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Sir Alexander.

Sixth, Janet, married, ISpi, Thomas de Sommervill, of Carn-
wath.

Sir John Stewart, of Darneley, eldest son, married Elizabeth,
daughter and coheir of Duncan, sixth Earl of Lennox. He went
to France in 1420, to the assistance of Charles VH. then Dauphin
of France, when succours were sent from Scotland to that op-
pressed young Prince. To Sir John Stewart the honour and trust
of constable of the Scots army was committed ; and in the cele-
brated victory of Bauge in Anjou, Sir John had a principiil share.
For these services he obtained a grant of the lands ' of Aubigny,
in the province of Berry, March 22d, 1422.

Almost all the French historians mention the presence of Sir
John Stuart the constable of the French army, and of his brother
William Stuart, and the exertions made by them during the siege

e Rymer's Foed. vol. vil. p. 45.
f From this period this branch spelt their names Stuart.



LORD STEWART. 423

of Orleans; in which service he and his brother "Williana both
lost their lives in the same battle, in February 1428-9.

By the heiress of Lennox, Sir John Stuart had issue.

First, Sir Alan,

Second, Alexander, who died without male issue.

Third, John, who had an only son, Bernard. 8

Sir Alan, eldest son, was treacherously slain at Linlithgow,
by Sir Thomas Boyd, of Kilmarnock, in 1439. He married
Catherine, daughter of Sir William Seton, of Seton, and had two
sons.

First, John, Lord Darnley.

Second, Alexander Stuart, of Galston.

John, eldest son, was created a Lord of Parlicnent about
1401, by the title of Lord Darnley ; and created Earl of Lennox
about 1488. He died after July 8th, 1493, having married Mar-
garet, daughter of Alexander Lord Montgomery. By her he had
issue.

First, Matthew, his successor.

Second, Robert, Lord D'Aubigny.

Third, William, captain of the Scotch gens d'armes in
France.

Fourth, John Stuart, of Glanderston.

And it is supposed two more sons, Alexander and Alan,

The daughters were.

First, Elizabeth, married to Archibald Earl of Argyle.

Second, Marion, married to Robert Lord Crichton, of San-
quhar, ancestor to the Earls of Dumfries.

Third, , married to Sir Murray, of TuUi-

bardin.

Fourth, Janet, married to Ninian Lord Ross.

Fifth, , married to Sir John Colquhoun, of Luss.

Matthew, eldest son, second Earl of Lennox, was slain at the
battle of Flodden-field, September gth, 1513. He married Eliza-
beth Hamilton, daughter of James Earl of Anan, by Lady Mary
Stuart, sister of King James ilL By her he had issue.

First, William, Master of Lennox, who married Lady Mar-
garet Graham, daughter of William Earl of Montrose, but died
without issue.

Second, John, his heir.

g Celebrated by Sir John Beaumont in his BattU of Bosivorth.



424 PEERAGE OF ENGLAND.

Thirdj Margaret, married to John Lord Fleming ; and after to
Alexander Douglas, of Mains.

Fourth, Elizabeth, married to Sir Hugh Campbell, of Lou-
doun, ancestor to the Countess of Loudoun.

Fifth, Agnes, wife of William Edmondston, of Duntreath,
and had issue.

Which JoHX, third Earl of Lennox, was appointed one of the
lords of the regency by King James V. anno 1524; but the Earl of
Angus taking upon himself the whole administration, and detain-
ing the young King upon the matter a prisoner, this Earl with
divers others of the nobility endeavouring his Majesty's enlarge-
ment, was slain in the attempt by Sir James Hamilton, at a con-
flict near Linlithgow bridge, on September 4th, 1526. '' By
Anne, his wife, daughter of John Steuart, Earl of Athol, he had.

First, Matthew, the next Earl,

Second, Robert, Bishop of Caithness, thereafter Earl of
Lennox.

Third, John, Lord d'Aubigny, who was captain of the Scots
gens d' arms, and governor of Avignon, of whom descended the
Dukes of Lennox.

Likewise a daughter, Helen, married first to Andrew, Earl of
Errol, and thereafter to John, Earl of Sutherland.

Matthew , fourth Earl of Lennox, like other great men of
that age, betook himself to arms, and served the crown of France
in the wars of Italy, where his gallant behaviour procured him a
very great name and reputation. He was always in very high
esteem with his own prince, King James V. for bis father's sake,
after whose death he was sent over from France, to prevent any
detriment to that crown by the minority of the young Queen ;
but being a frank and open-hearted person, he fell into the snare
laid by Cardinal Beaton, Bishop of St, Andrews, for him, and in
a little time lost the French King's favour ; and when it was come
to that pass, that he could neither stay at home, nor return to
France with safety, he went into England anno 1543, and put
himself under the protection of Henry VIH. who generously re-
ceived him into his favour, and gave him his neice. Lady Mar-
garet Douglas, in marriage, and an estate in England, to the value
of seventeen hundred merks sterling per annum, as an equivalent
for his own fortune, which was forfeited in Scotland ; and this

i> Memoirs of the affairs of Scotland MS. penes me Craufurd.



LORD STEWART. 425

agreement the Earl made with that Prince, that he should deliver
into his hands the castle of Dumbartoun, with the isle of Bute
and the castle of Rothesay, ' which though the Earl resolutely
undertook, yet the success did not answer. He lived at the court
of England till 1563, when he was called home by Queen Mary,
and his forfeiture repealed by act of parliament, after he had been
Banished from his country for twenty years.

His son Henry, Lord Darnley, soon followed him ; and being
a young nobleman of illustrious birth, extremely handsome, and
of a temper as well mixed as his outward proportions. Queen
Mary at first sight became so enamoured of him, that neither the
menaces of Queen Elizabeth, nor any other considerations, could
deter her from marrying him, when, to render him the titter
match for her, she raised him to the dignity of Duke of jillany.
After this, when he had not been above five months in Scotland,
and did not exceed his nineteenth year, she married him, and
with the consent of most of the peers declared him King, of
which happy marriage, upon June 19th, 1566, to the perpetual
advantage of all Britain, her Majesty was delivered of a son. King
James VI. first monarch of Great Britain.

But though the Queen's love to the Lord Darnley at first had
been very warm, yet it began soon afterwards as much to cool
towards him, the unkindness between them being chiefly foniented
by one David Rizio an Italian, her secretary for the French
tongue, which indignity the King revenged, by entering into the
cabal with those who contrived and murdered the poor old roan,
with circumstances that were not at all allowable ; and it is pro-
bable, that it was in resentment of Rizio's death, that the Earl of
Bothwel and others, officiously, as thinking it might gratify the
Queen, most inhumanly murdered this lovely Prince, in his own
lodgings as he lay abed, on February pth, 1567j though Both-
wel, who was the murderer, did maintain the Queen's innocency
to his last moments : and I think there was no other ground for
believing the Queen to be concerned in that foul action, but her
imprudent marrying that profligate person so soon thereafter, who,
by common fame, was reputed to be the murderer of her hus-
band.

Upon the death of King Henry, the Earl of Lennox, his father,
prosecuted the Earl of Bothwel as the regicide j but that Earl's
interest at court so overruled the jury, that he was formally ac-

• Rymer's Foedera Anglise.



426 PEERAGE OF ENGLAND.

quitted of all suspicion as well as action in the murder, which
Lennox was forced to acquiesce in^ and from that time forth he
lived in retirement till the death of the Earl of Murray the regent,
that he was unanimously chosen Regent to the young King, James
VL his grandson J which great trust he executed for thirteen
months, till he was murdered by a party of the Queen's friends,
on September4th, 1571.*^ He was interred in the chapel within
the castle of Stirling, with this inscription on his tomb :

Lo here a Prince and Potentate,

Whose Life to understand
"Was good, he Just and Fortunate,

Though from his Native Land
His Enemirs Thrice did him out-thring.

He Thrice return'd again ;
Was lawful Tutor to the King,

And Regent did remain.
While he with Rigor Rebels rackt.

They wrought his fatal End.
Lo this Respects the Death, no Might,

When God permits the Time :
Yet shall the Vengeance on them light

That wrought this cursed crime.

George Buchanan, his very humble servant, who had a great
attachment to his Lordship and his family, has left us the follow-
ing epitaph on the Regent, in a more polite strain :

Regis avus. Regis Pater, alto e sanguine Regum

Imperio quorum terra Britanna subest,
Matthaeus : genuit Levinia, Gallia fovit,

Pulso Anglus thalamum, renique decusque dedit.
Coepi invicta manu, famam virtute refelli,

Arma armis vici, consilioque dolos.
Gratus in ingratos, patriam justeque pieque

Cum regerem, hostili perfidia cecidi.
Care nepos, spes una domus, meliore senectam

Attingas fato, caetera dignus avo.

To Matthew Earl of Lennox, succeeded
^ Buckanan's History.



LORD STEWART. 427

Charles, his second son, fifth Earl of Lennox. He took to
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Cavendish, sister to the
Earl of Devonshire, by whom he had one dauort^ter.

Lady Arabella Stuart, who was married to William Marquis
of Hartford, but had no issue.

He died a young man at London, anno 15/6, where he was
interred with this inscription over his grave :

Hie situs est
Carolus Comes Lennoxiae qui duxit filiam Wil-
lielmi Cavendish Militis, ex qua cum ArabelJam
unicam filiam suscepisset, diem obiit anno aetatis
suae 21, et Salutis humanae 1576.

To Charles Earl of Lennox succeeded Robert, bishop of
Caithness, his uncle, sixth Earl. This noble person being at first
a younger brother, applied himself to learning, and devoting him-
self to the service of the church, entered young into orders. He
was elected bishop of Caithness, anno 1542 j' but taking part
with his brother, the Earl of Lennox, against the Earl of Arran, the
governor, he was forfeited, and lived mostly in exile, till, in 1563,
he returned to his native country, and concurred in reformino- the
church from the errors of popery, though not as a bishop, and
turned protestant himself. He did not long retain the title of
Earl of Lennox, but voluntarily resigned it in favour of Esme,
Lord d' Aubigny, his great nephew ; and in lieu thereof had the
style and title of Earl of March conferred on him by Kino- James
VI. his nephew^ together with the priory of St. Andrew's, which
he enjoyed till death took him away on August 2C)th, 15S6, "•
leaving no other issue than a natural daughter, Margaret, married
to Robert Algoe, of Easter Walkingshaw.

When Robert, Earl of Lennox, resigned the Earidom, as
before mentioned, his Majest}', King James VI. erected it into a
Duchy in favour of

Esme, Lord d' Aubigny, hh cousin, son and heir of John Lord
d 'Aubigny, brother of Matthew Earl of Lennox, who became
seventh Earl, and coming over from France anno 15/9, his Ma-
jesty, King James, embraced his Lordship with singular kindness,
admitted him into his inwardest councils, and made him Duke of
Lennox, and lord high chamberlain of Scotland, anno 15S0. This

1 Rymer's Foedera Anglias. ^ Spotiswood's Church Histary.



428 PEERAGE OF ENGLAND.

extraordinary favour of his with the King, procured him envy
from many vi^ho secretly muttered that he being a man most de-
voted to the Romish religion, was sent from France to subvert the
true religion j and that which increased the suspicion the more,
was, that he applied himself, and gave countenance to those who
were most in the interest of the King's mother; so that William
Earl of Govvrie, and others, employed all their wits to remove
him from the King, and thus they went to work.

The Duke having gone from Perth, where the King then lay,
to Edinburgh, to exercise his jurisdiction as chamberlain, Gowrie
and others taking the opportunity when he was out of the way,
invited the King to Ruthven castle, Gowrie's own house, and
there detained him against his will ; all his most faithful servants
they removed from him, constrained him to call home the Earl of
Angus and others from banishment, and to send Lennox back
again to France. The Duke being a man of a very mild spirit,
did for the public quiet's sake, and at the King's seeming persua-
sion (which they had forced him to use with him), return to
France, where, he soon after contracting sickness, died at Paris,
May 26th, 1583 : and at the point of death openly professed, as
he had done before, the protestant religion, confuting thereby
the malice of those who had falsely defamed him to be a papist.
He married Catherine, daughter of William Seigneur d' Antrague^
by whom he had.

First, Lodovick, Duke of Lennox.

Second, Esme, Lord d' Aubigny.

Third, Lady Henrietta, married to George, first Marquis of
Huntley, of whom his Grace the Duke of Gordon is descended.

Fourth, Lady Mary, second wife to John Earl of Mar, lord
high treasurer of Scotland in the reign of King James VI. of
which illustrious marriage the lineal heir is David Earl of Buchan

No sooner was the Duke of Lennox dead, but King James
called over from France

Lodovick, his son, second Duke, and in grateful remembrance
to the memory and merit of his father, gave him both the estate
and offices that had belonged to his ancestors, taking care like-
wise to have him educated according to his noble birth and for-
tune, and by degrees advanced him to honour and preferments, as
he grew in years. He was both high chamberlain and admiral of
Scotland when his Majesty sent him ambassador to France, anno
1601 ; in which negotiation he behaved very well, and to his
Majesty's satisfaction. Upon the Kings accession to the crown



LORD STEWART. 429

of England, his Grace accompanied his Majesty into that realm,
where he was hkewise made a peer, first by the title of Earl of
Newcastle, and thereafter raised to the honour of Duke of
Richmond, being likewise master of the household, first gentle-
man of the bed-chamber, and knight of the most noble order of
the Garter. He married, first, Sophia, daughter of William Earl
ofGowriej next, Jane, daughter of Sir Matthew Campbel, of
Lowdon ; and last of all, Frances, daughter of Thomas, Viscount
of Bindon of the kingdom of England, and dying without issue,
February 11th, l623, was interred at Westminster, where a
stately tomb was erected to his memory with this epitaph upon it :

Depositum illustri.ssimi et excellentissimi Principis Ludovici
Stuarti Esmei Leviniae Ducis filii, Joannis Propatrui serenissimi
Regis Jacobi Nepotis, Richmondiae et Levinise Ducis, Novi Cas-
telli ad Tinam, et Darnliae Comitis, &c. Magni Scotiae Camerarii
et Thalassiarche Haereditarii, sacri Palatii Jacobi Regis Senescalli,
Cubiculariorumque Principalium prinji, Regi a sanctioribus Con-
ciliis, sanct. Georgiani ordinis equ. Scoticorumque per Gallias
Cataphractorum Praefecti, viri excelsi ad omnia magna et bona
nati, ad meliora defuncti : vixit annos 4g, menses 4, dies 17.

To Ludovick, Duke of Lennox, succeeded

EsME, Lo7-d d' Aubigfiy, third Duke of Lennox, and second
Duke of Richmond. He had been created Eakl of March,
June 17th, 1620, and enjoyed the honour but a short time, his
death happening on February 14th, l624, leaving issue by Cathe-
rine, his wife, daughter and sole heir of Gervase, Lord Clifton of
Leigliton BromswoJd, in England.

First, James, his successor in the honour.

Second, George, Lord d'Aubigny, who lost his life in the
King's service at the battle of Keinton-, October 23d, 1642,
leaving issue by Frances, his wife, daughter of Theophilus Earl of
Suffolk, Charles, his son, who was honoured by King Charles I.
with the title of Earl of Lichfied, upon the demise of Bernard
Earl of Lichfield, his uncle; and a daughter Catherine, married
to Henry Lord O'Brian, son and heir of Henry Earl of Thomond,
of the kingdom of L-eland, by whom he had one daughter, Cathe-
rine, married to Edward Earl of Clarendon : from whom is de-
scended the present Earl of Darnhy, who thence inherits the
Bakony of Clifton.

Third, Etrnard, who had the command of the King's troop of



430 PEERAGE OF ENGLAND.

guards in the time of the civil war, and was slain fighting bravely
at the battle of Chester, 16*5, whom the Earl of Clarendon cha-
racterises thus; " He was," says he, " a very faultless young
man, of a most gentle, courteous, and affable nature, and of a
spirit and courage invincible ; whose loss," continues he, " all
men exceedingly lamented, and the King bore it with extraor-
dinary grief,"

Fourth, Lord John Stuart, who was general of the horse in
the King's service in the time of the civil war, being the third
brother of this illustrious family that sacrificed their lives in this
quarrel j for he was killed at the battle of Alresford, little more
than twenty-one years of age ; whose courage was so signal that
day, that too much, says an historian of that time, could not be
expected from it if he had outlived it, and he was so generally
beloved, that he could not but be very generally lamented.

Lady Elizabeth, his eldest daughter, was married to Thomas
Howard, Earl of Arundel.

Lady Anne, to Archibald Lord Angus, son and heir to Wil-
liam, first Marquis of Douglas.

Lady Frances, to Jerome Weston, Earl of Portland.

James, fourth Duke of Lennox , and third Duke of Rich-
mond, as he was of the noblest extraction, so his Majesty, King
Charles I. took great care of his education, and sent him to France,
Italy, and Spain, where he was created a Grandee of that king-
dom J " and as soon as he returned, though he was scarce twenty-
one years of age, made him a privy. counsellor : and as he had
many great offices by inheritance, so his Majesty, out of his abun-
dant kindness to him, made him master of the household, lord
warden of the cinque-ports, and knight of the most noble order
of the Garter.

When the war began in l642, he adhered to the King's in-
terest with signal fidelity and affection, and made so entire a re-
signation of himself to his Majesty, that he abhorred all artifices
to shelter himself from the prejudice of those, who, how powerful
soever, failed in their duty to the King, and therefore he was pur-
sued with all imaginable malice by them, as one that would have
no quarter ; and as he had received great bounties from the King,
so he sacrificed all he had to his service, as soon as his occasions
stood in need of it, and he lived with unspotted fidelity some years
after the murder of his master, and was suffered by those that

n Clarendon's History.



LORD STEWART. 431

then governed to pay that last duty to h\tn of putting him into his
grave, and died without the comfort of seeing the restoration of
the crown on March 30th, \655. " By iMary, daughter of George
Duke of Buckingham, his wife, he had

EsME, fifih Duke of Lennox, and fourth Duke of Rich-
mond, who succeeded him, and died in his minority, anno l66o-
and a daughter, Mary, married to Richard Butler, Earl of Arran,
of the kingdom of Ireland.

To Esme, Duke of Lennox, succeeded

Chakles Earl of Lichfield, his cousin-german, who thus
became fifth Duke of Richmond.

Being sent ambassador extraordinary from King Charles IL
to the crown of Denmark, his Grace died at Elseneur in that
kingdom, December 21st, 1672,? leaving no issue by Frances,
his wife, daughter of Walter Stuart, "Esq. son of Walter Lord
Blantyre, so that the honour of this princely family became ex-
tinct, and his great fortune and hereditary offices came to Kino-
Charles IL as his nearest heir male, the King's greatgrandfather's
father and the Duke's being two brothers."!



CASTELMILK BRANCH.

It has been already mentioned, that Sir John Stewart, of
Derneley, son of Sir Alexander Stewart and Dame Janet Keith,
lost his life at the siege of Orleans, 1428-9; and that he was an-
cestor of the Earls and Dukes of Lennox. It has been likewise
shewn that he had a brother,

o Dugdale's Baronage of England- P Ibid.

<l But his Majesty considering with what lustre and glory the house of
Lennox had shone in former timesi and that while the dignity was in his Ma-
jesty's own royal person, it was suppressed in the crown ; therefore, that the
honour might be again revived, and his Majesty having bestowed the estate of
Lennox upon the Lord Charles Lennox, one of his natural sons, whom he so
surnamed by Lovisa de Querovale, Duchess of Portsmouth, was pleased to
create him Duke of Lennox, Earl of Darneley, Lord Torboltoun, September
9th, 1675, and to the heirs male lawfully descending of his body. * Likewise
by other letter^ patent passed in England, August gth, 27 of King Charles II.
he was created Baron of Settrington, Earl of March, and Duke of Richmond,
and on April aoth, 1681, was installed Knight of the Garter.



Charta in publ- Arch.



432 PEERAGE OF ENGLAND.

Sir William Stewart, who lost his life in the same battle.
This William went to France with his brother, and during many
years distinguished himself in military exploits. See the circum-
stances of the death of these brothers related in a very interest-
ing manner in " Aurelice Urbis Anglicana Obsidio Autore Joanne
Lodocie MicfjueUo,'' 1560, l631, as extracted by Andrew Stuart,
p. 154, 155, 156, 157,

Sir William Stewart, of Castelmilke, is mentioned in Ryviers
Foedera in 1398, as one of the sureties given on the part of Scot-
land for the preservation of the peace of the western marches be-
tween England and Scotland.

Andrew Stuart has endeavoured, in a large mass of satisfac-
factory circumstantial evidence, to shew the identity of this last
mentioned Sir William Stewart with Sir William Stewart, the
brother of Sir John of Derneley, who was slain at Orleans. The
detail of his facts and arguments is too long to be inserted here :
and therefore whoever is curious about it, must refer to the book
itself. I here assume the fact of the identity, because the proofjf
are satisfactory to my own mind.

Sir William Stuart, of Castelmilk, left four sons.

Firt, David Stuart, of Castelmilk and Tunnart, living 1446;
who died before 1404, leaving a son Alexander, who was also
dead, before that year, without male issue.

Second, Archibald, who succeeded his nephew in the Castel-
milk estate. He left a son, William, who was in possession of
the Castelmilk estate before 1467, and died before 1470, leaving
a daughter, Elizabeth, who married Robert de Carrutbers.

Third, Matthew, of whom presently.

Fourth, Walter, of Arthurley, who in a charter from the
«rown in 1439, is described son of the deceased Sir William
Stuart, of Castelmilk, Knight.

Matthew Stuart, third son, succeeded his nephew William
in the Castelmilk estate. He died 1474, leaving two sons, Wil-
liam and John.

William Stuart, of Castelmilk, continued possessed of that
estate till his death in 1495. He left two sons, Alexander,
and John ; and a daughter, Marion, who married Alan Stuart, a
younger son of John Earl of Lennox.

Alexander Stuart, of Castelmilk, eldest son, was alive in
1512 J and is supposed to have died about 1523, or 1524. He
left two sons, Archibald and James.



I



LORD STEWART. 433

Archibald Stuart, of Castelmilk, eldest son, was alive ip.
1541 ; but died before July, 1543. He had a son and heir,

Archibald Stuart, the younger, of Castelmilk, who died
before his father, having married Margaret Maxwell j and leaving
issue.

First, David, of zuhom presently .

Second, Alexander, ofCraigs, tutor of Castelmilk, who left
three daughters, his' coheiresses.

Third, John, rector of the college of Glasgow from 1545 to
1550, who died without issue.

David Stuart, of Castelmilk, eldest son, appears to have died
cither in 1556', or early in 1557. He left two sons, Alan, and
Archibald.

First, Alan Stuart, eldest son, succeeded his father ; but died
without issue in 155/.

Second, Archibald Stuart, of Castelmilk, who died in lC)12_,
having married Janet Stuart, daughtei- of Sir John Stuart, of
Minto, and sister of Walter, first Lord Blantyrc: she died l6l3.
They had issue one son, Archibald, and four daughters ; Mar-
garet, married first to John Stuart, of Blackhall and Ardgowanj
and secondly, to Matthew Wallace, of Garscadden : Elizabeth,
wife of Alexander Cunningham, of Craig-ends ; Johanna, married
to John Wallace, of Cairnhillj and Mary, married to Nichol
-Cornwall, of Bonhard.

Sir Archibald Stuart, of Castelmilk, only son, died July



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