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Lizzie B., Catherine B., Louise W. and Beauregard L. Mar-
tin.

Fortunately for young Martin, he was brought up in
a section where the advantages of education have been
emphasized. He went first to the Ebenezer Presbyterian
School at Dalzell and later entered the Normal-Preparatory
department of Biddle University. He was an apt student
and his progress was steady. After completing the prep-
aratory department he matriculated in the college course
and won his Bachelor's degree in 1888. Seven years later
the A. M. degree was conferred on him by the same institu-
tion. Let no one imagine that this was accomplished easily.
In order to secure means for his course, he was accustomed
to do the hardest sort of manual labor and three times left
the university to teach in the rural schools. Notwithstand-
ing these breaks., however, he managed to rejoin his classes
each time. While these were hard years, yet they were the
years in which the young man laid broad and deep the
foundation on which, his future success was built. He had
great faith and untiring preserverance and zeal. He early
realized that any worth-while success must be based on
integrity and honesty of purpose. Prof. Martin has de-
voted the best years of his life to teaching with a view to
educating the leadership of the race. After his graduation
he was for three years Assistant Principal of the State
Normal School at Salisbury. In 1891 he was chosen Prin-
cipal of the State Normal School at Goldsboro. At the end
of that school year he was called back to his Alma Mater
and for more than a quarter of a century has been identified
with that institution. He is now head of the Department
of Latin and History and has made a record which is at
once a credit to himself and an asset to the University.
He has done special work through the Chautauqua School
of Liberal Arts. He also has from Biddle the Ph.D. degree
which he won in 1911.

Prof. Martin is a Presbyterian and is one of the most
active laymsn of his denomination. He is active in all judi-



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 339

catories of the Presbyterian Church in America. He has
been President of the Catawba Synodical (N. C. and Va.)
Sabbath School Convention continuously since 1908. He
was a member of the Internatioal S. S. Convention which
met at Louisville in 1908 and Chicago in 1914, and the
World S. S. Conventions which met at Washington in 1910
and Zurich, Switzerland in 1913. He has been in the active
Superintendency of the Sunday School for more than tnirty
years. At Salisbury and at Goldsboro he served in that
capacity and on coming to Biddle in 1892 was made Superin-
tendent of the Seventh Street Presbyterian Sunday School,
which he has since held. He is a ruling elder in the church
and has frequently been a commissioner to the General
Assemblies.

As a student he was active in college athletics. His
favorite reading has been along the line of his religious and
educational work. He has traveled extensively in this coun-
try and continental Enrope, thus adding to his equipment
much that could not be gained from books. Out of his
observation and experience has grown the conviction that
the progress of the race may best be promoted by "practical
conservatism in speech and in actions: acquiring the edu-
cation necessary to good citizenship; owning material pos-
sessions sufficient to give financial standing; and by each
and all living so as to mould a good and healthy sentiment
— more powerful than law."



Hardy Liston



Prof. Hardy Liston, of Winston-Salem, was born at
Winsboro, g. C, on March 30, 1889. His father was Hugh
L. Liston, a farmer and his mother's maiden name was
Maggie Davis. His paternal grandfather was Harry Liston.

On June 28, 1916, Prof. Liston was married to Miss
Estelle English Hoskins, a daughter of Daniel H. and Sarah
(English) Hoskins. Mrs. Liston was educated at Scotia




HARDY LISTON



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 341

Seminary and is herself a capable teacher. She teaches
domestic art at Slater Normal and Industrial School. Their
one child is named Hugh Hoskins Liston.

Prof. Liston worked on the farm as a young man and
had at the outset the disadvantages of the short term coun-
try public school coupled with the necessity of working
hard between terms. Later, he attended the preparatory
school of Biddle University where he remained for six years
and where he was also compelled to support himself by rough
work of any description available, but by concentrating his
bright mind upon his studies and exhibiting to his supsriors
qualities of fine character he presently won both scholarships
for advanced schooling and positions. These imposed upon
him heavy responsibilities but made the way in other re-
spects easier, less interrupted and more favorable to the end
in view. He entered the College Department of Biddle from
which he was graduated with the A. B. degree in 1911. In
addition he did special work at the University of Chicago,
specializing in Mathematics and Physics, and has gleaned
invaluable information from travel throughout the East and
middle West. He has always been a reader of the best in
literature — the Bible, Shakespeare, Biographies and other
books of informative and inspirational nature, and considers
the factors which have shaped his life for good to consist
of an early fear of God, a willingness to do thorough, honest
work and to learn from others.

In 1912 Prof. Liston began teaching at the Swift Mem-
orial College, Rogersville, Tenn. After finishing one year
there he went to Spartanburg, S. C, as principal of the
Carrier Street Graded School for a year, then to Kittrell
College for two years as head of its Literary Department
and Instructor in Mathematics. He then accepted a place
on the faculty of the Slater Normal and Industrial School,
at Winston-Salem, where he has since remained. He was
first Instructor in Mathematics and has been now for three
years head of the Department of Science and Mathematics.

In politics Prof. Liston is independent, but is not active
in political affairs, neither is he identified with any of the



342 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO

secret orders. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church.

Prof. Liston believes that the race will come into its
own in time, but first must be educated, must be taught
the value of thrift and economic independence and have
its powers and capacities developed. He believes that the
masses must glean a true knowledge of law and order, right
and justice.

Prof. Liston is well equipped for his calling and the
measure of success achieved already promise him a high
place among the sound leaders of the race.



Cleon Oscar Lee



In recent years the movement of the colored population
has usually been from the South to the North. Occasionally,
however, one finds a man who, after having had the ex-
ceptional advantages of the schools at the North, has seen
in the South an opportunity for large and remunerative
service in his chosen line. One of this new school of well
equipped young men is Dr. Cleon Oscar Lee now (1920) a
successful dentist at Winston-Salem. He was born at Wash-
ington, D. C, on December 8, 1881. His father, Richard
Lee, died when the boy was only six years of age. His
mother, before her marriage was Miss Rebecca Adam.
When about eight years old the boy went to live with his
godfather at Toronto, Canada, by whom he was reared. He
there went through the elementary and high schools. When
he aspired to professional training, however, it was neces-
sary for him to make his own way. He learned the barber's
trade and was thus in position to help himself by work on
Saturdays and holidays. He matriculated at the University
at Pittsburgh where he won his D. D. S. degree in 1905.
His summer vacations were spent in the Pullman service
which gave him an opportunity to see every part of our
great country. Dr. Lee's mother was ambitious for him
and as he now looks back over his boyhood and youth he




CLEON OSCAR LEE



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 345

credits her with the greatest share of his success. Upon
the completion of his dental course he practiced for a while
at Pittsburgh and then located at Winston-Salem where he
has built a large practice.

In politics he is a Republican though he has not been
active in party affairs. He is a member of the M. E. Church
and is identified with the Masons. He has had an oppor-
tunity to observe his people in every part of the country and
believes that the great need of the race today is better home
training. He is a careful reader of the Bible and is active
not only in the work of his own denomintaion but is always
found willing to put his hand to every good work.

On April 29, 1909, Dr. Lee was married to Miss Agnes
Adele Martin, of Forsyth Co. She was educated at
Scotia Seminary and formerly taught school. They have
two children, Cleon Price and Theresa Lee and own an at-
tractive home in Winston-Salem.

Some years ago Dr. Lee attracted the attention of
medical and dental circles by his successful case of trans-
planting. After drawing and treating the tooth of a patient,
he re-set the tooth, which lasted the patient for seven years
longer. His report of the work found its way into the
National Medical Journal and Dr. Lee was called on to re-
port the case in a paper at the meeting of that Association.
He is a member of both the National and the State Medical
and Dental Association.



John F. K. Simpson



Prof. John F. K. Simpson believes -that the real progress
of the race depends upon true leadership. With that in view,
he has sought to make of himself a leader worthy of his race
and while not a minister of the Gospel has for years been
actively engaged in religious and eduational work.

He was born a slave in Clear Creek Township, Mechlen-
burg Co., April 12, 1859. His father was Jack Coburn but




JOHN F. K. SIMPSON



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 347

the boy took the name of his mother at a later date. She
was Louvenia (Morris) Simpson.

Young Simpson attended the Mecklenburg Co. public
schools as a boy and later matriculated at Biddle University,
where it was necessary for him to make his own way on
account of the poverty of his family. He had made up his
mind, however, to secure an education and while his means
frequently ran low, he learned to trust God for the next
month and the next day. Later, two worthy friends came
to his assistance and he was thus able to complete his colleg-
iate course at Biddle.

In the fall of 1882 he was appointed by the Freedmen's
Bureau to take charge of the Parochial school at Fayette-
ville, where he remained for five years, resigning to accept
a position in the State School at Salisbury, then under the
direction of Professor Crosby. After one year at Salis-
bury, he was made Assistant Principal of the Normal School
at Fayetteville and taught for seven years in that institu-
tion. He was then called to the principalship of the graded
school at Concord and remained in that old town for a year,
returning then to Fayetteville to join that efficient educator,
Dr. E. E. Smith, at the State Normal, where he taught for
four years. The only educational work he has done outside
of North Carolina was when he was called to Spartanburg,
S C, and was identified with its public school system for
four 'years. Since then he has been attached to the graded
school system of Fayetteville.

Prof Simpson has for a number of years been active
and prominent in the work of the Presbyterian Church in
which he is one of the Ruling Elders. He is one of the
most prominent secret order and benevolent society men
in the State, being identified with the Masons, Odd Fellows,
Pythians to say nothing of other related orders and local
societies He has for years been a notable figure in the
Grand Lodges of the Odd Fellows and Pythians and himself
organized the Independent Order of True Reformers of
North Carolina. He is the author of a popular financial



348 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO

record book for lodges and secret orders. His property in-
terests are at Fayetteville.

On July 5th, 1900, Prof. Simpson was married to Miss
Rachael Pickett, who is also a teacher and was educated at
the Fayetteville State Normal. Of the three children born
to them only one, Miss Vivian, survives.

Having been born just before Emancipation, Prof. Simp-
son represents in his own life and character what one gen-
eration of freedom has meant to the race.



William Calvin Pope



"True greatness does not consist so much in doing
extraordinary things, as conducting ordinary affairs with
a noble demeanor and a right motive. It is necessary and
most profitable to remember the advice to Titus, showing
all good fidelity in all things."

One of the men who has done this, and what is more,
done it in his native country, among those with whom
he was reared and who know his character and ability
best, is Rev. William Calvin Pope of Lumberton. He is a
preacher, an educator and an author of whom his section
and his race may well be proud. Mr. Pope was born near-
Fairmount on Dec. 14, 1871. His father, Owen Pope, was
a common laborer and was the son of Moses and Clara
Barnes. His mother, Lucy Lennon was a daughter of Cain
and Clara Lennon.

On March 20, 1893, Mr. Pope was married to Miss
Cora Lee Powell, a daughter of Evander and Margaret-
Powell. They have reared a large and interesting family.
Of the nine children born to them eight are living — seven
girls and one boy. They are Jessie L., Eunice L., Myrtle
L., Mabel B., Margaret G., Gladys B., Esther M., and James
D. Pope.

When young Pope became of school age he entered the
local public school and completed the course at Whitin.







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WILLIAM CALVIN POPE



350 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO

Normal and Industrial School at Lumberton in 1896, three
years after his marriage. It was necessary for him to
make his own way in school, but he lost no time in useless
fretting. Having put his hand to the plough he would not
look back. The situation was not without embarrassment,
however, and can best be described in his own language.

"I can not forget some experiences during my first
day at a boarding school — Whitin Normal. My pants, which
my mother had cut and made, were neither long nor short,
but stopped about half way between the tops of my brogan
shoes and my knees. The outside seams after leaving my
pockets seemed to start on a chase after the inside seams
so that at the lower end of the legs the outside seam had
swung around tothe inside of the leg and the inside sought
quarters back near the heel string. My coat, which was
a new one, was quite large enough for my father while I
was only about 16 years old. This apparel with my coarse
home-knit socks presented a ludicrous picture to my more
stylish school mates, many of whom I saw wink at each
other and smile, while some laughed outright. Of course
I felt embarrassed but it was my first lesson in the study
of sensible dress ; and although my means have not always
allowed, I have ever since wanted to appear at least sensible
in my manner of dress."

At the age of seventeen young Pope was converted and
joined the Sandy Grove Baptist Church. Ten years later
he was licensed to preach by the same church and in 1900
ordained to the full work of the ministry.

While still in school, he secured a first grade teacher's
license and in 1890 began his career as a teacher. He
taught for twelve years when the increasing duties of the
pastorate made it necessary for him to give up educational
work for the time. In the fall of 1918, however, he was
elected principal of the colored graded school of Lumber-
ton and was re-elected the following year.

It it as a preacher of the Gospel, however, that Mr.
Pope is best known. Beginning in 1898, he travelled two
years in the western part of the state as Colporteur Mis-



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 351

sionary. In the fall of 1900 he was called to the pastorate
of his home church which he served seven years. Even
then ihe resigned to accept another church in Lumberton,
Providence, which he is still serving (1919). In addition
to these he has served at different times and for varying
periods, Shiloh, Cedar Grove, Holy Swamp and Ebenezer in
Robeson Co.; Horace Grove and Sandy Plain in Columbus
Co., having served the last named for fifteen years. He
also served as pastor at Bryant Swamp Church in Bladen
Co. •

He has had a fruitful ministry and has added to ths
church hundreds of new members. New houses of worship
have been erected at Sandy Grove, Sandy Plain, Horace
Grove and Cedar Grove.

Rev. Pope regards the Sunday School as the greatest
influence coming into his early life. His favorite reading
has had to do with his work as a teacher and preacher.
He belongs to the Masons and is President of the Men's In-
dustrial' Uplift Club of Lumberton.

He believes the best interests of the race are to be pro-
moted by encouraging thrift and industry, education, race
pride and friendly relations between, the races. Such inter-
ests can only be fostered by trained, fearless and yet wise
and conservative leaders.

For a while Mr. Pope edited the Weekly Star published
at Lumberton. In recent years he has done considerable
literary work and has written a number of sKort poems.
These together with other productions have been gathered
in a volume published in. 1919 under the title "Leisure
Moments." The book has been favorably mentioned and re-
viewed.




JOHN EARL BAXTER AND FAMILY



John Earle Baxter



The old town of Beaufort in Carteret Co. on the eastern
coast of North Carolina, was the place of birth and boyhood
home of Dr. John Earl Baxter a successful physician o
the prosperous. little city of Henderson. He was born at
Beaufort on Feb. 11, 1878. His father, Edward Baxter was
a sailor and was the son of Burwell Baxter, who came from
Currituck Co. His mother, before her marriage!, was Miss
Elizabeth Hamilton. As a boy young Baxter went to school
at Beaufort. While in school there at Washburn Seminary,
Miss Wilcox, one of the teachers inspired him to do his best
and opened his eyes to what a boy might accomplish. His
friends expected hi mto preach, but he felt that his work
lay in another direction. He passed from the school at
Beaufort to Talladega, Ala., where he did his college work.
He was in that institution for six years. When ready for
his medical course, he matriculated at Leonard Medical
College where he won his M. D. degree in 1905. Following
his graduation he was for a year and a half Interne at
Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn. Now fully equipped
for his work, he returned South and located at Rocky Mount
where he had taught school for several years before going
to Medical College. After six months at Rocky Mount, he
moved in 1908 to Henderson where he has since resided
and where he has built up one of the most extensive general
practices enjoyed by any Negro doctor in that part of the
State.

While at Medical College he spent his summer vaca-
tions at hotel work in the North and in Canada and thus
earned the money for the expenses of his course. On Sept.
12, 19C7, Dr. Baxter was happily married to Miss Pauline
Garland, of Henderson. She was educated at Kittrell Col-
lege. They have a fine family of six children ; John E. Jr.,
William, Halse, Leo, Ruth and Garland Baxter. On April
12, 1920, the wife and mother was called to her reward.



354 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO

Dr. Baxter is a member of the Baptist Church, and
holds membership in the Masons, Pythians and Odd Fel-
lows. He also belongs to the State and National Medical
Societies. In his reading he is partial to History. While
not active in politics, he is a Republican. His investments
are at Henderson and Rocky Mount. His work has brought
him into intimate contact with every class and condition of
the race and has given him a rare opportunity to study at
first hand, the needs of his people. He believes that the
permanent progress of the race depends upon good morals
developed from within more than upon any outside influence
that can be brought to bear.

Dr. Baxter belongs to that type of citizenship, intelli-
gent and progressive, which is a credit to the race and an
honor to his profession.



John Henry Sampson

Rev. John Henry Sampson, A. B. A. M. Principal of
the Graded School at Kinston, is a man who has exerted a
beneficcent influence in Eastern Carolina. Both his reli-
gious and his educational work has been of a character to
endure and to endear him to the people of the section which
he has served. In order to appreciate his character and his
work it is necessary to understand something of his origin
and something of his early environment.

He was born at Princeton in Johnston Co., N. C, Sept.
18, 1866, which will be remembered was only a little more
than a year after the close of the war when his people
were still poor. His parents were Isaac Sampson a farmer
and Kizziah (Peeden) Sampson. His grandparents were
Canaan and Vinia (Reid) Sampson and Sallie Peeden the
owner of a small rural estate near Princeton, N. C. Young
Sampson laid the foundation of his education in the public
schools of Wayne Co. Speaking of his further struggles for
an education he says: "I entered high school late in life,
when twenty two years of age, with only forty five dollars




JOHN HENRY SAMPSON



356 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO

in cash. I borrowed money to get through State Normal
School at Goldsboro, and finally secured a scholarship
through college. When my means were exhausted and I
was about to leave school in order to assist in the support
of my mother, Pres. D. J. Sanders gave me the job of mend-
ing the mattresses at Biddle University for five dollars per
month which sum I sent to my mother each month. I
taught school each summer and for several summers
walked nine miles each day in order that I might board
at home and help my mother, with a view to returning to
college the next year." In 1896 he was graduated from the
college department of Biddle and three years later from
the Theological Department. Since that time the same in-
stitution has conferred on him the A. M. degree.

On June 8, 1909, he was united in matrimony to Miss
Albia E. Greely, a daughter of Horace and Charlotte Greely.
Two children have been born to them only one of whom
survives. Her name is Vivian Delcena Sampson. Mrs.
Sampson was educated at Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C.
All through life our subject has been prompted by the high-
est motives. He realizes now that the greatest factors in
shaping his life have been the ambition to know something
and have something and the desire to be a man and help
others up in life. His life has been fruitful of good works
along the line. While he migiht have made a brilliant success
as a business man, he has chosen to devote himself to the
rather u.nremunerative though important work of preaching
and tr aching. He began work as a teacher in his home
counts After that he taught in the town of Freemont from
which he went to Kinston as Assistant Principal in 1902.
Two years later he was promoted to the principals hip which
position he still holds (1920). He is also a successful pas-
tor in the Presbyterian Church. While at Freemont he
organized a church and built a new house of worship. A
new church was built at Kinston under his administration
which church he serves as pastor now. In addition to these
he has served the churches at LaGrange, Snow Hill and
Hookrrton, N. C.



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 357

He has not been active in politics. Among the secret
orders, he is affiliated with the Odd Fellows. He owns a
small estate together with an attractive well furnished home
at Kinston. He says : "I think the best interests of the
race in the State and Nation may be promoted by giving the
Tace the rights of personal security, personal liberty and
private property, by giving the race justice and a fair deal
in the courts of the State and Nation, in the school room,
"the business world, by encouraging the race along pure social
and religious lines and by helping preserve the good moral
(character of our women." Many students have gone out
from the Graded School of Kinston. Some have entered
schools of higher learning and are now college professors,
'doctors, lawyers, teachers and successful business men and
women. The lives of these men and women testify louder
than words to the splendid foundation work done by Prof.
'Sampson as he has labored during the past eighteen years
in the school room.



Online LibraryArthur Bunyan CaldwellHistory of the American Negro and his institutions; (Volume 4) → online text (page 20 of 48)