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being confirmed, he returned to Admiral Knowles in the West
Indies, where he was made lieutenant of a sloop of war j and dis-
tinguished himself by cutting out an English merchantman, which
had been taken, from under the guns of the Dutch settlement of
St. Eustatias.

In 1745, he was with Admiral Vernon in the Down?; and a
short time after raised to the rank of Commander, in the Balti-
more sloop of war. In this ship he distinguished himself by at-
tacking two French frigates off the coast of Scotland, full of
troops and ammunition, for the Pretender. These he made sheer

VOL. viir, J.


off. For this action he was made Post Captain, and on April
10, 17-^Q, appointed to the Triton frigate, and ordered to Lisbon.

He was soon afterwards appointed first captain of Admiral
Knowles's ship of SO guns on the Jamaica station; and at the
conclusion of the war, I/'IS, returned in her to England.

In March 1/50-1, Captain Howe was appointed to the com-
mand on the Guinea station, in La Gloire, of 4-1- guns.

At the end of 1751, he was appointed to the Mary yacht, and
soon after to theDelphine frigate, in which he sailed to the Straits,
and in which he executed many and important services. Here he
remained for about three years, and soon after obtained the com-
mand of the Dunkirk of 60 guns. In this ship he sailed under
Admiral Boscawen to obstruct the passage of the French fleet
into the gulf of St. Lawrence, when Captain Howe took the
French ship Alcide of 64 guns off the coast of Newfoundland.

In 1757, when a powerful fleet was prepared undar Sir Ed-
ward Hawke, to make an attack on the French coast. Captain
Howe had the command of the Mignanime, in which ship he
battered the fort in the island of Aix till it surrendered.

In 1758, he was appointed commodore of a small squadron
which sailed to annoy the enemy on their coasts. This he effected
with his usual success at St. Malo's, On the 1st of August he
sailed for Cherbourg ; when the town was taken, and the basin
destroyed. The unsuccessful affair of St, Cas followed.

In July of this year, 1753, he succeeded by the death of his
elder brother to the Irish title of Viscount Iloive; and in the fol-
lowing year was employed in the Chatmel on board his old ship
the Magnanime, and in the month of November was with Hawke
when he obtained the celebrated victory over Conflans.

In March 176O, be was appointed colonel of the Chatham
division of marines 3 and in September following was employed
to reduce the French fort on the isle of Dumell.

On August 23d, 1763, his Lordship was appointed a lord of
the admiralty; where he remained till August 1765.

He was then made Treasurer of the Navy ; and in Oc-
tober 1 770, was promoted to be Rear-Admiral of the Blue, and
Commander in Chief in the Mediterranean.

In March 1775, he was appointed Rear- Admiral of the "White.
He was afterwards chosen to represent the borough of Dartmouth
in parliament, 1762, 1768, 1774, 178O. In December of the
same year, he was made Vice-Admiral of the Blue.


In 1776, he was appointed naval commander in chief in Ame-
rica; in which command, considering the disadvantages with
which he was surrounded, he closed the campaign with honour.
He then resigned the command to Admiral Byron ; and on his
return to England in October, immediately struck his flag. In
this year he was advanced first to be Vice- Admiral of the White,
and then of the Red.

On April 20th, 17S2, he was raised to the English Peerage
by the title of Viscount Howe of hangar, in the county of
Nottingham, and was then appointed to the command of the fleet
for the relief of Gibraltar.

In Jan. I 783, on the accession to power of Lord Rockingham,
he was appointed Fikst Lord of the Admiralty, which he re-
tained only till April j and to which he was re-appointed on the
accession of Mr. Pitt, in December following. He retained this
office tillJuly 1788.

On August igth, 1788, he was elevated to an Earldom by the
title of Earl Howe, to him, and the heirs male of his body j and
also to the title of Barox Howe of hangar, with remainder to
his daughters and the heirs male of their bodies, in succession.

On the breaking out of the revolutionary war, J 703, he ac-
cepted the command of the Western squadron.

" Three powerful armaments," says Dr. Bisset, " were pre-
pared for the campaign of 1794: one under Lord Hood com-
manded the Mediterranean, reduced the island of Corsica, and
protected the coasts of Spain and Italy : a second under Sir John
Jervis, with a military force headed by Sir Charles Grey, reduced
Martinico, Guadaloupe, St. Lucia, and some parts of St. Domingo.
But the most illustrious monument of British naval glory was
raised by Earl Howe. During the preceding part of the war,
France, conscious of her maritime inferiority to Great Britain,
had hitherto confined her exertions to cruizers and small squa-
drons for harassing our trade. In the month of May, the French
were induced to depart from tliis system of naval warfare.
Anxious for the safety of a convoy daily expected from America,
conveying an immense supply of corn and flour, of naval stores
and colonial productions, the Brest fleet, amounting to twenty-
seven sail of the line ventured to sea under the command of Rear
Admiral Villaret. Lord Howe expecting the same convoy, went
to sea with twenty ships of the line. On the 28th of May he de-
scried the enemy to windward. Admiral Paisley in the evening


gave signal to the vanmost ships to attack the enemy's rear.
Lord Hugh Seymour Conway attacked the Revolutionaire of 120
guns, and being soon supported by Captain Parker of the Auda-
cious, so damaged the enemy's ship that she struck j but escap-
ing during the night, she was towed into Rochfort. The next
morning the fleets resumed the conflict, but the intermission of a
thick fog prevented its continuance. The fog lasted that and the
greater part of the two following days. The sun occasionally
breakins: throus;h the mist, shewed to each other the direction of
the fleets ; and Lord Howe employed this time in most masterly
manoeuvres to obtain the weather-gage, that be might compel
them to fight when the atmosphere should clear, and at length he
succeeded. On the 1st of June, the fog being dispersed, our Ad-
miral, from his former excellent dispositions, found an opportu-
nity of bringing the French to battle. Between seven and eight
in the morning, our fleet advanced in a close and compact line :
the enemy finding an engagement unavoidable, received our onset
with their accustomed valour, A close and desperate engage-
ment ensued, presenting the French as combatants worthy of oc-
cupying the naval heroism of England. The Montague of 130
guns, the French Admiral's ship, having adventured to encounter
the Queen Charlotte of 100 guns, was, in less than an hour, com-
pelled to fly : the other ships of the same division seeing all efforts
ineffectual against British prowess, endeavoured to follow the fly-
ing Admiral J ten, however, were so crippled that they couJd not
keep pace with the rest : but many of the British ships were so
damaged, that some of these disabled ships of the enemy effected
their escape. Six remained in the possession of the British Ad-
miral, and were brought safe into Portsmouth, viz. La Juste of
80 guns. La Sans Pareille of SO, L' America 74, L' Acbille 'JA,
L' Impetueux 'J A, and Northumberland 74 : these, with Le Ven-
geur, which was sunk, made the whole loss of the French amount
to seven ships of the line. The victorious ships arrived safe in
harbour with their prizes : the crews, officers, and Admiral were
received with those grateful thanks and high applauses which
Britain never fails to bestow on her conquering heroes. Earl
Howe was by all ranks and parties extolled for his tactical skill,,
steady perseverance, and determined courage ; first, in forcing the
enemy, after every evasion, to a close action'j and then in obtain-
ing so signal an advantage over a fleet superior in its number of
ships and of men, as well as in size and weight of metal. The


year 17.Q4, surpassing in disaster by land the unfortunate 1777, or
17SI, by sea equalled the glories of 1759." ■"

In 1795, he was appointed General of marines on the death of
Admiral Forbes.

In 1797> government sent Lord Howe, an officer universally
beloved throughout the British fleet, to quell the mutiny. Tlus
illustrious commander having pledged his word to the seamen
that government would faithfully keep its promises, they declared
their unlimited confidence in Lord Howe's assurance, and re-
turned to their duly.

His Lordship finally resigned the command of the Western
squadron in April 1797-

In June 1 'O/, he was elected K. G.

His Lordship died at his house in Grafton -street, London, of
the gout in his stomach, August 5th, 1799) aged seventy-three."

He was succeeded in the Irish Viscounty by his brother Sir
William; and in the English Barony by his eldest daughter Lady
Charlotte Sophia Curzon, ofivhom hereafter.

S\r Willi AM, present andjifth Viscount Hoive, being brought
up in the army was made a major-general May 22d, 1772; a
lieutenant-general August /th, 1777? and a general October 25tb,
1793, He was made colonel of the twenty-third foot. May 11th.
177-5; and of the nineteenth dragoons April 21st, 1786.

He was elected member of parliament for Nottingham town
on the death of his eldest brother 1758; to which he continued
to be elected 1762, 1768, and 1 774.

On May 25th, 1775, Major-General Howe, with Generals
Burgoyne and Clinton, arrived in America with a considerable
reinforcement to General Gage, who, since the formation of the
American army, had confined himself to defence, but now judged
his force sufficiently strong for offensive measures. The battle of
Bunker's Hill, between Charlestown and Boston, immediately
followed ; in which General Howe commanded a division ; and
which was gained by the British not without a considerable loss.
The Americans however asserted that they were really successful,
because, though dislodged from one post, they had blocked up
the regulars, and by keeping them from offensive operations,
frustrated the purpose for which they had been sent. In truth,
Boston continued in a state of blockade till the following year.

» Bissett's Reign of George III. vol. v. p. 506 — 508.
n Gent. Mag. vol. Ixix. p. 724, I05.


Gage was now returned home, and the conimand, in 177^»
devolved on General Howe. Washington now besieging Boston,
General Howe, being in the greatest distress for provisions, em-
barked with the British Loyalists on the l/th of March for Halli-
fax, and arrived there in the end of the month. Here he was
obliged to remaiii for two months to receive reinforcements ex-
pected from England, with a fleet commanded by bis brother
Lord Howe ; but these not arriving, he resolved to wait no
longer J leaving Halifax June llth, he arrived the end of the
month in Sandy Hook near New York. At length the reinforce-
ments camej Lord Howe reaching Staten island on July 14th,
So reinforced, the British army amounted to near 30,000 men.

" The commanders," says Bisset, " possessed high characters,
and had distinguished themselves in subordinate stations of trust
and importance in the former war. The naval officer had in the
year 1758, on the coast of France, laid the f )un(lation of a fame
which was increased during subsequent services : the military
gentleman was the distinguished favourite of General Wolfe, led
the body which first seized the heights of Abraham, and after-
wards supported and advanced the situation in which he was held.
It was true, he never had an opportunity of distinguishmg him-
self as a General, except at Bunker s Hill ; and having acted there
under the command of another, he merely proved, as before, that
he was an active and intrepid soldier: but from his conduct in
secondary situations, he was very naturally allowed credit for abi-
lities which could fill up the first with equal propriety From
their near relation, no doubt was entertained that there would be
the utmost harmony between the General and Admiral ; and the
appointment of Lord Howe and Sir William to the chief com-
mand of the naval and military operations afforded general satis-
faction in England ; and the most sanguine expectations were en-
tertained of their success. It must be acknowledged, that their
hopes were not without apparently probable grounds.""

Besides their military powers, the General and Admiral were
appointed, under a late act of parliament. Commissioners for re-
storing peace to the colonies, and for granting pardon to such as
should deserve the royal mercy, p But their overtures in this
way were reje, ted.

The British commander therefore opened the campaign on
August 22d, 1776 j and the same month won the battle of Long-
Island. Overtures of peace were now again made in vain.

o Hist. vol. ii. p 353. p Ibid. p. 353.



In September the General took the city of New-York ; and
soon after by the capture of Fort VVaihington, and the surrender
of King's bridge, the British troops were in possession not only
of New York, and the adjacent islands, but also of an easy access
either to New England, or the Jerseys.

Notwithstanding these and other successes of the generals
under Lord Cornwallis and Sir Henry Clinton, General Howe re-
tired into winter quarters. And it must be confessed, that the
conduct and event of the winter operations proved very different
from what the friends of Britain expected, and the provincials ap-
prehended. The luxury and dissipation in which the winter was
passed at head-quarters, has been much blamed. Washington
was very differently employed.

Summer of 1/77 being commenced. General Howe opened
the campaign by detachments, while with the main army he
continued in his present residence.

On June 12th, he himself attempted by a stratagem to bring
Washington to battle, but failed in his design ; and, disheartened,
resolved to abandon the Jerseys, and crossed with his army to
Staten island.

On July 23d, he sailed on an expedition by sea to Philadelphia.
General Washington informed that the army was arrived in Penn-
sylvania, crossed the Delaware with his army on the nth of Sep-
tember. The British troops advanced to Brafidy IFine, a river,
which, narrowing from the west, falls into the Delaware below
Philadelphia. Here the British gained another victory.

On September 22d, Sir William Howe (for he had been elected
a Knight of the Bath in this year) crossed the Schuylkill with his
whole army ; on the 26th he advanced to German Town ; and on
the following day, with Cornwallis, took possession of Philadel-
phia without opposition. On October 3d was fought the battle
of German Town, in which the British were still victorious. Other
services were performed by detachments 5 and at length in De-
cember the General retired into winter quarters at Philadelphia j
where the severity of the season was passed as the former.

The General commenced the campaign of 1778 in the begin-
ning of March, by the operations of detachments as before. But
soon afterwards resigned his command, and returned to Europe j
being succeeded by Sir Henry Clinton.

In April I779, a parliamentary inquiry was commenced on
the General's conduct. The result of the evidence of Lord Corn-
wallis, Major-General Grey, Sir Andrew Snape Hamond, Majoi;


Montresor, and Sir George Osborne was, that the force sent to
America was at no time equal to the subjugation of the colonies ;
and that the difficulty chicdy arose from the almost unanimous
hostility of the people to the British government, and the natural
obstacles of the country, so abounding in woods, rivers, hills, and
defiles, 1 The inquiry was soon after abruptly abandoned, ■■

His Lordship had some commands at home during the late
war; among which he commanded at Colchester in 179^-

He married Frances, fourth daughter of the Rt. Hon. William
Conolly, of Castletown in the county of Kildare, by the Lady
Anne Wentworth, eldest daughter of Thomas, third Earl of Straf-
ford ; but by her has no issue.

Lady Chaklotte-Sophia, eldest daughter of Richard, late
Earl Howe, succeeded her father in August 1799^ as Baroness
Hov»^E OF Langar.

Her Ladyship married, July 31st, 1/87, the late Hon. Penn
Assheton Curzon, eldest son of the present Viscount Curzon, who
died September 3d, J 797 ; and by him had issue,

Fiist, George-Augustus-William, born May 14th, 1788, died
in January 1805.

Second, Leicester, born Noyember 8th, 1792, since dead.

Third, Richard- William, born December 3d, 1796.

Title. Charlotte-Sophia Howe, Baroness Howe of Langar in

Creation. Baroness Howe of Langar, August 19th, 1 788.

Arms. On a fess between three wolves heads cooped, sable.

Supporters. Two Cornish choughs, proper, beaked an
legged. Gules.

q Bi?sct, vol. iii. p. 105. ^ Ibid, p. i




George Neville, Lord Abergavenny, who died September
20th, 1492, leaving by Margaret^ daughter of Sir Hugh Fenne,

First, George, Lord Abergavenny, who died 27 Hen. VIIL
father of Henry Lord Abergavenny, who died 1587, leaving
Mary, his daughter and heir, married to Sir Thomas Fane.

Second, Sir Edward Neville, of Aldington Park in Kent,
who by Eleanor, daughter of Andrew Lord Windsor, was father

First, Edward, who succeeded his cousin Henry as Lord
Abergavenny in 1587> ^nd died 31 Eliz, See vol, v. art. Aber-

Second, Sir Henry Neville, of BUlingbere in Berkshire, " who

a In the church of Lawrence- Waltham in Berkshire, is a stately monu-
ment for Sir Henry Neville, the father, whereon is the statue of a person
kneeling, and facing the East ; behind him are the statues of his two wives;
and behind them his son in armour, kneeling with his wife behind him.
Under him are six Latin verses ; and this epitaph ;

" Here lyeth Sir Henry Ne-
V I L L, Knight, descended of the
Ne-vi/es, Barons of Abe> gavenny^
who were a branch of the house
of Westmerlatid, He was (besides
martial service) of the Privy
Chamber to King Henry the Eight
& King Edward the Sixt. He
dyed the 13th of January, 1593.
Issue he had by Dame El i z a-
jETH, sole hcire to Sir John


married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir John Gresham ; and
had issue

Sir Henry Neville, of Billwglere, of whom Lodge gives the
following Memoir.

" He owed his introduction at court," says Lodge, " to a
family connection with secretary Cecil, and his promotion there,
perhaps, yet more to his own merit, for he was a person of
great wisdom and integrity. He was appointed ambassador to
France, in April 1599; and, in the summer of the following year,
acted as first commissioner at the treaty of Boulogne. Unfortu-
nately for him, the negociation was concluded a few months before
the discovery of Essex's conspiracy ; and at his return he unwarily
listened to some hints of that wild design, which his excessive at-
tachment to the Earl induced him to conceal. Essex, on his ar-
raignment, named him as a party ; he was committed to the
Tower for misprision of treason, in the midst of his preparations
for returning to his charge in France, and sentenced to pay a
heavy fine, which was mitigated to 5000 /. The alteration caused
in his pecuniary circumstances, by the rigid exaction of this
penalty, compelled him, in the next reign, to accept of offices
beneath his deserts; and contrary to his spirited disposition, we
iind him projecting and executing various little schemes for the
relief of James's necessities ; and, in spite of the eflbrts made by
his friends to get him appointed secretary, in l6l2, he was never
advanced to any higher employment, owing, as it is said, to the
King's having conceived a personal dislike to him." He died
l6l5. There are numerous letters by and to him, in Winwood's
Memorials, of which Hume speaks in high terms.

Sir Henry Neville married Anne, daughter of Sir Henry
Killigrew of Cornwall, Knight, by whom he had issue three
eons :

First, Sir Henry, of whom presently .

Gresham, Knight, by Dame
F a A iN c E s , sole heire to Sir
Henry Thwaites, Knight:
which Dame Elizabeth dyed 6 Nov.
1573. Dame Franc Es Gresham bu-
ried the 27th of October, 1580. And
are both here also buried, with Eli-
zabeth Nevil L, the eldest daughter." *

* Ashmole's Eeikshire, vol ii. p. 431, 432.


Second, Edward Neville, died s, p. He lies buried at Shil-
lingford in Berkshire, with the following epitaph^ on a monument
in the north wall of the chancel :

M. S.

D. Edoabdi

Nevill, Armi. ex

flexuosa stemmatis

Notiliter vetusti serie

Progerminati : cui pater D.

Henricus Neville, Eques Auratus

extraordinaria Reginse Elizab,

ad Henricum iv. Gall, Regem

Legatione perhonorifice functus aliam

Musaium et Encyclopaedicam

Nobilitatem^ adserc^ntis inter

Eegalis Collegii Cantalrigiensis

Sodales, unius quondam meritissimi

ud blandiorem prolificamque

Conjngii sodalitatem, prolecti

tandem festivo cuniculo

ad ^iugustiorem adhuc atque

insohibilem beats seternitatis

Societatem evecti. Anno iEtatis

30, Christi, mdcxxxii. Hoc

Uxoriae et obstinatae posthumiae

Charitatis symbolum devotissimum

masrens mserenti, P. Alicia

Uxor ejus. ^

Third, Richard Neville, LL. D. left a daughter.

And five daughters ; viz. first, Elizabeth, married Sir Henry
Berkeley, of Yartington com. Somerset, Knight ; second, Frances,
married Richard Worsley, of Apuldrrcombe in the Isle of Wight 3
third, Catherine, married Sir Pvichard Brooke, of Norton in Che-
shire, ancestor to the present Sir Richard Brooke ; fourth, Mary,
married Sir Edward Lewknor, of Denham-Hall, Sussex; fifth,
Dorothy, married Sir Richard Catlyn, of Wingfield Castle, Sutf.

Sir HexVky Neville, of Billingberej Knight, eldest son, died
June 2f)thj 1629, having married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John

1- Ashmole's Berkshire, vol. i. p. 181.


Smith, of Ostenhanger com. Kent, Knight, by whom he had
three daughters, and two sons, viz.

First, Catherine, married to Sir Thomas Lunsford, sometime
lieutenant of the Tower of London ; second, Mary, wife of ... ,
Borell ; third, Philippa, married to Jepson. ^

The sons were :

First, Richard, of whom presently.

Second, Henry Neville, of Warfield in Berkshire, a man of
some celebrity in his day; who was born at Billingbere, became
a member of Merton College, Oxford, in 1635, aged fifteen; and
soon after translated himself to that of University , where he con-
tinued some years, but took no degree. In the beginning of the
civil wars, he travelled into France, Italy, and other countries^ by
which he advanced himself much in the knowledge of modern
languages and of men ; and returning in \6-\5, or thereabouts,
became a Recruiter in the Long Parliament, for Abingdon in
Berkshire : at which time he was very great with Henry Martin,
Thomas Chaloner, Thomas Scot, James Harington, and other
zealous common wealth's-men. In November 16'51, he was
elected one of the council of state, being then a favourite of
Oliver; but when he saw that person gaped at monopolizing the
government, he left him, was out of his favour, and acted little
during his usurpation. In l658, he was elected burgess for Read-
ing, to serve in Richard's parliament, which began at Westminster
January 27th of the same year ; and when that person was de-
posed, and the Rump Parliament shortly after restored to sit in
the house, there was a letter from King Charles II, then in exile,
casually put "^ into his hands, to be presented to that junto, for
his restoration to his kingdom; but the members thereof voting,
that it should not be opened or read in the house, they looked
upon themselves afterwards, when they saw what General Monk
intended, as idiots and desperate fools. At that time he was a
great Rota-man, and was one of the chief persons of James Har-
ington's club of commonwealth*s-men to instil their principles
into others, being then esteemed a man of good parts, yet of a
factious and turbulent spirit ; but after the restoration he skulked
for a time, and at length being seized, he was, among others, im-
prisoned, but soon after set at liberty. He published, first. The

r Visitation of Berks 1664, Harl. MSS. 1530.
d James Heath in his Brief Chron. cf the late inteftine tvar, &e. Lend.
1663, part jii. under the year 1660.

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