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inside, is able to pass the tip of her bill to receive food from the
male outside.

Another exceptional arrangement has been described by Schon-
land ; in this case the tree selected, a Euphorbia, was a hollow
chimney throughout its length, and at a convenient distance below
a natural crack, which was to serve as a feeding hole, a floor was
constructed upon which the eggs were laid ; while about three feet
above the feeding crack a ceiling was put in ; this latter being con-
structed of bits of an aloe stem glued together by cement ; thus the
hen bird is completely enclosed. There can be little doubt that the
cement used for plastering up the holes and forming the platforms
is chiefly composed of the droppings of the birds ; it usually contains
the wing cases and legs of insects such as form the greater part
of their food, and moreover, an examination of the contents of the
lower part of the intestines of a recently killed bird showed that
these much resembled the cement used. It is probable that both
male and female birds take part in the cementing process, though
observations are still required on this point.

The female before entering the nest begins to moult, and during
her imprisonment, which probably lasts seven or eight weeks, the
process continues, so that she is often helpless and unable to fly
when she comes out ; it does not appear to be true, however, that
she is weak and exhausted by her durance as she is generally found
to be very fat, and, moreover, the male is very assiduous in bringing
food constantly.

The eggs, three to four in number, are laid in December or
January and are pure white, rough, unpolished, and rather elongated:
One question not yet definitely settled is whether the female leaves
the nest before the young are fully fledged. Dr. Schonland thinks
that she does, as he has received late in the season two nests plas-
tered up and intact, both of which contained only young birds. This
is further corroborated by the observation of several people that they
have seen two birds flying away from one nest, and which were
supposed by them to be males, but which were probably a pair, the
young birds remaining imprisoned in the nest. It seems most



BUCEROTID] LOPHOCEROS 113

probable, therefore, that after the female has been released from
her imprisonment the young birds are again sealed up and fed by

both parents until they are able to take care of themselves.



429. Lophoceros monteiri. Monteiro's Hornbill.

Toccus monteiri, Hartlaub, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 87, pi. 5 ; Gurney in
Andersson' s B. Damaraland, p. 208 (1872) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's
B. S. Afr. p. 129 (1875) ; Elliot, Monog. Bucerot. pi. 53 (1877).

Lophoceros monteiri, Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 62; Grant, Cat. B. M.
xvii, p. 403 (1892) ; Shelley, B. Afr. i, p. 114 (1896).

Description. Adult male. Head, neck, throat and breast ashy-
black, slightly marked with white streaks on the occiput, and with
black centres to the feathers on the neck and breast ; mantle, back,
inner secondaries and wing-coverts brown, most of the latter
with rounded spots at the tips of the feathers giving the wings
a variegated appearance ; primary quills black with a few spots
of white, outer secondaries white ; the two pairs of central tail-
feathers dark ashy-black, the next pair white with black bases, the
two outer pairs wholly white ; below, from the breast downwards,
white.

Bill long and much curved, without definite indication of a
casque, yellowish-red, darkest towards the extremities of the
mandibles which are dark purple ; iris nut-brown ; legs and feet
brown-horn.

Length about 26; wing 8-5; tail 9-5; culmen 5-0 ; tarsus 1-9.
The female resembles the male but is distinguished by its much
smaller beak, measuring 3-5 to 4'0 along the culmen.

Distribution. This Hornbill was first obtained by Monteiro in
Benguela, whence it extends south of the Cunene into Damaraland,
where, however, it is not very common according to Andersson.
Definite localities are Otjimbinque (Andersson in Bt. Mus.), and
Omaruru in Ovampoland in February and November (Eriksson in
S. A. Mus.).

Habits. Mr. Andersson gives the following account. "This
bird is usually seen in pairs ; but occasionally half a dozen indi-
viduals may be found in close proximity to one another. It is a
shy and wary bird, and difficult to approach, except on hot days,
when it appears to suffer a good deal from the heat. About 8 or
9 o'clock in the morning it may often be observed quietly resting on
the top of a tree ; and it will also perch in such situations at other
8 VOL. in.



114 BUCEEOTID^E LOPHOCEEOS

times when alarmed, but takes its departure again on the least sign
of danger. It seldom flies far at a time, but if closely pressed extends
its flight each time it is dislodged and soon distances its enemy.
The flight of this and other Hornbills is not unlike that of a Wood-
pecker, dipping and rising alternately. The present species feeds
on flowers, young shoots, berries, birds' eggs and insects ; and, in
fact, little comes amiss to it. I have found much gravel in the
stomach, and have often flushed it from the ground, to which it
resorts for the purpose of picking up sand as well as food."



430. Lophoceros epirhinus. South African Grey Hornbill.



Buceros epirhinus, Sundev. Ofvers. K. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1850, p. 108
(1851).

Buceros nasutus, Ayres (nee Linn.}, Ibis, 1871, p. 260 [Limpopo] ;
1879, p. 294 [Eustenburg].

Tockus nasutus, Gurney in Anderssorfs B. Damar aland, p. 206 (1872) ;
Buckley, Ibis, 1874, p. 365 [Bamangwato] ; Sharpe, ed.Layard's B.
S. Afr. p. 133 (1875).

Lophoceros nasutus, Elliot, Monog. Bucerot. pi. 47 (1877).

Lophoceros epirhinus, Holub & Pelz. Orn. Siid-Afrikas, p. 140
(1882) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 64 ; Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 408
(1892) ; Shelley, B. Afr. i, p. 498 (1896) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 498
[Zululand] ; Woodward Bros. Natal B. p. 100 (1899) ; Alexander,
Ibis, 1900, p. 101 [Zambesi] ; Marshall, ibid. p. 249 [Mashonaland] .

Description. Adult male. Head dark ashy with black shaft-
streaks bordered on either side by a broad white eyebrow ; mantle,
back, wings and tail brown ; an ill-defined pale central streak down
the middle of the back ; wing-coverts and secondaries edged with
pale buffy- white on both webs, primaries on the outer web only ;
central pair of tail feathers not tipped with white, outer pair
slightly, others strongly so tipped ; below, dark ashy with black
shaft stripes on the throat, cheeks and ear-coverts gradually fading
on the lower breast to pure white on the abdomen and lower tail-
coverts ; bill with a small but well-developed casque separated at
its tip from the upper mandible and obtusely pointed ; the edges of
both mandibles scalloped ; colour black, a pale yellow streak on the
upper mandible above the cutting edge and three or four narrow
diagonal yellow lines on the lower mandible.

Iris reddish-brown ; legs and feet black.



BUCEROTID^E LOPHOCEROS 115

Length about 18'0 ; wing 8-3 ; tail 8'0 ; culmen with casque 3-1,
without 1-25 ; tarsus 1-25.

A female is similar in plumage but slightly smaller (wing 7*5) ;
the bill also is smaller ; there is no casque, the distal portion is red,
the base of the upper mandible pale yellow, the lower, black with
three diagonal yellow streaks.

In a young bird the upper mandible is tawny-white except the
tip, which with the lower mandible is reddish-brown (Ayres).

Distribution. The type of this species was obtained by the
Swedish traveller Wahlberg in lat. 24 S., probably in the neighbour-
hood of the upper Limpopo, as the bird is not found south of the
Vaal river. It is spread through the bush country of the Transvaal
to Damaraland, Mashonaland and Zululand. North of our limits
it extends to Angola, Nyasaland and German east Africa. It is
replaced in west and north-east Africa by a very closely-allied
species, which only differs in being without the casque on the beak.

The following are recorded localities : Zululand Ulundi
(Woodward) ; Transvaal Lydenburg dist. (Francis in S. A. Mus.),
Kustenburg (Ayres) ; Bechuanaland Kanye (Exton), Mangwato,
(Buckley) ; Ehodesia Victoria Falls (Holub), Mashonaland
common (Marshall) ; German south-west Africa Ovanquenyama,
Ondonga, and Otjimbinque (Andersson in Bt. Mus.' and S. A.
Mus.), Sesheke (Holub) ; Portuguese east Africa Zambesi, rare
(Alexander).

Habits. The Grey Hornbill is usually found in small companies
of about half a dozen birds ; it roosts at night and rests during the
day in large trees if they are available, and usually selects a branch
for this purpose about half-way up rather than one of the topmost
ones. Its flight is a dipping one, consisting of alternate periods of
rising with flapping wings, and a floating through the air without
movement of the wings. This bird feeds on fruits, seeds, young
shoots, as well as on insects of all sorts, and often descends to the
ground, probably to get the insect portion of its meals. It has
a shrill mewing cry, generally heard when on the wing ; Ayres states
that it has also a sweet song like that of a thrush, but it seems
probable that Ayres was mistaken in this matter. Andersson states
that in common with the rest of the genus it appears to suffer very
much from heat during the most trying season of the year, when
it may be found perching at noon in the shadiest part of the forest
gasping as if for breath. No observations have hitherto been made
on its nesting habits.



116 BUCEROTID^E LOPHOCEROS



431. Lophoceros erythrorhynchus. Red-billed Hornbill.

Le Toe, Levaill. Ois. dAfr. v, p. 122, pi. 238 [Senegal].

Buceros erythrorhynchus, Temm. PL Col. ii, sp. 19 (1823) ; Ay res,
Ibis, 1869, p. 296 [Limpopo] .

Tockus erythrorhynchus, Livingstone, Missionary Travels, p. 613
(1857) ; Kirk, Ibis, 1864, p. 327 [Zambesi] ; Gurney in Andersson's
B. Damaraland, p. 211 (1872) [in part] ; Buckley, Ibis, 1874, p. 365
[Semokwe river] ; Sharpe, ed. LayanVs B. S. Afr. p. 131 (1875) ;
Elliot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. 56 (1878) ; Holub & Pelz. Orn. Siid-
Afrihas, p. 141 (1882) ; Ayres, Ibis, 1886, p. 289 [Limpopo] ;
Bryden, Gun and Camera, p. 71 (1893).

Lophoceros erythrorhynchus, Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 65 ; Grant, Cat.
B. M. xvii, p. 409 (1892) ; Shelley, B. Afr. i, p. 115 (1896) ; Alexan-
der, Ibis, 1900, p. 101 (Zambesi).

" Korwe " of the Bechuanas (Livingstone).

Description. Male. Crown of the head dark ashy-grey, lores
and eyebrow white with dark shafts ; ear-coverts, sides of the face
and neck white edged with grey, nape and a stripe from the nape
to the centre of the back white, lower back, tail-coverts, secondaries
and wing-coverts- brown, the latter with conspicuous white spots at
the tips of the feathers ; primaries very dark brown, spotted with
white on the inner and outer web except the first two and eighth,
which are spotted on the outer web only ; outer secondaries brown
with increasing amounts of white on both webs ; central pair of tail-
feathers dark brown, second pair black, third and fourth pair with
the basal half black the terminal half white, fifth pair white except
for a trace of brown at base ; below, including the under wing- and
tail-coverts white, throat very thinly covered with feathers showing
the bare skin.

Iris light yellow ; bill with no trace of a casque, red, at the base
of the lower mandible black ; naked skin round the eye and on the
throat yellow ; legs and feet dark brown.

Length 18'5 ; wing 7-5 ; tail 8'2 ; culmen 3-6 ; tarsus 1-6.

The female is slightly smaller and has a shorter bill.

Distribution. The Bed-billed Hornbill is widely spread over
Africa from the Gambia and Abyssinia southwards to the Zambesi ;
within our limits it is found in the extreme north of German south-
west Africa in Ovampoland, in Matabeleland, the Bechuanaland Pro-
tectorate and the western Transvaal and along the Zambesi valley,
but not, so far as is now known, in Mashonaland or the eastern
Transvaal.



BUCEROTIDJE LOPHOCEROS 117

The following are recorded localities : Transvaal Eustenburg dis-
trict (Ayres) ; Bechuanaland Kolobeng near Kanye (Livingstone) ;
Ehodesia Tati river (Holub), Semokwe river between Tati and
Bulawayo (Buckley) German south-west Africa Ondonga and
Elephant Vley (Andersson inBt. Mus.); Portugese east Africa Tete
(Kirk in Bt. Mus.) and Chicowa (Alexander), both on the Zambesi.

Habits. These birds are found in small flocks and are shy and
wary. . Alexander states that they resort to the river (Zambesi)
every morning and evening, retiring to spend the middle of the day
in thick shade as they appear to dislike the heat very much. Their
flight is characteristic. A few rapid beats of the primaries and then
follows a long glide through the air without the slighest motion of
the wings ; each flight is always directed straight towards the tree
for which the bird is making. They feed like other hornbills on
both fruits and insects, and in the winter time when fruit is scarce
have been noticed by Ayres digging in the ground for bulbous roots
along the banks of the Limpopo, in company with Francolins,
Babblers and Spreuws.

Dr. Livingstone first described the breeding habits of this Horn-
bill ; he noticed it nesting in holes in mopani and other trees, both
at Kolobeng, a mission station in what is now the Bechuanaland
Protectorate, and during his journey down the Zambesi. From his
account it does not appear that the Bed-billed Hornbill differs
essentially from the Crowned Hornbill in this respect.



432. Lophoceros damarensis. Damaraland Hornbill.

Buceros erythrorhynchus (nee Temm.), Layard, B. S. Afr. p. 227

(1867).
Tockus erythrorhynchus, Gurney in Andersson's B. Damaraland,

p. 211 (1872) (in part).
Lophoceros damarensis, Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 66 ; Grant, Cat.

B. M. xvii, p. 411, pi. xiv (1892) ; Shelley, B. Afr. i, p. 115 (1896).

Description. Closely resembling L. erythrorhynchus, except that
the head and neck are pure white without any admixture of grey
and the crown has some blackish-grey feathers mixed with the
white.

Length 19-0; wing7'9; tail 8-0 ; tarsus 1-7; culmen 3-35.

Distribution. This species replaces the L. erythrorhynchus in
Damaraland proper, the latter occurring only in Ovampoland. The
type obtained by Anderssou now in the British Museum is from



118 BUCEROTID.E LOPHOCEROS

Otjimbinque ; other localities are Schmelen's Hope (Andersson in
Bt. Mus.) and Omaruru, whence the South African Museum pos-
sesses three examples procured by Mr. A. W. Eriksson.



433. Lophoceros leucomelas. Yellow-billed Hornbill.



Buceros leucomelas, Licht. Verz. Sailgeth. u. Vb'g. p. 17 (1842).

Buceros flavirostris (nee Eiipp.}, Ayres, Ibis, 1871, p. 260 ; 1879,
p. 295 [Magaliesberg] .

Tockus flavirostris, Gurney in Anderssori 's B. Damaraland, p. 210
(1872) ; BucUey, Ibis, 1874, p. 365 ; Shelley, Ibis, 1875, p. 82
[Natal] ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. 8. Afr. pp. 130, 808 (1875-84) ;
Elliot, Monogr. Bucerot. pi. li (1877) ; Gates, Matabeleland, p. 304
(1881) ; Holub & Pelz. Orn. Siid-Afrikas, p. 141 (1882).

Lophoceros leucomelas, Shelley, Ibis, 1888, p. 67 ; Grant, Cat.
B. M. xvii, p. 414 ; Shelley, B. Afr. i, p. 115 (1896) ; Sharpe, Ibis,
1897, p. 498 ; Woodivard Bros. Natal Birds, p. 100 (1899) ;
Alexander, Ibis, 1900, p. 102 [Zambesi] ; Marshall, ibid. p. 250
[Mashonaland] .

" Mkoto " in the eastern Transvaal (Francis).

Description. Adult male. Crown of the head ashy-black with
black streaks ; lores, eyebrows, sides of the head and neck pearly-
grey with fine black shaft-lines ; mantle and back brownish-black,
with a white stripe down the centre of the upper half ; wing-coverts
like the back, with large rounded spots towards the tips of the
feathers ; primary quills black, with a small white spot on the
outer web of the third to seventh; the first four secondaries are
black, the fifth is edged with white, the sixth and seventh are
almost entirely white, the others brown with a white edging ; the
two pairs of central tail-feathers are black throughout, the third
pair with the terminal third only white, the fourth and fifth with
the increasing amount of white, with sometimes traces of a black
cross band ; below, the few feathers on the throat are grey, the
breast is also grey, with very distinct black streaks on the sides of
the feathers, the lower breast and rest of the under parts pure
white.

Iris yellowish-white ; bill, without defined casque, yellow ; along
the cutting edges of the mandibles and at the tip dark purplish-
red ; naked skin round the eye and on the throat dark pink (yellow
in the dried skin).

Length about 19'0; wing 7-4 ; tail 8-1 ; culmen 3-1 ; tarsus 1-8,



t ^



BUCEEOTID^E LOPHOCEROS 119

The female resembles the male, but is smaller, wing 6-6 ;
culmen 2-75. Immature birds are darker than the adults.

Distribution. This species is confined to Africa south of the
Zambesi, being replaced north of that river by the closely- allied
L. flavirostris, distinguished by its black-shafted breast feathers.
It is spread over Natal, the bush country of the Transvaal,
Bechuanaland, Mashonaland and Damaraland, but is stated to
be rare in the Zambesi valley by Alexander. The following are
recorded localities : Natal east of Umgeni Eiver (Shelley), Ulundi
in Zululand (Woodward) ; Transvaal Lydenburg Bush Country
(Francis in S. A. Mus.), Rustenburg district (Ayres) ; Bechuana-
land Molopo river (Exton in S. A. Mus.), Kanye (Exton in
Bt. Mus.), and Macloutsie river (Gates) ; Ehodesia Salisbury
district (scarce, Marshall) ; German south-west Africa Otjim-
binque, Schmelen's Hope and Great Namaqualand (Andersson in
Bt. Mus.), Omaruru (Eriksson in S. A. Mus.) ; Portuguese east
Africa Zambesi valley, rare (Alexander).

Habits. Mr. Andersson states as follows : " This species is the
most common of the Hornbills in middle and southern Damaraland.
It is found singly or in pairs, and being a comparatively fearless
bird is easily killed, especially during the heat of the day, when
it invariably perches on or near the top of a lofty tree, and will
remain for hours in this situation, keeping up, with short inter-
missions, a kind of subdued chattering note of ' toe toe toe, tocky
tocky tocky toe,' in a tone not unlike the yelping of young puppies,
and accompanied at intervals by a flapping and raising of its wings
and an alternate lowering and erecting of its head."

Like other Hornbills it feeds on fruits and seeds, as well as
insects, and Mr. Marshall especially remarks on the way it opens
the huge pods of a large leguminous tree with its very powerful
bill

Mr. Eriksson's note book gives the following details about the
breeding habits of this bird on the Limpopo river, near its junction
with the Marico, in what forms part of the Rustenburg district of the
Transvaal : " November 27. A bushman brought a hen bird with
one egg ; shortly afterwards she laid another, the first was white,
covered all over with a light brown stain ; the second was covered
with blood, which was drying up, but came off by washing. I
could not wash the first egg white. The nest, as usual, was in a
hollow tree, and although it only contained one egg the male had
masoned up the entrance, only leaving a small hole through which to



120 TROGONID^I

feed his mate. The female had not yet lost any of her wing or tail-
feathers. November 28. One of my herds brought another female
Hornbill with two eggs ; she had lost all her quills and tail-feathers,
and the new ones were about an inch long ; eggs much incubated.
December 13. Some bushmeii came to-day with three females,
two eggs and six young birds, the mother of the two eggs still
retained her tail and wing-quills, although the eggs were partially
incubated, but the other two had moulted, and while the young
feathers of the tails were about half an inch in length nothing could
be seen of those of the wings."



Suborder IV. TROGONES.

Two toes (third and fourth) forwardly, two (first and second)
backwardly directed ; of the deep plantar tendons the anterior, the




4th
FIG. 38. Left foot of Hapaloderma narina, toes numbered, x \.

flexor perforans digitorum, supplies the third and fourth toes, the
posterior, the flexor longus hallucis, supplies the first and second,
and the two tendons are connected by a vinculum (fig. 2, p. 2) ;
palate schizognathous (fig. 4, p. 4) ; the spinal feather tract is defined
from the neck to the oil gland and is not forked ; the oil gland is
nude ; caeca are present ; the ambiens muscle is absent.



Family I. TROGONIDJE.

The characters of this, the only family, are included in those of
the suborder.



TROGONID^ HAPALODERMA 121

The members of this family are chiefly found in tropical
America. One genus is widely spread over the Oriental region,
and another throughout the Ethiopian.



Genus I. HAPALODERMA.

Type. '
Apaloderma, Swains. Class. B. ii, p. 337 (1837) ............ H. narina.

Hapaloderma, Agass. Index Universal, p. 172 (1846) ...... H. narina.

Bill stout and short, edge of the upper mandible usually toothed,
nostrils concealed by the overhanging bristles ; face feathered ; tail
of twelve feathers long and graduated, the three central feathers
purplish or greenish, without subterminal black bars.

This genus, containing three species only, is confined to Africa
south of the Sahara.






434. Hapaloderma narina. Narina Trogon.



Couroucou navina, Levaill. Ois. d'Afr. v, p. 104, pis. 228-9 (1806).

Trogon narina, Stephens, Gen. Zool. ix, p. 14 (1815); Grill, K. Vet.
AJfad. Handl. ii, no. 10, p. 44 (1858) [Knysna].

Apaloderma narina, Siva ins. Class. B. ii, p. 337 (1837) ; Layard, B. S.
Afr. p. 61 (1867) ; Holub & Pelzeln, Orn. Siid-Afrikas, p. 62 (1882).

Hapaloderma narina, Kirk, Ibis, 1864, p. 323 [Zambesi] ; Verreaux,
P. Z. S. 1871, p. 41 ; Gurney, Ibis, 1873, p. 254 [Durban] ; Shelley,
Ibis, 1875, p. 68 [Durban] ; Gould, Monogr. Troaons, 2nd ed.
pi. 34 (1875) ; Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. p. 106 (1875) ; Grant,
Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 477 (1892); Kendall, Ibis, 1896, p. 167 [Barber-
ton] ; Shelley, B. Afr. i, p. 108 (1896) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1897, p. 497
[Zululand] ; Woodward Bros. Natal B. p. 102 (1899).

" Bosch-Lourie " of Dutch, " Umjenimengu " of Zulus.

Description. Adult male. Head, chest, back and upper wing-
coverts green with a metallic gloss, outer greater-coverts dark
brown edged with green, inner ones and inner secondaries delicately
vermiculated with black and white ; primary quills black, margined
on the outer web with white, tail-feathers bluish-green, the three
outer pairs largely white for their distal halves; below from the
breast to the under tail-coverts bright crimson ; sides of the body
and thighs ashy-grey.

Iris hazel ; bill light ash ; legs and feet dark flesh.

Length 11-5 ; wing 5-0 ; tail 6-5 ; culmen 0-6; tarsus 0-5.

The female differs from the male in having the forehead, sides of



122 TROGONID^] HAPALODERMA

the head, throat and chest a yellowish-brown instead of green,
shading on the lower breast through lilac to carmine on the
abdomen ; iris brown, bill dark brown on the upper mandible and
base of the lower, rest yellow ; wing 4-80.

In young birds the vermiculations of the inner secondaries are
spread over a considerable portion of the wings ; the breast is also
transversely barred with dusky.

Distribution. This Trogon was first discovered by Levaillant in
the forests of Outeniqua and along the Gamtoos river, now in the
districts of Knysna and Humansdorp of the Colony. From here it
is spread along the more wooded parts of the Colony, Natal and
Zululand, extending through Nyasaland and German east Africa to




FIG. 39. Hapaloderma narina.



southern Abyssinia. On the west coast it reappears in Angola,
though not hitherto recorded from German south-west Africa.

The following are localities : Cape Colony Knysna (Victorin),
Peddie (S. A. Mus.), Port St. John's (S. -A. Mus.) ; Natal near
Durban (Ayres), Pinetown (Shelley), Echowe and Umgoye in
Zululand (Woodward) ; Portuguese east Africa Zambesi valley,
scarce (Kirk) ; Rhodesia Junction of Chobe and Zambesi (Holub).

Habits. The Narina, so called by Levaillant after a Hottentot
beauty for whom he professed great admiration, is found only in
thick bush, where it creeps about or sits motionless and voiceless in
a very upright position with its head closely drawn down on to its
shoulders ; it is usually solitary though two or three birds may now
and then be found together. Its note to which it only gives vent
during the breeding season is loud, monotonous and mournful, and
is also somewhat ventriloquial, so that although the bird may be



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