, Anderson ' "

Means, Samuel G ^q^

Miller, David L *^^

Miller, James Berry "

Moncrief, Robert ^

Moon, DeLove Willis ^^^

Moon, Hampton C" ^°°

Moon, Margaret M -^Tl

Moon, Rort. IjOuis ^g.

Moore, Chester A "^

Moore, John Henry ^^^

Moore, Miles P ^„„

Morris, James D ^

Morris, Major • _„„

Moses, Norton

McAfee L. D r^l

McCoy, Albert B ^'j'*

McGraw, Joseph C *^i

McKiNNEY, Addison R ^'

McLendon, William A

Nabrit, James M. • g^

Nichols, Reuben B ^

Norman, Grafton S "

NucKELS, Absolom D

Pace, Harry Herbert "^

Page, Phillip G 22_

Paschal, Riley K ^„

Penn, Alexander ^^ .

Peters, Stephen A t' ^^

Pharrow, Robert E ,^

Phillips, Geo. W. F j!'^

PiNKSTON, German R ' '

Ponton, Mungo M ^.^

Posey, Charley . . ^^^

Proctor, Henry H ^,^1,


PuLLiNS, William

T-. A T> ..... 673
Raiford, a. R PP<

Reddick, Major W ^ ._

Reddick, Richard M

Richardson, Elijah R 55o

Robinson, John Henry 308

RosEBOROUGH, Sandy D 405

Russell, William S 298

Russell, Samuel Mack 75

Sams, James Oliver 192

Saunders, John T 521

Scarlett, Henry (" 409

Scarlett, Styles M 501

Sessoms, F. D 646

Sheffield, Jackson K 61

Shropshire, Lunie 628

Simmons, Square S 234

Sims, David H 150

Slade, Willis O 572

Smith, Henry M 349

Smith, Lewis H 180

Smith, William J 253

Smith, William Jefferson 362

Snellings, Randall S 49

Snow, Daniel S 609

Solomon, James D 101

Staley, Alfred S 476

Strickland, Eddie 161

Strickland, William (' 300

Taliaferro, John R 352

Thomas, Edgar G 355

Thomas, Jefferson T 498

Thompson, Eugene ,T 256

Thompson, Judge Marshall 612

Thompson, Louis 471

Thompson, Nathaniel T 630

Tolbert, Uriah P 153

Towns, .Tames F 474

Traylor, .Joseph H 224

Turner, Henry M 480

Tuggle, William H 54

Turner, .John H. N 595

Usher, Jerry M 620

Veal, Charles T 365

Vincent, Harrison 311

Walden, Austin Thomas 326

Walker, Charles T 683

Walker, Harold 27

Walker, .Tames 469

Walker, Robert W 580

Walker, Solomon W 130

Washington, General P 569

Watkins, ,Tohn P 46S

Watson, S. E. J 679

Watson, Van A. O 650

Watts, Monroe W -32

Webb, Adolphus D. . l'^3

Wheeler. ,Tohn L 229

White, Robt. W 186

Wiley, Cyrus G 638

WiLKERsoN, Andrew J 116

Williams, Adam D. . . 210

Williams, Charlie 530

Williams, .Toshtja Sloan 518

Williams, Rort. Benjamin 339

Williams, Willis J ^^

Wilson, Allen A 16'

Wilson, Nank HI

Wright, Noah Bell 548

Yarbrough, Annie 5^6

Young, Henry Clay 207

i i^UiiUU Li^KARY


IT is given to the world in any race or any generation to
have only a limited number of those men who by reason of
their extraordinary force of character and superior ability
stand out like mountain peaks, towering above their fellows;
and weild a commanding influence over many thousands. The
Negro race in America is not without such men, and perhaps
a larger number of them than most men have imagined; and
among them is Bishop Joseph Simeon Flipper, D. D., LL. D., of
Atlanta, Ga.

We do not mean by this men of mere pretense and bombast
and assumed superiority, from which our subject is as free as
can be imagined, and which only serves to belittle great men
and make small men ridiculous. In fact, the Bishop's con-
sciousness of his own lofty and unselfish motives and unim-
peachable integrity, and the physical and mental powers witli
which he is endowed, backed by a sense of Divine support,
make him one of the most utterly independent characters of
whom we have any knowledge, irrespective of racial or other

Our subject is a native of Atlanta, Ga., where he was born
Feb. 22, 1859, being second among the five sons of Festus
Flipper, Sr., and his wife Isabella (Buckhalter) Flipper. His
father was a shoemaker.

Joseph obtained his first schooling in the old Bethel A. M.
E. Church, on Jenkins street, in Atlanta, under the auspices of
the American Missionary Association. When later the Storrs
School was built on Houston street, he entered that and finish-
ed the course of studies there, and was among the first students
to enter Atlanta University in 1869. Here he had reached the
junior year in 1876. On the 9th of July, 1876, he left Atlanta and
taught a public school term in Thomaston, Upson county, dur-
ing which time his parents moved to Thomasville. After the
close of his school term at Thomaston and a few months spent
in Macon in 1877, he proceeded to his parents' home at


Thomasville, where he arrived March 29, 1877, and began
teaching his second school at a point twelve miles out from
that place. It was here that he^ -was converted and joined the
;A. M. E. Church, under the pastoral charge of Rev. S. W.
■Prayton. He was elected Captain of a company of the State
Militia known as the Thomasville Independents, and received
his commission from Governor Alfred H. Colquitt, in 1879.
During that year he taught a school at Grooverville, Ga., where
he was licensed as an exhorter and local preacher, and was
recommended to the Annual Conference of the A. M. E. Church
for admission, and was admitted into the Conference when it
convened the next year, 1880, at Americus, under the presi-
dency of Bishop Jabez P. Campbell. His first appointment was
to the pastoral charge of Grooverville circuit, in Brooks county,
from which he had been recommended to the Conference. He
again taught a term of the public school here, and later, for
the first and only time in his life, became a candidate for public
office. Mr. Flipper was an ardent Republican. The Democrats
were in the majority in the county, but had become divided,
so that there seemed a chance of Republican success, and as no
one else Avould offer, and he regarded the absence of a candi-
date a reflection on his party, he entered the race for the
Legislature two weeks before the election, and was defeated
by about two hundred votes. In 1881, he was appointed by
Bishop Dickerson to the pastoral charge of Boston circuit,
jhomas county, where he again taught the public school. In
J882 the Georgia Annual Conference met at Thomasville, and
ISlr. Flipper was elected secretary of that body, and was highly
complimented for his efficiency by Dr. J. 0. A. Clark, of the M.
E. Church, South. At this Conference Mr. Flipper was ap-
pointed to the pastoral charge of Darien station and was
elected a trustee of Morris Brown College. At the next session
,f the Conference, he was transferred from the Georgia Con-
jcrence to the ]Macon (Georgia) Conference, Avhich was organ-
ized at that time. The first session of this new Conference was
held at Sandersville, and .Mr. Flipper was chosen reporter for
the Conference. At the close of the session he was sent back


to the Georgia Conference to Poplar Springs and Cook's
Chapel circuit, to be transferred to Nashville, Tenn., but gave
the appointment back and did not go. lie returned to Darien,
where upon invitation, he delivered an oration on the court-
house square, presenting a beautiful silk flag to the Darien
Volunteer Guards. He then removed to Thomasville and en-
gaged in teaching school in 1883 at Cairo and Whigham. In
1884 he attended the Conference at Valdosta, and Avas assigned
to Bethel A. ]M. E. Church at Quitnmn, to which he was re-
appointed the following year. This church earnestly desired
that he be returned for a third year; but Bishop James A.
Shorter transferred him to the North Georgia Conference and
stationed him at Bethel A. M. E. Church, Atlanta, so that after
ten 3^ears' absence from the city of his birth and education,
he was returned there to the largest church of his connection
in the city and State, and of which church his own mother v/as
a member. It was here that one of the incidents occurred that
serve to illustrate his independent spirit. It had been the
custom of Bethel church to Avelcome its new pastors by a
"house-warming" and pound party Avhich, being largely at-
tended by the members and friends of the flock, provided many
small donations for the beginning of the pastor's house-keep-
ing. On this occasion, with the coming of so able and so
popular a pastor, the custom was observed with perhap#more
than usual enthusiasm. With due dignity, Dr. Flipper in-
formed the assembled guests that he had come there to serve
them for a specific salary, and that he would expect that
salary to be paid; but that he did not need the donations of
the pound party.

Dr. Flipper continued with Bethel church for four years,
where as usual his pastorate was eminently successful, and
the church continued to prosper. In 1889, he became pastor of
the church at Atliens, Ga. In 1892 he was appointed by Bishop
A. Grant Presiding Elder of the Athens District, in which
capacity he was continued for three years ; in 1895 was ap-
pointed pastor at Allen Temple, Atlanta, where he served four
years, and in 1899 pastor at St. Paul, Atlanta; in 1903 Dean
of Turner Theological Seminary. Atlanta, which position he


held for one year. In 1904 he was elected by the board of
trustees of Morris Brown College as president of that, the
leading educational institution of his denomination in the
State. Here he remained four years, until his election as
Bishop, which occurred at Norfolk, Va., in 1908. The years
since that time have been devoted with zeal and ability to the
duties of this high office, for which he was so eminently fitted.
Prior to this time, in 1900, at Columbus, Ohio, he had been
elected chairman of the Episcopal Committee of the General
Conference, and again at Chicago in 1904. This is the most
important committee of the General Conference, as it passes
upon the moral, religious and official character of the Bishops
and assigns them to their Episcopal Districts. From 1904 to
1908, he was a member of the General Conference Financial

On February 24, 1880, Dr. Flipper was married to Miss
Amanda Slater, daughter of Eliza Slater, They have three
children: Josephine G., Nathaniel F. and Carl F. Flipper.

Bishop Flipper, as has already been stated, is a Republican
in politics, and is affiliated with the Odd Fellows and Masons.
He is an occasional contributor to various journals, inr-luding
the Christian Recorder, the Southern Christian Recordci a ad
the Western Christian Recorder.

It goes without saying that with a man lik3 Bishop Flipper,
the Bible is The Book, though he has been a wide, but discrimi-
nating reader, and has next to the Bible found books on
philosophy, science and history most helpful.

Of the two degrees which Bishop Flipper bears, that of
Doctor of Divinity was conferred by Allen University, Colum-
bia, S. C, in 1893, and that of Doctor of Laws by Wilberforce
University, "Wilberforce, 0., in 1909.

He is a stockholder in the Standard Life Insurance Com-
pany, the only old-line insurance company owned and con-
trolled by Negroes, and holds the first policy, for three thous-
?nd dollars, issued by the company. He is a stockholder and
director of the Atlanta State Savings Bank, also a stockholder
in The Independent of New York City. He is a member of the
Southern Sociological Congress, a member of the National Geo-


jrraphic Society, of Washington, D. C, a trustee of the World's
Christian Endeavor, President of the Sunday School Union
Board of the A. M. E. Church, which prints and has control of
all the Sunday School literature of the church.


AMONG the forceful leaders of the Negro race in Georgia,
who has made his influence felt not only in his own state
and in the medical profession, to which his principal
attention has been devoted for a number of years, but in other
lines and in other states as well, is Eustace Edward Green, A.
M., M. D., of ]\[acon. He was born at Wilmington, N. C, Febru-
ary 3, 1845, son of ]\Iary Ann (Simpson) Holmes. His paternal
ancestry was Scotch, or of Scotch extraction.

His first educational training was obtained at the Parochial
''Presbyterian) School in his native city of Wilmington. Later
he entered Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, from which he was
graduated with the A. B. degree in 1872, and from which he
also received the A. M. degree in 1875, later taking a course at
Howard Medical College, at Washington, D. C, from which he
graduated with the M. D. degree in 1886, and immediately
entered upon the practice of his profession at Macon, Ga., where
be still resides. In the meantime, however, he had taught some at
lioth Lincoln and Howard Uinversities. By this and other means
be had found it necessary to work out almost his entire educa-
tion through his own efforts; and in the light of that fact the
thoroughness with which he did it is all the more creditable, and
stamped him even that early as a man of such force and ability
that large things might be expected of him, such as have mater-
ialized in the succeeding years. In shaping his early life, he
regards his mother and stepfather as the predominating in-
fluences. Since he entered upon the practice of his profession, a
large share of his reading has of course been devoted to medical
work, by means of which he has sought to enhance his equip-


ment and keep abreast of the times. The Bible he places as
paramount, and its influence has been largely manifest in his
(•areer. He is also fond of American history and choice English
literature. He has also travelled extensively in the South, West
and Northwest.

Before coming to Georgia, he had spent sixteen years in
public school work in North Carolina and South Carolina; and
while teaching in the latter state was for a time a member of the
County Board of Examiners for Newberry county. He also
served for two years as Deputy Clerk of the Court of General
Sessions and Common Pleas, Laurens county, South Carolina, or,
as it is perhaps better know^n, the Superior Court ; and in North
Carolina he was a member of the Legislature in 1882-1883.

On July 1, 1879, Dr. Green was married to Miss Georgia
Cherry, of Tarboro, N. C, daughter of Henry and Mary A.
Cherry. They have four children : Dr. Charles F. Green, born at
Wilmington, N. C. ; Eustace E. Green, Jr., now a student in
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Cornelius H. Green, Macon,
Ga., and Mary L. Green, now in her second year at Haynes
School, Augusta, Ga. ; so it may be seen that Dr. Green is giving
his children the benefit of the best educational advantages.

Something may be judged of his success and standing and
the esteem in which he is held by his contemporaries in
his chosen profession by the following facts ; namely, that he has
twice been president of the (Colored) Georgia Medical Associa-
tion, and also presided at the organization in Atlanta, Ga., of the
National I\Iedical Association. He is a man of strong religious
sentiment, and stands high in the councils of the Presbyterian
church, having represented his presbytery in three General
Assemblies. He was chosen Moderator of the Atlanta Synod at
Macon in 1910. He operates a successful drug store in ]\Iacon,
carrying a good stock and has acquired other valuable property.
His suggestions as to the best methods of promoting the welfare
of the people of his race in the state and nation, are interesting
Hud worthy of careful thought. He puts it about this way:
"Good character, square dealing with all people, strict attention
to business. Christian education, and a goodly portion of this
world's goods honestly acquired." These principles have been



successfully wrought out in his own life. The accumulation of
a fair amount of property by the means stated is within the
reach of most men, and few will question its desirability for all.
Fortunately, the character, which he places first of all, and its
consequent honorable dealing with all men, is within the reach
of all.

Dr. Green is rounding out a well spent life, with the prospect
of some years yet of effective work for the betterment of physi-
cal, moral and religious conditions among his people; and the
influence of such a life will live through many generations.


IT is a great thing to have known the people of three genera-
tions, and to have marked the progress and the changes
brought about by the lapse of more than four score years.
Such, however, has been the experience of Dr. George Henry

Online LibraryArthur Bunyan CaldwellHistory of the American Negro and his institutions; (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 39)