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towards Canada. In that province they knew the late acts were
very unpopular, not only among the British settlers, but the French
Canadians themselves, who having experienced the difference
between a French and British constitution, gave the preference to
the latter. ^ *' The extraordinary powers placed in the hands of
General Carleton, governor of Canada," (says Bisset) " by a late
commission, were new and alarming. To co-operate with the
disaffected in Canada, and to anticipate the probable and sus-
pected designs of this General, the Congress formed the bold pro-
ject of invading this province. General Montgomery headed the
expedition ; and proceeded with such vigour, that he compelled
the fort of St. John's to surrender at discretion on the 2d of No-
vember. Hence, crossing St. Laurence, he proceeded to Moiu

b Bisset, vol. ii. p. 277.


treal, which being incapable of defence against the American
force. General Carleton evacuated it, and retired to Quebec.

"' Having taken possesbion of Montreal, Montgomery made dis-
positions for advancing to besiege the capital of Canada, and there
were several circumstances favourable to his hopes of success. The
works of the town had been greatly neglected from the time of
the peace ; as by the cessions of France, no enemy was conceived
to be in the vicinity. The garrison did not consist of above 1 100
men, of which very few were regulars; and the greater number
of the inhabitants were ill-affected to the framers of their new
constitution. General Carleton, though of high military reputa-
tion, was by no means conciliating in his manners ; his social at-
tention was almost solely bestowed on the Canadian roblesse,
without extending to the much more numerous, and more truly
important class of commoners ; and he was considered as the
principal instigator of the ministry to the measures which they
had proposed for governing that province." "^ While the British
governor, with these disadvantages undertook to defend Quebec
against Montgomv°ry, an attempt was made by Colonel Arnold to
take that city by surprize. On November Qih, he arrived oppo-
site Quebec ; but before he had time to provide boats and rafts,
the city was alarmed, and this delay saved Quebec. But the
American General having on December 5th joined Arnold, ap-
peared before Quebec, and immediately sent a summons to
Carleton to surrender. The British General treated this demand
with contempt, and refused to hold any correspondence with a
rebel. Between the British troops and the inhabitants, there pre-
vailed, contrary to the expectation of their opponents, a perfect
unnnim-ity of exerlions; and the American commander unpre-
pared for a regular siege, attempted to take the place by storm.
In this attempt Montgomery fell at the head of his troops, deeply
regretted by his countrymen j and the garrison after an obstinate
resistance, drove the assailants away from the town with great
loss.<i Colonel Arnold, thus disappointed in his endeavours
against Quebec, resolved nevertheless to continue in the province,
and encamped on the heights of Abraham, where he fortified
himself, and put his troops in such a situation as to be still for-
midable. ^

At the commencement of the following year, 1776, Arnold
still continued the blockade of Quebec, notwithstanding a very

e Bisset, vol. ii. p. 282. d Ibid. p. 387. • Ibid.


severe season, and under great difficulties. As the season ad-
vanced, they became more active, that they might anticipate the
arrival of the troops from England ; they renewed the siege, and
erected batteries to burn the shipping. But in the beginning of
May, an English squadron made its way up to Quebec ; and on
finding succours arrived, the besiegers retired.^

On May pth. General Carleton proceeded in pursuit of Ar-
nold, just as he had begun his retreat j and thus the siege of
Quebec was raised, after continuing about five months.

In the end of May, several regiments arriving from Ireland
and England, together with a regiment from General Howe, and
the Brunswick troops, which, when added to those, who were
before in the province, amounted to 13,000 men. General Carle-
ton prepared for offensive operations, ^ The provincials icuated
their conquests, and stationed themselves at Crown Point, \ lither
the British commander did not follow them for the present.

An armament was now prepared for crossing Lake Champlain,
in order to besiege Crown Point, and Ticonderago. The Ame-
ricans had a considerable fleet on Lake Champlain, whereas the
British had not a single vessel. The General therefore used
every effort to procure the requisite naval force ; but October was
begun, before this was ready to oppose the enemy. On October
11th, the British fleet, commanded by Captain Pringle, and under
the general direction of Carleton, discovered the American ar-
mament 5 and engaging them, the conflict continued on both
sides for several hours with great intrepidity 3 but the contrary
wind preventing the chief British ships from taking a part, and
night coming on, it was thought prudent to discontinue the ac-
tion; and Arnold took advantage of the night to retreat. § The
Biitish pursued the next day and the day following, and over-
took them a few leagues from Crown Point ; where after a furioui
battle of two hours they yielded to our superior force and skill.

General Carleton remained at Crown Point till November 3d;
and as the winter was commencing, did not think it proper to be-
siege Ticonderago. He returned therefore to St. John's, whence
he distributed his army into winter quarters.

In the following year, ]777> an expedition being planned
from Canada, to effect a co-operation with the principal British
force, the command of the armament was conferred on General

t Bisset, vol. ii. p. 332. f Ibid. p. 333.

s Ibid. p. 370.


Burgoyne. "■ Sir Guy Carleton" (for he had been nomuiated a
Knight of the Bath on July 6th, 1776) " from his official
situation in Canada, his conduct, and especially his defence of
Quebec, might have reasonably expected this appointment ; he
was an older general, of more military experience, and belter ac-
quainted with the country, its inhabitants and resources. His
character commanded greater authority than Burgoyne's had
hitherto established ; the professional reputation of Burgoyne,
indeed, was liable to no objection, but he had not, like Carleton,
obtained celebrity. As no military grounds could be alleged for
superseding Carleton to make room for Burgoyne, his promotion
was imputed to parliamentary influence more th?.n to his official
talents. Carleton, disgusted with a preference by no means
merited, as soon as he heard of the appointment, resigned his go-
vernment. The event was such as might be expected from the
delegation of important trust from extrinsic considerations, instead
of the fitness of the trustee for the service required." '

On August 2yth, 1777} Sir Guy was made a lieutenant-ge-
neral in the army; and having now returned to England, was
installed at Westminster as K. B. May 22d, 1/79.

In 178I, he was appointed to succeed Sir Henry Clinton as
Commander in Chief in America, where he rem.ained till the
termination of the contest, when after an interview with General
Washington, he evacuated New York, and returned to England.

On April 11th, 1/86, he was once mote appointed Govebnor
OF Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, and, as a re-
ward for his long services, was on the 2lst of August following
elevated to the Peerage, by the title of Lord Dorchester, '^ of
Dorchester in the county of Oxford.

His Lordship remained in this extensive government for se-^
veral years j ' and returning at length to England, passed his old
age in the bosom of his family ; tirst at Kempshot, near Basing-.
stoke, in Hants ; and afterwards at his seat near Maidenhead.

i Bisset, vol. ii. p. 434.
k He seems to have taken this title, because it had been used by one of
own name. Sit Dudley Carlton, who does not appear to have been related to
him. This Sir Dudley, an eminent statesman (whose state papers and letters
were publisiied by the late Lord Hardwicke) was son of Anthony Carlton, of
Baldwin-Brightwell in Oxfordshire, and was created Viscount Dor-
chester, of Dorchester com. Oxf. July 2<;th, 4 Char. I. He died February
15th, 1651. All his children died infants; and the title therefore expireci
with him.
1 See the Duke de Rochefoucault Liancourt's Travels in North America,


His Lordship died November 10th, 1808, aet. eighty-five j at
>vhich time he was colonel of the fourth regiment of dragoons,
and a general in the army.

His Lordship married at the Bishop of London's Palace at
Fulham on May 22d, 17/2, Lady Maria, third daughter of Tho-
mas Howard Earl of Effipgham, by Elizabeth, daughter of Peter
Beckford, of Jamaica, Esq. And by her Ladyship (who was
born at Great Bookham in Surr) - , August 30th, 1753), had issue.
First, Guy, an ensign in the third regiment of foot-guards,
born in the parish of St. George, Hanover-square, February 4th,
1773, died unmarried November 10th, 1793.

Second, Thomas, a captain in the army, born in St. George's,
Hanover-square, April 30th, I774, died unmarried April 17th,

Third, Christopher, of whom presently , as father of the present

Fourth and fifth, William and Lancelot, both died infants.
Sixth, George, lieutenant-colonel in the army, born at Rich-
mond, Surry, September 25th, 1781, married, in October 1805,
Henrietta, daughter of Edward King, Esq. of Askham-Hall, com.
Westmoreland, by whom he has Maria, born ISO6 in Gibraltar
Bay, and Henrietta, born at Malta I8O7.

Seventh, Charles, born in Queen Anne-street West, in July
1786, died May 22d, 1799.

Eighth, Dudley, born in the Chateau St. Louis at Quebec,
June 22d, 1790, a lieutenant in the fourth dragoons.

Ninth, Richard, born in St. Mary-le-bone, February 10th,

Tenth, Maria, eldest daughter born in the Chateau St.
Louis at Quebec, August 20th, 1777j married in May 1810, Wil-
liam, second Lord Bolton.

Eleventh, Frances, second daughter, born in Queen Anne-
street West, February 3d, 1785, married, August 24th, 1802, the
Rev. John Orde, of Kingsclere, Hants, (cousin of Lord Bolton).

Christopher Carleton, third son, already mentioned, (who
died before his father) was born in the chateau St. Louis at
Quebec, July 23d, 1775, was lieutenant-colonel of the twenty-
fifth light dragoons, and died February 6th, 1S0(5, ast. thirty-one,
on board the Devonshire East Indiaman then lying in Madras
roads, having married, on June 9th, 1797? Piiscilla Martha,'

i Her sister married Lieut. Colonel Siv Robeit Wilson, of the 20th dragoons.


eldest daughter and coheir of William Belfordj Esq, a captain in
the army, and grand-daughter of lieutenant-general William Bel-
ford of the artillery. By her he had issue.

First, Maria Pelham Carleton, born June 27th, 1798, and
baptized at Dummer, Hants.

Second, Harriet Elizabeth Georgina, born July 22d, 1800,
died September 22d following, and buried in Mary-le-bone church.

Third, Arthur Henry Carleton, who succeeded his grand-
father as SECOND Lord Dorchester.

His Lordship was born at Madras February 20th, 1805, and
baptized at St. Helena, in the church there.

Title. Arthur Henry Lord Dorchester, of Dorchester, in Ox-

Creation. Baron of Dorchester August 8th, 1786.

Arms. Ermine, on a bend sable, three pheons heads, argent.

Crest. An arm embowed, holding an arrow.

Supporters. Two beavers, collared.

Molta. Quondam his vicimus armis.

CI lief Seat.




The surname of Eliott in the south of Scotland Is said to have
come from a village, called Eliott, in the north, and with that
name came to the south border" in the reign of King James I. of
Scotland. ^

a Nisbet gives the names and arms of the following branches.

'• First, Eliott, ofRedheugh, now called Lawriston, in Liddisdalci G.
on a bend or, a pipe, or flute, of the first.

Second, Sir Gilbert Eliott, of Stobbs, Bart. G- on a bend sngrailed or, 2
batton azure. Crest, a dexter arm holding a cutlass proper, with the motto
Perad'venture. As matriculated in the Lyon Register.

Third, Sir Gilbert Eliott, of Minto, Bart, of late one of the Senators of
the College of Justice, descended of Stobbs, G. on a bend engrailed or, a
batton azure, all within a bordure vaire ; Crest, a dexter hand issuing from a
cloud and throwing a dart, all proper. Motto, Non eglt arcu.

Fourth, Mr, Adam Eliott, third son to the deceased Mr. Henry Eliott,
minister of Bedrule, who was lawful son to William Eliott, sometime Pro-
vost of Peebles, who was third brother to Gilbert Eliott, of Stobbs ; G. on a
bend engrailed or, a flute azure, all within a bordure engrailed of the second ;
and charged with eight mullets of the third. Crest, a dexter hand, holding
a flute proper, with the motto, inestfacunditas, which shews the figure on the
bend to be a pipe or flute.

Fifth, Walter Eliott, of Eskelton, a second son of Eliott, of Unthank,
who was descended of the family of Lauriston, G. on a bend indented or, a
flute of the first. Crest, a demi-man in armour, proper, with the motto, fro
rege et limite.

Sixth, Simeon Eliott, of Binksnow, of Swinside, descended of the family
of Lauriston, G. on abend or, a baton azure, all within a bordure of the
second, charged with six garbs, as the third. Crest, a gentleman holding a
pike in his hand in a watching posture." Nhhet, vol. i. p. 99.
b Nisbet's Heraldry, vol ». p. 99.


Sir Gilbert Eliott, of Stohh, in the district of Tiviot Dale
in the sliire of Roxburgh, Baronet of Nova Scotia (whose ancestor
was so created 1666),'^ died in Scotland May 27th, 1764, having
married Eleanor, daughter of William Eliot, of Weld, or Wells,
in the shire of Roxburgh, Esq. ^

By her he had issue.

First, Sir John Eliott, of iS/oZ'Z:5, Bart, father of Sir Francis
Eliott the present Bart.

Second, William; third, Gilbert; fourth, Charles; sixth,
Eliott Eliott ; seventh, Gavin, all died s. p. and a daughter died

Fifth, Archibald Eliott, a merchant in London, and secretary
to Ramsgate harbour.

Eighth, Sir George Augustus Eliott, first Lord Heath-
riELD, was born at the paternal seat in the shire of Roxburgh,
December 25th, l/ir.

He received the first rudiments of his education under a private
tutor retained at the family sent. At an early age he was sent to
the university of Leyden, where he made a rapid progress in clas-
sical learning, and spoke whh elegance and fluency the German
and French languages.

Being designed for a military life, he was sent from thence to
La Fere in Picardy. This school was rendered the most famoiw
in Europe by means of the great Vauban, under whom it was
conducted. It was afterwards committed to the management and
eare of the Comte de Houroville, Here it was that the founda-
tion was laid of that knowledge of tactics in all its branches, and
particularly in the arts of engineering and fortification, which
afterwards so greatly distinguished this officer. He completed
his military course by a tour on the continent, for the purpose of
seeing in practice what he had been studying in theory. Prussia
was the model for discipline, and he continued for some time as a
volunteer in this service. Such were the steps taken by the
young men of fashion in that day to accomplish themselves for
the service of their country. Many of his cotemporaries were
then similarly engaged, nobly abandoning the enjoyments of

c Sir Gilbert Eliotf, the first Baronet of Minto, so created 1700, was
grandson of Gilbert Eliott, of Stci>is.

d Sister of Colonel William Elioit, who married Frances, daughter and
aoheir of Henry Nassau D" Auverqucrque, Earl of Giar.thairi.


ease and luxury at home, for the opportunity of seeing actual

Mr, Eliott returned, in his seventeenth year, to his native
country of Scotland, and was in the same year, 1/3.5, introduced
by his fither. Sir Gilbert, to lieutenant-colonel Peers, of the
twenty-third regiment of foot, or royal Welch fuzileers, then
lying in Edinburgh. Sir Gilbert presented him as a youth
anxious to bear arms for his King and country. He was accord-
ingly entered as a volunteer in that regiment, and continued for
a twelvemonth or more. At this time he gave a promise of his
future military talents, and slewed that he was at least a soldier
au coeur. From the twenly-third he went into the engineer
corps at Woolwich, and made great progress in that study, until
his uncle, Colonel Eliott, brought him in as adjutant of the se-
cond troop of horse grenadiers. In this situation he conducted
himself wiih the most exeinphry attention, and laid the founda-
tion of that discipline which has rendered those two troops the
finest corps of heavy cavalry in Europe, the Hanoverian body
guards and the musketeers of France not excepted.

Witli these troops he went upon service to Germany, in the
war before last, and was with them in a variety of actions. At
the battle of Dettingen he was wounded. In this regiment he
first bought the rank of captain and major, and afterwards pur-
chased the lieutenant colonelcy from Colonel Brewerton, who
succeeded to his uncle. On arriving at this rank, he resigned
his commission as an engineer, which he had enjoyed along with
his other rank, and in which service he had been actively em-
ployed very much to the advantage of his country. He had re-
ceived the instructions of the famous engineer Bellidor, and made
himself completely master of the science of gunnery. Had he
not so disinterestedly resigned his rank in the engineer depart-
ment, he would now by regular progression have been at the head
of that corp5.

Soon after this he was appointed aid-de-camp to King George
I[. and was already distinguished for his military skill and dis-
cipline. In the year I759, he quitted the second troop of horse
grenadier guards, being selected to raise, form, and discipline
the fifteenth regiment of light horse, called after him Eliott's
Light Horse. As soon as they were raised and formed, he was
appointed to the command of the cavalry in the expedition on the
coasts of France, with the rank of brigadier-general. And after


this be passed into Germany, where he was employed on the stall^
and greatly distinguished himself in a variety of movements,
while his regiment displayed a strictness of discipline, an activity
and enterprize, which gained them signal honour; and indeed
they have been the pattern regiment> both in regard to discipline
and appointment, to the many light dragoon troops that have
been since raised in our service.

From Germany he was recalled for the purpose of being em-
ployed as second in command in the memorable expedition against
the Havannah, It was possible to find an officer in the sunshins
of the court to whom, under the patronage of a prince, the trap-
pings of the chief command might be given ; but an Eliott was
wanted to act as well as an Albemarle to shine, and for him they
were forced to go to the dusty plains of Germany. The circum-
stances of that conquest are well known. It seems as if our
brave veteran had always in his eye the gallant Lewis de Veiasco,
who maintained his station to the last extremity, and, when his
garrison were flying from his side, or falling at his feet, disdained
to retire or call for quarter, but fell gloriously exercising his
sword upon his conquerors.

Our readers will pardon us for the recital of a short anecdote
which occurred immediately after the reduction, as it shews that
in the very heat and outrage of war the General was not unmindful
of the rights of humanity. He was particularly eminent among
the conquerors of the Havannah for his disinterested procedure,
and for checking the horrors of indiscriminate plunder. To him
therefore appeals were most frequently made. A Frenchman
who had suffered greatly by the depredations of the soldiery, made
application to him, and begged in bad English, that he would in-
terfere to have his property restored. The petitioner's wife who
was present, a woman of great spirit, was angry at the husband
for the intercession^ and said, " Comment pouvez vous demander
de grace a' un homme qui vient vous depouiller ? N' en esperez
pas." The husband persisting in his application, his wife grew
more loud in the censure, and said, " Vous n' etes pas Francois l"
The General, who was busy in writing at the time, turned to the
w'oman and said smiling, " Madame, ne vous echauffez pas ; ce
que votre mari demande lui sera accorde I " "Oh faut-il pour
surcroit de malheur," exclaimed the woman, " que le barbare
parle le Francois !" The General was so very much pleased with
the woman's spirit, that he not only procured them their property


again, but also took pains to accommpdate them in every respect.
This was through hie the manly characteristic of the Ge**
neral : if he would not sulfer his troops to extend, for the sake of
plunder, the ravages of war, he never impoverished them by un-
just actions. He would never consent that his quarter-master's
place should be sold, " not only," says he, " because I think it is
the reward of an honest veteran soldier j but also because I could
not so directly exercise my authority in his dismission should h«
behave ill."

On the peace, his gallant regiment was reviewed by his Ma-
jesty in Hyde-Park} when they presented to the King the stand-
ards which they had taken from the enemy. The King, grati-
lied with their high character, asked General Eliott what mark
of his favour he could bestow on his i^egiment equal to their
merits. He answered, his regiment would be proud if his Ma-
jesty should think, that by their services they were entitled to the
distinction of Royals. It was accordingly made a royal regiment
of light dragoons. At the same time the King expressed a desire
to confer a mark of his favour on the brave General ; but he de-
clared, that the honour and satisfaction of his Majesty's approba-
tion of his services were his best reward.

During the peace he was not idle. His great talents in the
various branches of the military art, gave him ample employment ;
and in the year 17/5, he was appointed to succeed General
A' Court, as Commander in chief of the forces hi Ireland. But
he did not continue long on this station) not even long enough
to unpack all his trunks ; for finding that interferences were made
by petty authority derogatory of his own, he resisted the practice
with becoming spirit ; and not choosing to disturb the govern-
ment of his sister kingdom on a matter personal to himself, he
solicited to be recalled, and accordingly was so, when he was ap-
pointed to the command of Glhraltar, in a fortunate hour for the
safety of that important fortress.

The system of his life, as well as his education, peculiarly
qualified him for this trust. He was perhaps the most abste-
mious man of the age. His food was vegetables, and his drink
water. He neither indulged himself in animal food nor wine.
He never slept more than four hours at a time ; so that he was
up later and earlier than most other men. He had so inured
himself to habits of hardness, that the things which are difficult
and painful to other men, were to him his daily practice, and


fendered pleasant by use. It could not be easy to starve such a
man into a surrender, nor easy to surprise him. His wants were
easily supplied, and his watchfulness was beyond precedent.
The example of the commander-in-chief in a besieged garrison,
has a most persuasive efficacy in forming the manners of the sol-
diery. Like him his brave followers came to regulate their lives
by the most strict rules of discipline before there arose a necessity
for so doing ; and severe exercise, with short diet, became habi-
tual to them by their own choice. The military system of disci-
pline which he introduced, and the preparations which he made
for his defence, were contrived with so much judgment, and ex-^
ecuted with so much address, that he was able, with a handful of
men, to preserve his post against an atlack, the constancy of
which, even without the vigour, was sufficient to exhaust any
common set of men. Collected within himself, he in no instance
destroyed, by premature attacks, the labours which would cost
the enemy time, patience, and expence to complete ; he delibe-

Online LibraryArthur CollinsCollins's peerage of England; genealogical, biographical, and historical → online text (page 11 of 56)