NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 727
He was born at Beaufort in 1883 and, like another Sam-
uel, seemed designed by Providence, and dedicated by his
mother, to the ministry, and the life of that mother illum-
ines not only his career but that of the very life of the race
itself. So poor as often to be without food, she still kept
her faith in God as a Father and would pray as only such
great souls in dire distress, yet perfect confidence in the
promises do pray for the daily bread that would maintain
their lives while they labored without complaint or bitter-
ness in the midst of such adversity. Morning, noon and
night she would gather her brood about her and teach them
that God would provide and He never failed ; so these chil-
dren were never led into temptation, but learned that the
Lord was their helper. Beyond the fact that his father was
Samuel Thomas Hawkins, Sr., a farmer and fisherman, who
was drowned when his son was only six years old, and that
his mother, Mary Jane Hawkins, was a daughter of Delia
Jerkins, he knows little of his ancestry.
Naturally he had to work while still little more than a
small child and his lot for many a year was one of extreme
One of the most remarkable facts in his remarkable
life is that he was actually licensed to preach at the age of
thirteen. His first sermon was heard by a visiting Bishop,
Rev. C. R. Harris, and so powerful was it that the Bishop
declared he should not be left to himself, but must go to
school and laid the first dollar down on the table as a con-
tribution. Some months afterwards Rev. H. H. Bingham
was sent to the Beaufort church and also become profoundly
interested in the boy's native ability and pious zeal and
asked of Prof. S. G. Atkins, of Winston-Salem, room for the
boy so he might attend the Slater Normal School Previ-
ously he had only preliminary education in the graded school
While these things helped, young Hawkins was still
left to work his way through Slater, where for seven years
he worked at hard and often severely painful tasks. At
the school he did water carrying, which in winter meant
728 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
carrying water up the icy hill and sometimes getting his
hands so cold that blood would come from his fingers when
he whipped them around his shoulders to keep them from
freezing stiff. In summer he worked in the brickyards.
There was no one to give him a penny of financial aid. In
1905 he was graduated from the normal course at Slater,
after which he managed to take two years in his higher
courses. But one main aim of education is to teach "how
to learn," and by this time the study habit was so fixed
in him that he carried on several years subsequently a cor-
respondence course offered by the American Correspondence
School Bible University, which conferred upon him the well-
merited degree of A. B., while Livingstone College recog-
nized his attainments by granting him the degree of Doctor
The Conference at Gastonia in 1907 sent him to his
first regular appointment in the country where he found
but three people, preached to them, received thirty cents and
on his way from that assignment his presiding elder sent him
to East Bent Circuit. This charge was eighteen miles long,
and not a penny to help him make the trip. He walked all
the way. There were four widely separated churches, pay-
ing, in all (when he received it) a salary of ninety dollars
a year. He spent two years ministering to this people,
during which time, however, he added to the churches over
200 members and had over 150 converts. From here he
was sent to Piney Grove Circuit, another country charge,
far away from a railroad, at a slight increase of salary. Here
he spent two years of most fruitful labor, building one new
church, remodeling two others and adding over a hundred
new members. He was then sent to Rockwell circuit, re-
built one church, practically completed another, brought
the salary up from $150 to $600 a year in five years, or-
ganized four fraternal societies, which paid to widows and
orphans more than $3,000 in benefits, erected a fine school
building, where there are now (1920) three teachers regu-
larly employed, and encouraged the entire diocese in the
making of better homes, ownership of their farms, etc. He
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 729
was then promoted to the Moore Sanctuary station, where
within a year he had canceled the church debt and added
more than a hundred members. After remaining here for
two years he was sent to Gastonia, where his former suc-
cesses were repeated in a larger way and after staying
there longer than any former pastor he was promoted to the
presiding eldership of the Statesville District and now re-
sides at Derita, in the historic old county of Mecklenburg.
Here he is meeting with marked success.
Dr. Hawkins has traveled quite extensively in the South.
While nominally a Republican he does not participate in
party affairs. Among the secret orders, he holds high of-
fice in the Masons, Odd Fellows, Household of Ruth and is
active in every form of community service and semi-public
effort looking to the elevation of all men to better standards.
He has never sought to make money, but has sufficient
property gained by thrift to place him in the class of solv-
ent, substantial men вАФ a further proof that those who will
not be diverted from seeking first the Kingdom of Heaven
shall have their reasonable competence.
On January 6, 1904, Dr. Hawkins married Miss Hattie
R. Sawyer, a daughter of Joseph and Lula Sawyer. They
have two children, Blanche and Rufus Hawkins.
Dr. Hawkins continues to be a hard student as well
as a hard worker, having taken a course in law as well as
being a constant reader of the Bible and religious books,
history and philosophy. He believes that his race should
be more prudent in the matter of money so as to be able
to buy land and to establish their own enterprises and
properly educate their children.
Walter Eugene Hayley
Representatives of the negro race are now found in
practically every department of human activity. They are
practicing law and medicine, preaching and teaching, follow-
ing the various mechanical trades, and engaging in all lines
WALTER EUGENE HAYLEY AND FAMILY
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 731
of mercantile activities. Their stores, banks, newspapers,
office buildings and theatres const tute a part of the life of
every considerable city in the South.
Hayley's Pharmacy at Concord, N. C, is representative
of this feature of the expanding life of the Negro. It is
owned by Walter Eugene Hayley, the subject of this biog-
raphy. What he has accomplished is a monument to the
power of a forceful personality and a purpose resolutely
bent to the accomplishment of a given task.
He was born Dec. 10, 1882, in Northampton Co., N. C,
the son of Paul F. Hayley and Nancy Christmas Hayley.
His father was a railway postal clerk. His paternal grand-
father was Holiday Haley, of Northampton Co. On the
mother's side his grandparents were Marcus Christmas and
Henrietta Christmas, of Warrenton, N. C. The early years
of his active life were spent in school. After passing
through Washington public and high school, he went to
Shaw University, graduating in 1906 from Leonard School
of Pharmacy, with the Ph. G. degree.
In July, 1906, he began at Winston-Salem, N. C, his
life business, that of a druggist, a business deserving also
to be dignified by the title of a profession. This profes-
sion he has followed to the present time, and in it he has
attained a marked degree of success. He remained there
for three years.
On Jan. 2, 1907, he married Miss Alice E. Hairston,
daughter of Dillard Hairston of Walnut Cove, Stokes Co.
They have five children, Mercedes Vivian, Walter Eugene,
Jr., Mary Hall, Gwendolyn Paul and Nancy Alice Louise
Dr. Hayley has traveled considerably in various parts
of the United States. In his reading he has sought out
those works which deserve a place among the highest pro-
ductions of the human mind, passing by the trashy, light
and frothy productions which are the creatures of the
hour and die with the hour. The great masterpieces of
English and American writers have brought him their mes-
sages and put their spirit into his life.
732 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
He is a member of the Methodist church. He is also
a thirty-third degree Mason and a member of the Knights
Dr. Hayley has no fine spun theories regarding the fu-
ture of his race or the public policies of our government,
but is devoting his energies to the successful conduct of
his business and the discharge of his duties as a citizen.
He is identified with no political party and has never held
any political office.
James Monroe Henderson
The Industrial Institute Training School and Orphanage
at Southern Pines, N. C, has a record of service to the race
which should commend it to the support and patronage of
those who believe that the progress of the race depends
on proper training.
The institution stands as a monument to the energy
and enterprise of Rev. James Monroe Henderson. He is a
native of the old town of Concord, where he was born on
Aug. 15, 1861, scon after the outbreak of the war which
was to bring freedom and opportunity to him and to his
people. His father, Henry A. Henderson, was a mechanic,
and his mother's maiden name was Miss Eliza Eell. She
was a daughter of John and Martha Bell. John Bell was
free born, though his wife was a slave.
As a boy young Henderson attended the lo:al public
school, and then passed to what is now Biddle University,
Charlotte. Later he attended evening high school, Chas-
tain Institute, at Boston, Mass., and also the Well's Memo-
rial Institute of the same city.
He was graduated from the latter with the Master Me-
chanics degree. He also took a business and commercial
course in Hall's Business School, Boston. He is a member
of the American Academy of Social and Political Science,
Philadelphia, Pa. Like so many of the successful men of
JAMES MONROE HENDERSON
734 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
the race he had a struggle for his education. He refused
to be discouraged, however, and would work a while and
then go to school again. This seemed hard at the time but
the experience thus gained has been of the greatest service
in his later work. He knows how to help and to sympa-
thize with struggling youth.
Following the completion of his education, he began
merchandising, and this was followed by some years of
work as a builder and contractor. While still at the North
he lectured throughout New England, using illustrated
stereopticon lectures. He was appointed trial Justice of the
Peace, for Boston, Mass., for several years, in which he
served with honor. He also edited the Boston Advance, a
weekly paper for about twelve years.
On June 24, 1885, Mr. Henderson was married to Miss
Sarah Williams, a daughter of Squire Williams of Raleigh.
She was educated at Raleigh and Greensboro.
Mr. Henderson is a member of the Union M. E. church,
and has spent much of his life in missionary and pastoral
work in Boston and in North Carolina.
While living on Lookout Mountain, Tenn., he served
for a while as deputy sheriff.
It is in connection with his work at Southern Pines,
however, that he is best known. He felt that there was a
need which his training and experience fitted him to meet.
Out of this feeling grew the Industrial Union Training
School and Orphanage. He has built conservatively and has
had the wisdom to keep the institution free from debt.
Considerable property has been accumulated and an Advis-
ory Board of distinguished white men and women enlisted
m the work. He is working on the basis that the permanent
progress of the race depends upon mutual understanding
between the races and the proper training of the young
men of the race along industrial, intellectual and spiritual
lines. This puts him in line with the best thought of the
educational world today and has brought to him endorse-
ment from sources that are most flattering. While not
sacrificing efficiency, Rev. Henderson has had the wisdom
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 735
to put the expenses of his school at a minimum so that
even the boy or girl of the most limited means may find a
way to attend the Industrial Union Institute.
Robert Benjamin Rhyne
Rev. Robert B. Rhyne, now (192C) in charge of the
Hartzell Memorial M. E. church at Hickory, has already
worked his way up from a place of poverty and obscurity
to a position of leadership in his denomination and among
Mr. Rhyne was born in Gaston Co. October 7, 1868. His
parents were William and Mary Ann (Ettleman) Rhyne.
Young Rhyne grew up on his father's farm in Gaston Co.
and went to the local public schools. From early boy-
hood he had the impression that the ministry would be his
life work so that when, at about the age of fourteen, he
came into the work of the church, it was practically settled
that he would be a preacher. He continued to farm, how-
ever, until he had reached manhood, and taught school for
a couple of years. He was licensed to preach at an early
age and did considerable local work before formally joining
Mr. Rhyne joined the Conference in 1914 at Greens-
boro. His first pastorate was the Mooresboro and Henri-
etta charge, where he remained for a year. After that he
served the Lenoir circuit two years and built a new church;
the Stanley and King's Mountain charge six years, erecting
one new building and finishing another; the Shelby and
Londale charge three years and did considerable repairing ;
Bessemer City and King's Mountain three years, adding to
the church at Bessemer City and finishing the church at
King's Mountain. From this he came to his present sta-
tion at Hickory, where the work has prospered under his ad-
ministration. He is now in his second year at Hickory.
Among the secret orders, Mr. Rhyne is identified with
736 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
the Odd Fellows and Masons. He was somewhat handi-
capped in the matter of his education, for lack of early op-
portunity, but managed to get to Livingstone College for
two and a half years. He has done considerable evangelistic
work in which he has been unusually successful. He has
attended two general conferences of his church and locally
is a prominent figure in any gathering religious or civic.
During the war he took an active part in all the drives and
campaigns and is a friend and supporter of education and
On Christmas eve, 1896, Mr. Rhyne was married to
Miss Louisa Potts, of Stanley. They have one son, Lentz
Rhyne. Mr. Rhyne's property interests are in Gaston Co.
Kinchen Charley Holt
Among the leaders of the A. M. E. Connection in North
Carolina none stand higher or have to their credit a record
of more effective fruitful work than Dr. Kinchen Charley
Holt of Greensboro, now (1919) Presiding Elder of the
Raleigh District. Dr. Holt is a native of the middle part
of the State, having been born at Mebane in Orange Co.,
on Nov. 8, 1869. His father, Pleasant Holt, was a farmer,
and the boy grew up on the farm and was accustomed to
doing all sorts of manual labor. When he was of school
age he entered the local public school. From earliest child-
hood he was brought up in the church and the Sunday School
and to this good day recalls with gratitude the happy influ-
ence on his life of the right sort of home training. It is
not strange, therefore, that at the early age of twelve he
was converted and joined the church. He was licensed to
preach when only a little more than eighteen, and has de-
voted all his mature manhood to the work of the church.
Eternity alone can show the results of all these years
of patient endeavor in the cause of the Kingdom.
Dr. Holt's mother, before her marriage, was Miss Viney
738 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
Albright. She was a daughter of Thomas and Emily Faust.
His paternal grandparents were David and Margaret Holt.
He was married on October 26, 1904, to Miss Vera L.
Barker, a daughter of J. Frank and Mary A. Baker of Dud-
ley, N. C. Mrs. Holt was educated at Scotia Seminary, Con-
cord, N. C, and Freedmen's Hospital Training School for
Nurses, Washington, D. C. Eight children have been born
to Dr. Holt; four are living. They are, Mabel, Wilhelmina
L., Floyd K., by a former marriage, and Eunice C. Holt,
by last marriage.
After going to the public schools, Dr. Holt attended
the Presbyterian Academy at Mebane, N. C. He did his col-
lege work at Shaw University and St. Augustine, Raleigh.
The D. D. degree was conferred on him by Kittrell College.
Speaking of the conditions under which he went to school,
he says, "My parents were poor and striving to pay for a
home. I was the oldest of twelve children and had to
work to help pay for the home."
He began his active ministry at Smith's Chapel Mis-
sion in 1888. Here he bought a lot for a church that was
later erected, and then he went back to school. His next
work was the Fayetteville Station, where he filled out an
unexpired term. At the following conference he was sent
to St. Matthew, Raleigh, where he preached for two years.
From Raleigh he went to the Laurinburg Circuit one year.
After that he preached at St. James, Winston, two years,
bought a lot and built a church ; Gaston Chapel, Morganton,
began a new church ; Kinston Station one year, Rue Chapel,
New Berne, three years, built parsonage at a cost of
$1800.00. From New Berne he went to W T inston again for
a short time. In 1900 he was promoted to the District.
Here his splendid executive abilities have shown to such
advantage that he has been kept on one district after an-
other in the Western North Carolina Conference for nine-
teen consecutive years. Under his administration the work
has grown and prospered. He is a prominent figure in
both the annual and general conferences of his denomina-
tion. He has attended every general conference since 1904.
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 739
While not devoting himself to business, Dr. Holt has
managed his affairs well and has an attractive home and
other property at Greensboro. He is a Republican m poli-
tics, and among the secret orders is identified with the
Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. His preferred read-
ing after his Bible and Theological books, runs to History,
essays etc Dr. Holt believes the best interests of the race
are to be promoted by "Concentrated efforts in building up
good substantial business enterprises and encouraging
friendly racial relations and using the ballot as a safeguard.
In addition to his regular pastoral work Dr. Holt was in
demand for evangelistic work before he went on the District.
John Wise Jones
Dr John Wise Jones, of Winston-Salem, is one of the
best known men of the race in North Carolina. He has
for years been a prominent and successful physician there
and for the past nine years has been Grand Chancellor ot
the Knights of Pythias, one of the great benevolent orders
of the State, embracing at this time no less than 250 local
lodges and 16,000 members.
Dr Jones is a native of the Old Dominion, having been
born in Mecklenburg Co., Virginia, right in the midst ot the
war on October 26, 1863. His father, William Jones, a man
of remarkable vitality, was born Christmas day, 1822 : and
resides with his son. It will beseen that he is now (1920)
ninety-eight years of age. Dr. Jones' mother, who died
at the age of eighty-six, was before her marriage Miss
Nancy Cannon. In the absence of written records he knows
little of his earlier ancestry.
Young Jones lived on the farm and as a boy went to
the public schools. Later, after the family had moved to
North Carolina, he went to Shaw University, where he
pursued the regular classical course up to the senior year.
Having decided on the medical profesison as his life work.
JOHN WISE JONES
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 741
he then matriculated at Leonard Medical College, where he
won the M. D. degree in 1891. The working out of his edu-
cation, both classical and professional, was by no means
an easy task, as he had to make his own way. After start-
ing to college, he spent the vacation months at the North,
in hotel work, and for a short while taught school in Hali-
fax and Northampton Counties. While the term, "self-
made man," as popularly used, refers to a man without edu-
cation, it is none the less true that many men of college
training, like Dr. Jones, are also self-made men from the
fact that they had to make their own opportunities in life,
and depend upon themselves for the success which has
crowned their efforts.
Upon completing his medical course, Dr. Jones began
the practice at Winston-Salem, where he has since resided.
To say that he has succeeded in a large way hardly tells
the story for he is not only a successful physician but is
also a capable business man of ample means. He is one of
the most popular secret order and benevolent society men
in the State.
After he practiced a few years, he did post-graduate
work at the Philadelphia Polyclinic, specializing in diseases
of women and children. From the time his practice began
to pay, he has had an eye for real estate values and has
accumulated good property in and around Winston-Salem. At
this time (1920) in connection with a number of other lead-
ing business men in the city, he is organizing a new bank
of which he is president.
Dr. Jones is identified with both the State and National
Medical Associations and is at present president of the Na-
tional Medical Association. He is an active member of the
Baptist church and is chairman of the board of trustees.
In addition to his identity with the Pythins, he is also promi-
nent in the work of the Masons and Odd Fellows.
On July 2, 1892, Dr. Jones was married to Miss Eliza
Houser, of Charlotte. She is a daughter of Mr. W. H.
Houser and was educated at Livingstone College. They
742 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
have three daughters, Renetta, Ida and Essie M., who are
accomplished girls with a liberal education.
There has scarcely been a movement of importance
among the colored people of Winston-Salem, or of North
Carolina, for that matter, in recent years, with which Dr.
Jones has not been identified. He is a public spirited citi-
zen, looking always to civic betterment. He has watched
with care the trend of the country population to the city
and believes that the best interests of the race today are
to be promoted by building up the farm and home life of
the Negroes in the South.
Dr. Jones has traveled extensively in this country and
parts of Canada. Apart from his professional reading, he
finds little time for other literature except on current mat-
ters. Such citizens as Dr. Jones are a real asset to the life
of any community.
Max Canstuart King
The practice of medicine has opened up a field of ser-
vice and remuneration which a generation ago was scarcely
known to the colored man. It is gratifying to note the suc-
cess of so many comparatively young men in this one of the
most difficult of the so-called learned professions; for let
it be remembered that the Negro doctor is measured by the
same standards as the white doctors and is compelled to
pass the same boards on identical examinations.
One of these young physicians of the Old North State
is Dr. Max Canstuart King of Franklinton, of which place
he is a native. He- was born July 5, 1886. His father, Guil-
ford King, was a farmer. His mother's maiden name was
Mary C. Cook. She was a daughter of Rev. Isaac Cook, a
cobbler and pioneer Baptist preacher of Franklin Co.
When young King came of school age he attended the
local school and spent the rest of his time on the farm.
Later he went to the Christian College of Franklinton,
MAX CANSTUART KING
744 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
where he did his preparatory work. Up to this point he
had experienced but little difficulty as he was living at home,
but when he matriculated at Shaw University he found it
necessary to work out his expense through the printing
office. In this way he was able to complete his course and
won his Bachelor's degree in 1911.
Having decided to devote himself to medicine, he took
three years at Leonard Medical College and then entered
Meharry Medical College for his senior year and was gradu-
ated with the M. D. degree in 1915. After he went to medi-
cal college his vacations were spent in the Pullman service
which, while enabling him to earn money for his course, at
the same time gave him a rare opportunity to see the coun-
try. Looking back over these early days he reckons the