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HISTORY

f^\ OF THE

AMERICAN NEGRO



WASHINGTON, D. C. EDITION



EDITED BY
A. B. CALDWELL



ORIGINAL EDITION
ILLUSTRATED



VOLUME VI



]922

A. B. CALDWELL PUBLISHING COMPANY
ATLANTA, GA.



A. IL^(-



NOT 4 K.^



'%



Copyright 1922
A. B. CALDWELL PUBLISHING COMPANY



PREFACE



This collection of biographies of prominent Negro men and
v/omen of Washington, D. C. is Volume VI of the Biographical
History of the American Negro. It does not pretend to include
all the important men and women of the race in the Capital
City, but it does include many of the noblest and best. Others
equally prominent and useful, misunderstanding or disapprov-
ing of the work, have either ignoied the request for data or
flatly refused to furnish same.

A book dealing with contemporary men and women can
never l)e made quite complete or exhaustive, for, even while
it is being made, some will move or pass away, while others
will rise to take their places. We have sought to make the
work, at least, representative, dealing with leaders in the edu-
cational, religious, professional and business life of the City.

The Editor, who is also the Publisher, is grateful for the
cordial spirit of co-operation shown by many of those who were
personally interviewed. The writer hopes sometime to bring
out a book dealing with types of Washington Negroes (some
unknown elsewhere in America), in which it will be proper ^o
set down many interesting things which do not belong in a
biographical work.

THE PUBLISHER.



CONTENTS



Page

ADAMS, OEORGE W. JR 23

ALLEN, ELIJAH HENRY 56

ANDERSON, FRED K. D 281

ANDERSON, ROBERT 244

BATTLE, WfLLIAM D 261

BEANE JOHN MILLER 2S9

BREEDING, :MILLARD L 151

BROOKS, ISAIAH P 135

BROOKS, WALTER H 226

BROWNE, JENNIE B 184

BROWN, THOMAS JACOB 12

BITLLOCK, GEORGE 153

Bl'RWELL, HARTFORD R 131

BUTCHER, GEORGE H 47

CALLIS, HENRY JESSE 49

CARMICHAEL, CLAUDE P 63

CARROLL, JULIUS S 52

CARROLL, WILLIAM B 37

CARSOIs', SIMEON LEWIS 14

CATLETT, ALBERT HENRY 143

CLAIR, MATTHEW W 169

COBB, JAMES ADLAI 211

COGGIN, JOHN N. C 30

COLE, GILBERT A 253

CURTIS, ARTHUR LEO 55

CURTIS, AUSTIN M 276

CURTIS, MARY 61

DAVIS, GROVER LEE 283

DAVIS, JA:\IES ALLEN 128

DIXON. FRANK WILLIAM 78

DOWLING, JAMES C 108

DREW. SIMON P. W 67

EUROPE, JAMES REESE 159

FOSTER, WILLIAM HARRIS 176

FRAYSER, LEROY • 223

FREE:\IAN. LOUIS brown 238

FRY, CHARLES CLIFFORD 70

GRIMES. RICHARD D 235

HAMILTON. WILLIAM EDWIN 240

HARRIS. MORTIMER M 164

HARVEY. JAMES THOMAS 194

HENDERSON, EDWIN B 141

HILL, WILLIAM H 196

HILL, WILLIAM LEE 157

HOLMES, JAMES TASKER 179

HOLLOMAN, JOHN' L. S 250

HOUSTON. WILLIAM T; 105

JARVIS, WILLIAM DANIEL 114

JERNAGIN, WILLIAM H 94

JOHNSON. J. HAYDEN 75

JOHNSON, LOGAN 139

JONES, EDWARD D. W 294

JONES, TH0:MAS B 98

JONES, WILLIAM A 125

KILLINGSWORTH. F. R 230

KING, QUINCY BERNARD 137

LANE, DAVID A 279

LANE. WILLARD M 133

LANKFORD. JOHN A 202

LAWSON, JESSE .. . 285

LAYTON, JULIA MASON 233

LEWIS, AUGUSTUS 258

LEWIS, JOHN W" 27

LIPSCOMB. I. J. D , 271

LONG. GUNDY THOMAS 174

LOVING, JUNIUS ISAAC 43



Page

MAGRUDER, WILLIAM F 199

MILLER, KELLY 17

MITCHELL, ALBERT JOHN 213

MITCHELL, IVERSOIs' 242

Ml'RRAV. DAXIl'^L A. P 25

NATIONAL lUOXKFIT INS. CO 82

NELS( )N, REM 1!]':RT THOMAS 100

NORMAN, MOSES W, D 130

PAIR, JAMES DAVID 217

PEACE, MOSES MATHIAS 255

PINN, JAMES LUTHER 88

POWELL, HOLLAND 64

RANDOLPH, JAMES HARVP;Y 72

RICHARDS, JOHN 171

ROBINSON, CHARLES E 1S6

ROBINSON, WILLIAM J 189

RUSSELL, AARON' A 77

RUTHERFORD. R. H 82

RUTHERFORD, S. W 82

SAYLES, AQUILA 91

SCOTT, e:mmett jay 9

SMITH, JACOB C 215

SMITH, THOMAS C 191

TAYLOR, WILLIAM A 205

TERRELL, ROBERT H 101

THOMAS, RAYMOND B 209

TRAVERSE. MATTHEW AV 220

TURNER, EDWARD W. SR 109

TURNER, JOHN PAYNE 297

TYLER, ALFRED JOHNSON 117

WALDRON, JOHN MILTON 39

WALTON, ADOLPHUS 248

WASHINGTON, DANIEL 264

WASHINGTON, J. FRANK 274

WASHINGTON . WILLIAM L 291

WATERS. JOHN WILLIAM 166

WATSON, BENJAMIN F 122

WEBSTER, JAMES C 246

WILLBANKS, ALEXANDER 33

WILLIAMS. ANNA C 269

WILLIAMS, EMORY W 301

AVILLIAMS, HARRY J 162

WILLISTON, EDWARD D 21

WISEMAN. DANIEL E 181

WISEMAN, M. J. D 149

AVILSON, JAMES FINLEY 266

WILSON, HERBERT C. D 298

WOMACK. ARTHUR W 146

WOOD, OLIVER H 58




<:;^ '??y?<*^«?«^^:gg




NO A ';•"•'-



EMMETT JAY SCOTT



"Seest thou a man diligent in business; he sluiU stand before
kiufrs."

The best American stories are not fiction, but a faithful
record, simply told, of ambitious energetic boys, catching a
vision of a life of service, struggling up through poverty
from obscurity to places of large usefulness. American biog-
raphy has been enriched by many records of this sort. Nor
has any race or any section of our great countrj- a monopoly
of such stories. The writer knows of no other short period
of history, ancient or modern, dealing with a similar number
of people, in which there is as much fine story material as
may be found in the upward struggle of the American Negro
since Emancipation.

Here we tell the story of one who may be said to stand as
a representative of the second generation of freedom, Emmett
Jay Scott, A. M., LL. D., journalist, author and publicist and
now (1921) Secretary-Treasurer of Howard University, Wash-
ington, D. C. It is not easy to tell the story without indulging
in superlatives, for it is a far cry in distance and in station from
the humble home in Texas to a unique position in the war
department of the nation at Washington and the office of
Secretary-Treasurer of a great university.

Mr. Scott was born at Houston, Texas, Feb. 13, 1873. His
father was Horace L. Scott and his mother, before her marri-
age, Miss Emma Kyle. He laid the foundation of his education
in the local public schools. The record of those days in the
life of the boy was meager, but he evidently made unusual
progress as he attracted the attention of Bishop H. B. Scott
and Rev. W. H. Logan, D. D., who encouraged him to go to
college. From that day to this Mr. Scott has been attracting
the attention of the big men of both races.

He matriculated at Wiley University, Marshall, Tex. in
1887. Like many another successful man, he had to make
his own way in college. That entailed hard work not only
during the term but during vacation as well, but he has never
then nor since been accused of being afraid of hard work.
The first year he carried the mail from the post office to the
college at which he earned five dollars per month. The



10 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO

following year he reached college too late for his old job, but
there was wood to be cut and hogs to be fed. He was also
book-keeper in the president's office and thus early gained
valuable experience about the business side of college life and
work. Vacation time did not mean rest or play to young
Scott, but an opportunity to earn money for next year's ex-
penses. So he worked as janitor at an office building and at
a local club, and, by his ambition and his willingness to do
more than the mere routine of his job, attracted the attention
of those who were in position to help him. In 1890 he left
Wiley University. For the next three years he was with the
Houston Daily Post and had the unusual experience of doing
actual reportorial work. In 1894, he with others, launched
"The Freeman," which, under his management, became the
most influential paper for colored people in Texas or west of
the Mississippi. At that early day he was able to visualize what
the programme of that other Negro, just then coming into
his own, Booker T. Washington, meant for the race. What
he saw so clearly he proclaimed to his people. In 1897 he was
called from Texas to Tuskegee to become Secretary to Dr.
Washington. Here the man and the opportunity were fairly
met. The atmosphere was congenial, the personal contacts
helpful and inspiring, and the young man responded and grew
to his opportunity so that Dr. Washington before he passed
away bore tliis willing testimony to the helpfulness and ef-
ficiency of Mr. Scott's labors: "For many years now," he
said, "Mr. Scott has served the school with rare fidelity and
zeal and has been to the Princii)al not only a loyal assistant
in every phase of his manifold and frequently trying duties,
but has proved a valuable personal friend and counsellor in
matters of the most delicate nature, exhibiting in emergencies
a quality of judgment and diplomatic calmness seldom found
ill men of even riper maturity and more extended experience."

For twenty years, since 1901, he has lieen Secretary of the
National Negro Business League and has had as much or
more than any other living man to do with the growth and
progress of that splendid organization.

In 1912 it was seen by the Trustees of Tuskegee that his
grasp of affairs and intimate knowledge of conditions made
him the logical man for Secretary of that great institution.
He was elected and served till 1919.



WASHINGTON, D. ('. EDITION 11

During the administration of President Taft, Mr. Scott was
made a member of the American Commission to Liberia and
visited tliat republic. His books, "Is Liberia Worth Saving?",
is recognized as an authoritative word on that country.

With such a record of accomplishment back of him, it is
not strange that when, in 1917, the administration cast about
for a man for special assistant to the Secretary of War to
advise in matters affecting Negro soldiers, that Mr. Scott was
selected. The appointment was made on October 5, 1917,
and Mr. Scott at once assumed the duties of his position the
like of which no other colored man in America had ever held.
It is gratifying to note that the appointment was generally
approved by both races. The story of what he did in this
important and unique position during nearly two years identi-
ty with the War Department, and what the Negro soldier did
in the camp and in the field is modestly told and with fine
restraint in his "History of the American Negro in the World
AVar." This book is the most important contribution to the
historical literature of the war as it relates to the Negro.

After the war he declined numerous business propositions
presented to him. He did however accept the Secretary-
Treasurership of Howard University, Washington, D. C, where
his splendid native ability, coupled with his varied experience
and his clear understanding of race relations over the whole
country, enable his to serve the institution and the race in
a large way.

He collaborated with Dr. Washington in the preparation
of "Tuskepee and its People," and with Mr. Lyman Beecher
StoAve in "Booker T. Washington, Builder of a Civilization."
This latter book appeared in 1916. He has made numerous
contributions to the newspapers and magazines from time to
time.

On April 14, 1897, Dr. Scott was married to Miss Eleonora
J. Baker of Houston, Texas. Mrs. Scott was educated in
the schools of Texas. They have five children. Their names
are Emmett J., Jr., Evelyn B., Clarissa Mae, Lenora and
Horace. In politics, Dr. Scott is a Republican. He belongs
to the Methodist Church and is a Mason.

He is forceful and effective as a public speaker, quiet and
dignified in his work, and possesses a manner that inspires
confidence and co-operation.



THOMAS JACOB BROWN

The Protestant Episcopal church, measured by the number
of its communicants among the colored people, would be called
one of the smaller denominations. In the quality and charac-
ter of its leadership, however, it is second to none. One of
the strong men of the denomination is Rev. Thomas Jacob
Brown, A. B, B. D, Rector of St. Lukes Protestant Episcopal
Church of Washington, D. C. Dr. Brown is a native of
Columbia, S. C, where he was born Aug. 15, 18G5, only a few
months after emancipation had become an accomplished fact.
His father, Joseph Brown was a farmer, his mother's maiden
name was Nellie Wallace. Both the paternal and maternal
grand-parents were white men.

Young Brown laid the foundation of his education at the
Howard School at Columbia and passed from there to St.
Augustine School, Raliegh, X. C, for two years. He attended
St. Stephen's College, Annandale-on-the-Hudson, N. Y. five
years completing the course in 1890. He did his theological
work at the Seabury Divinity School, Faribault, Minn., where
he won the B. D. degree in 1893. Inspired by simple faith
in Jesus Christ and a desire to render efficient service in
the kingdom, he pursued his education with determination
till he was equipped for the work of the ministry.

On June 26, 1893, he was ordained Deacon at Faribault,
Minn. On January 27 of the following year, he was advanced
to the priesthood by Bishop T. U. Dudley in the church of
Our Merciful Saviour at Louisville, Ky. which he had been
serving since his ordination as Deacon in 1893. He remained
in charge of that work till January, 1905, when he resigned to
become the rector of the St. Luke's Protestant Episcopal
Church in the Capital City of the Nation, which he still
holds (1921).

Dr. Brown has been married twice. His first marriage was
on Aug. 16, 1894 to Miss Sallie Wilder Richardson daughter
of Oscar and Cathrina (Cook) Richardson. She bore him
two children, Nellie Wilder and Thomas Jacob Brown, Jr.
Subsequent to the death of Mrs. Brown, Dr. Brown was mar-
ried the second time on June 29, 1905, to Miss Lucretia Morris




THOMAS JACOB BROWN



14 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO

Minor, daughter of Prof. John L. Minor, the distinguished
educator, and his wife Marie Minor of Louisville. Of this
marriage was born one child, Lucretia Estelle Brown.

While in school Dr. Brown was active in college athletics
being especially fond of baseball. Next after the Bible, he
has found most helpful such solid works as Butlers Analogy.
Among the secret orders he is identified with the Masons.

In Louisville, Ky., Dr. Brown preached the convention
sermon in Christ Church Cathedral. His services at Louis-
ville were such that he was called to AVashington solely on
his record, as he had not been seen by the Vestry. On coming
to St. Luke's, he took hold of the work with vigor and en-
thusiasm. The congregation responded to his leadership and
has gone steadily forward under his administration. A
troublesome debt of twelve thousand dollars was reduced to
eight thousand, and then wiped out without resort to any of
the high pressure methods. Dr. Brown is the only colored
Episcopal Rector in Washington.



SIMEON LEWIS CARSON

The marvelous things accomplished by the modern surgeon,
since the introduction of antiseptics, anesthesia and the X-Ray
would have been regarded as little short of miraculous a
century ago. The science of surg:ery, which once concerned
itself with skill in stanching blood, binding wounds, and sup-
porting broken limbs with splints has advanced step by step
till it is now possible to operate successfully on the brain or
even the heart. It makes one think of the words of Pope:
"A wise physician, skilled our wounds to heal,
Is more than armies to the public weal."

If one were to ask almost any colored person in Washington,
lay or professional, the name of the most brilliant surgeon in
the city, the name of Dr. Simeon Lewis Carson would be given
without hesitation. Dr. Carson is a native of the little moun-
tain town of Marion in McDowell County, N. C, where he was
born on Jan. 16, 1882. So it will be seen that he is now (1921)
still on the sunny side of forty. His parents were Martin and




SIMEON LEWIS CARSON



16 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO

Harriet Carson. The Carsons removed from North Carolina
to Ann Arbor, Mich., when our subject was only two years
of age. There must have been unusual qualities in the Carson
family. Though the father had been a slave prior to Emanci-
pation, yet in the new environment he was ambitious for his
children all of whom made splendid records — some of them
brilliant. Along with the rest Simeon LcAvis Carson laid the
foundation of his education in the public and high schools of
Ann Arbor. AVhen ready for his medical course, he matricu-
lated in the Medical College of Michigan University and won
his M.D. degree in 1903. He passed the government examina-
tion and was appointed Government Physician in the Indian
Service and stationed at Lower Brule, S. D. He took up that
work in Fel)ruary, 1904, and remained on it till November,
1908. In that year, after another competitive examination, he
was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the Freedmen's Hospital,
coming to Washington and assuming his duties there No^'em-
ber 17, 1908. He held this position for ten years and by the
character of his Avork attracted more than local attention. After
that he went into private practice and in the fall of 1919 es-
tablished a private hospital at Washington in the conduct
of which he has met with gratifying success. His hospital on
Fourth Street is a modern up-to-date establishment with fif-
teen beds. Three registered nurses are employed besides
ether assistants and helpers. It is not possible in an account
like this to make a record of the numerous delicate but suc-
cessful operations Dr. Carson has performed but some idea
of his skill may be inferred from the fact that he holds the
world's record as to time on the Caesarean Operation. He
took that record at sixteen minutes, but has beaten his own
record and reduced the time to ten minutes.

While in the Indian Service, Dr. Carson was married on
June 21, 1905, to Miss Carol Clark of Detroit, Michigan. Mrs.
Carson was educated at Wiberforce University in Ohio. They
have two children, one boy and one girl, Clark and Carol
Carson — twins.

In politics Dr. Carson is a Republican and belongs to the
Methodist Church. He has traveled extensively in this coun-
try. His favorite reading after his professional books, con-
sists of history and travel. Among the professional organi-
zations, he belongs to the Medico-Chirurgical Society of



WASITlXrrrOX. I). ('. EDITION 17

which he was one time Presich'iit, and tlir Xalional Medieval
Association. He is of the opinion tliat tlic ihiniis most needed
by the race are tlie riglit sort of education ;nid economy.



KELLY MILLER



If one were selected to choose, from the teii millions of
colored people in the United States, the half dozen most out-
standing- and influential men of the race, one of the first
names to recur to the mind of the selecter would inevitably
be Kelly Miller, A.B., A.M., LL.D., of Washinoton, 1). C.

Dr. Miller is a splendid illustration of what one man born
in slavery can accomplish in one <ieneration by sheer force of
intellect and character.

A school teacher by i^rofession, he has stuck to his profes-
sion, has never been an office holder, has never sought notori-
ety, and yet his work has been such that today he is known
from one end of this great country to the other.

The story of such a life is worth the tellinji', both for its
example and for its inspiration to the youth of the country.
Doctor, or Professor Miller, as he is most commonly called,
was born in Winnsboro, Fairfield County, South Carolina, on
July 23, 1863, son of Kelly and Elizabeth ]\Iiller. His paternal
grandmother, Millie Miller, was ambitious for the boy, and
her encourap:ement Avas an inspiration to him. His mater-
nal grand-father, Joe Roberts, was a native African.

Freedom came when young Miller was yet an infant. His
early youth was spent on the farm, where his quickness to
understand and natural energy made him the leader in those
labors w^ithin the scope of boy's strength.

He attended the country schools, such as they were, and
early showed the trend of his mind by his marked ability
in arithmetic. He possessed the analytical mind in an un-
usual degree.

At thirteen he entered the Fairfield Institute and there
came under the hand of the Rev. Williard Richardson, a
Northern Presbyterian preacher and teacher, whose influence
on the plastic mind of the boy was the most potent factor in
shaping his future life.




KELLY MILLER



WASHINGTON, D. C. EDITION 19

At seventeen he left South Carolina for Washington and
became a student in HoAvard University. His life has now
been identified with that great institution for forty-one years,
with one break of one year. In 1886 he was graduated in
the collegiate department with the degree of A.B. From
1887-89 he took post-graduate course in Mathematics and
Physics. In the meantime he had taken the Civil Service
examination and was for a brief space in the Government
service.

His college career had been a distinguished one with an
unbroken history of success which forecasted his brilliant
future. In 1889 he accepted the chair of Mathematics in
Washington High School, but only remained there one year
when he was tendered the position of Professor of Mathe-
matics in Ploward University, which position he has now filled
for thirty-one years with the greatest distinction. He is not
only a great Mathematician but is also a great teacher. Since
1908 he has been Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences.

The South Carolina farm boy at twenty-seven was Pro-
fessor of Mathematics, only four years after his graduation,
in one of the great pioneer schools which has done such a
tremendous work for the colored youth of the country. How-
ard is noAV one of the most completely equipped Universities
of the country and to that result Professor Miller's labors
for the last thirty one years have contributed no small part.

The great progress of his youth and early manhood was
but the beginning of a career which has in the last thirty
years made him one of the widely known men of the coun-
try and a true leader of the race in its upward struggle.

This has come about through no demagogic appeals, and
no inflammatory harangues, but through his lucidity of state-
ment and his unanswerable logic.

As far back as 1895, he was beginning to make reputation
as an essayist and writer of articles in periodicals, and in
that year appeared "What Walt Whitman Means to the
Negro." That was the forerunner of a long series of ar-
ticles, essays, letters, and books, each having a definite aim.
One of his peculiarities is that he never shoots in the air,
but alwaj's has a definite aim. In 1899 was printed his ad-
dress on "The Primary Needs of the Nesrro Race." In 1905
appeared "From Servitude to Service." In the same year he
published an "Open Letter to Thomas Dixon" under the



20 HISTORY A^IERICAN NEGRO

title: "As to Leopard's Spots." In li)06 came an "Appeal to
Reason," being an open letter to John Temple Graves. In 1907
appeared "Roosevelt and the Negro" followed in 1908 by
"Race Adjustment". "The Negro as a Religious, Social and
Political Factor" followed and 1914 brought forth "Out of
the House of Bondage." He had gained a Avide following
and when, in 1917, he presented "The Disgrace of Democ-
racy" in the form of an open letter to President Wilson it
took 150,000 copies to supply the demand. "An Appeal to
Conscience" followed in 1918, and in 1920, "Race Statesman-
ship" and "Radicalism and the Negro." These cited are but
some of the better known of his written works, and include
but a portion of the incisive statements, all tending to the
betterment of the race, which have been the fruit of his in-
cessant labor and prolific pen.

Much of his spare time is spent in the reading of current
magazines and newspapers and he thus keeps in constant
touch with the current happenings.

Dr. Miller is a publicist in a Avide sense, though he would
be the last man to call himself such, for all of his work has
been permeated bj^ the intense desire to do always and con-
stantly a little more for his people.

He is in great demand as a lecturer and so far as his duties
permit he goes forth to speak the word to eager listeners.
Through his lectures over the whole country he has a vast
acquaintance, and through the written word he has attracted
a great army who read with intense interest everything he
writes.

Back of his labors has always been the altruistic spirit, to
help the man who needs help, but who held in bonds of ig-
norance or poverty cannot help himself. Though not a preach-
er he is doing a most successful preaching work.

He holds membership in the Presbyterian Church and in
a number of Societies such as: "The Academy of Political
and Social Science ; American Social Science Association ;
National Educational Association ; American Association for
the Advancement of Science; AValt Whitman International
Fellowship ; American Negro Academy and the Masons.


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Online LibraryArthur Bunyan CaldwellHistory of the American Negro and his institutions; (Volume 6) → online text (page 1 of 19)