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10

Lesson IV.

INVERSIONS OF THE DOMINANT SEVENTH IN EXERCISES.

The following bass

866

rr_\.

14.



32




is here harmonized for the guidance of the pupil. It
should be caref ully analyzed before the lesson is written.




15.



r



IT

866



3 2



B



przptj




11



Before beginning to harmonize an exercise, the student
should study its characteristics and try to plan the leading
of the voices to the best advantage. It was seen that the
bass given above (14) begins rather low and makes a
gradual ascent through more than an octave. This sug-
gested a rather high soprano, and this in turn almost
required the open position, since it would be in poor taste
to make the tenor begin on so high a tone as one lined A.
When the bass reaches the upper part of the staff through
an interesting upward progression, the soprano has come
gradually downward until the parts are in close position.

At A, the binding tone is given up. This was not neces-
sary, but was permitted as an exception to the rule, making
the soprano more melodious.

At B, the third of the tonic chord is doubled in the
soprano and tenor ; and at C, in the soprano and bass. It
should be observed that if the voices which double the
third progress degreewise through it in contrary motion,
the effect is beyond criticism, No. 16, a. In this manner
even the Leading Tone may be correctly doubled, No. 16. 6.




Good. Good. Good.

EXERCISES.
66 32 6




12



fc. 4

E 32 6 3



6 6

5 47






c.



26366



6

487



d. 6

3 5



4 6

266 36647









e. 4

33662 6 326

, -I U r



ta=



6
5



2 6



687
4



f. V$ Ie II 6 Va I V 2 I 6









V 6 V 2 I 6 II 6 If V8 7

_ , _ 1P



:



2 ,5



13

Lesson V.

INVERSIONS OF THE DOMINANT SEVENTH IN EXERCISES
IN MINOR.



The following soprano



VII06



18.



te_(gizz3:_E_^~~"f E

Ez



m=t



'& -&-



i
:::



Ij V8 7



- * i F-i^ 1 - F~2?~33

-I 1 1 L_ i 1 1 BC IJ

" tZZzE ~ L~^ 1 1 JJ



is harmonized here to illustrate the application of the fig-
uring.



V 6



VII 06 I 6



19.



-fc-'zi- 1 Vr^' \~&- i h -^

pb~ ^ - F^- -E==i

N " v -^i ' i^^f

j j. '



- r j-



&-



-75 &

f=f



-^ si ^ q



- L - S* i ^=^L_| ft L- & l-i




14

A dash after a numeral indicates that the root of the
chord does not change, although the melody may move to
another tone. For example, in the first measure, the sec-
ond note is a part of the chord, in the second measure the
quarter note adds the seventh to the dominant triad, and
in the sixth measure the second and fourth quarter notes
are passing notes not affecting the harmony, but giving the
melody a more flowing character.

Consecutive fifths in the order, diminished to perfect, as
at A, are used by the best writers. The student should ob-
serve that the chords are in their first inversion. These
fifths may not appear between the bass and any upper
voice.

At B, the harmony is the same throughout the measure.
All the voices may move freely to new positions in one and
the same chord, there being no real necessity for a binding
tone except when one chord progresses to another.



EXERCISES.




15



d.



VJ V 6 Vf V 7




VI iv V 2 i 6 i iioe if V 7




Commit No. 21 to memory and play in every minor key.




{?




1 1


_L

-p :r~


53




3




6

4


7
t|



Lesson VL

THE TRIAD ON THE LEADING TONE.

The triad on the leading tone is a dissonant or tendency
chord, and like all such chords it requires resolution. The
dissonant tones are the fifth and the root, and neither of
these tones can progress by a skip, but must resolve degree-
wise. The chord generally appears in its first inversion
&nd resolves to the tonic triad. The root (Leading Tone)



16

is almost never doubled, and ascends one degree. The
5fth resolves one degree either upward or downward, de-
pending largely upon the position of the other parts. For
the sake of making the following triad complete, the fifth
often ascends, (see a and c) but at the same time the pro-
gression at 6 is quite correct. When the fifth is doubled,
one of these fifths ascends and the other descends, (d, e,f.).
The third being dissonant to neither of the other tones is
free to progress degreewise in either direction or even to
move by a skip if the succession of chords demands it, as
at g. When the diminished triad is in its second inversion,
it has all the characteristics of the dominant seventh chord
in its V 2 position and the bass (fifth of the triad) must re-
solve downward as at h.



22.




vn I



h.




17

COVERED FIFTHS.

Covered Fifths occur when two voices, which are either
more or less than a fifth apart, progress in the same direc-
tion to a fifth. 23 A. No brief rule can be given for the
treatment of covered fifths, but the following principles
may be set forth : the terms lower voice and upper voice
referring to the voices which make the covered fifth.

1. Covered Fifths are permitted when the upper voice
progresses a major or minor second, B.

2. Good, when the lower voice progresses upward a
minor second, C.

3. Poor, when the lower voice progresses a major
second, D.

4. When both voices progress by a leap, usually poor,
but sometimes good, E.

a. b. c. d. e.



23. <




Covered fifths. Good. Good. Poor. Bad. Good,
f. g. h. i. k.




7 *~& u & ci^~g-.p <g '^7~F~ z? ~ z? ~T'~ ?:; '^ gr ~ : 1

"^"t/CT^ |~UJ^\ ^^



Covered octaves. Bad. Bad. Bad. Good.

COVERED OCTAVES.

Covered Octaves occur when two voices which are either
more or less than an octave apart progress in the same
direction to an octave. 23 F. See rules, P. 18.



18

1. In general. Covered Octaves are permitted when the
upper voice progresses a degree and the lower voice a
fourth, or more, except in the progression to V, as at G.
Avoided by the rule of contrary motion Part I, p. 31.

2. With upper voice progressing one degree and the lower
progressing a third, always bad. Avoided by the rules for
resolving the Dominant Seventh Chord, Part II, p. 2.

3. With upper voice progressing upward a fourth and
the lower voice a minor second to a root, good. K. But
in this progression if the lower voice progresses a major
second, instead of a minor, the result is bad. I. Compare
especially I and K.

4. Both voices progressing by leap, bad.

The above is presented here more for matter of reference
than of immediate need. All of Part I is supposed to be
done with no reference to covered octaves or fifths^ And
even from now onward the observance of the general prin-
ciples as laid down will be the best guide to good writing.



a.



EXERCISES.

V K V?




c.



V V,






d. i



Ve







h-r I-



<s H i- ^}-

g-F-^r flsF



- G>



e. i



VeVs



- <> _ m & m r _
~ f> I



Lesson VII.

MODULATION TO NEARLY- RELATED KEYS.
Modulation is a change of key without a break i eithei
the melody or chord succession.
Nearly related keys may follow closely upon each other:



! r -h ~ ZrCLZJ~Ll




I C major. I C major.



b.



I i i 1 _|_L J !l i _,_

i^PI ^*i 3E^^E5=



T- -f
J i J.



^ J-



C major.



" . I i . A minor.



I ez

TT r r



i__ia.._;_ j_



E - t t-s ^=
__ t ._-= =




Commit No. 28, a, to memory and play it in every major
key.



21

Modulations of this kind are of common occurrence, es-
pecially in the choral, or hymn tune, where a cadence
(more or less complete) is required at the end of each line.
The new key is not especially emphasized, and while one
line of the choral may close in this new key, as in No. 25, a,
the succeeding line may resume the original key immed-
iately, if the melody is suited to such a progression. Mod-
ulations of a more pronounced or complete character and
those which lead to keys less closely related will be treated
in a later lesson.

The pupil should study the exercises before he begins to
harmonize them and decide whether they cadence in a new
key or not. In most cases a melody which ought to be
treated as modulating will make an unsatisfactory progres-
sion if forced to remain in the original key. For example,
compare the first line of No. 25. a, with the same line har-
monized as follows:



Poor. For correction
see No. 25, a.




The comparison should be made at the piano and the
pupil should see that the solution which modulates, or ca-
dences, in the key of G is the more natural and consequently
the one to be preferred.



22
EXERCISES.



27.



i



b.



^-:=^




~f^
:t=t=



m - Tgi



a.






"



e.



jg : h^r



="f^ ^



I L



<S> pa 1



23



Lesson VIII.

The exercises in this lesson all modulate, and the pupil
should harmonize them with reference to the principles
already presented. Simple part writing in the first key
and then simple part writing m the new key is all that is
necessary, the point where the new key enters being com-
mon ground. This is not a difficult exercise if the student
will play over his solutions and study their musical effects,
Such progressions as are demanded in these studies are to
be found in any book of chorals or hymn tunes, and no
student of music need be unfamiliar with them. To those
who have difficulty in finding musical solutions, it is
recommended that they study the chorals of any good col-
lection with especial reference to these cadences at the ends
of the lines. These should be played and listened to until
the effect of the various cadences becomes thoroughly
familiar.



EXERCISES.



DV,



24



b.



__ _ __ __ -.

a . cr: __ i - - L



i __



p _



c. Hymn Tune, 7



6 6






6 7



vi in G



4 -



e. Hymn Tune. 6



6 7
6 4 JJ






25



Lesson IX.

MODULATION THROUGH THE USE OF THE DOMINANT
SEVENTH CHORD.

The dominant seventh is one of the chords most used for
modulation because it admits of no ambiguity of key.
To illustrate : the dominant seventh figgS-Ed cannot belong
(as a diatonic chord) to any key with more than one sharp
because it contains c &, and it is in no key which does not
contain f 8 . This locates it in G major (or g minor), and
the chord to which it resolves sounds like a tonic. This
may be seen by comparing the following :



29,




C I



C I GV?



At o, the triad on G sounds like the dominant of C major;
but at 6, through the introduction of the dominant seventh
chord, the triad on G becomes a tonic chord. To fully
establish a modulation of this kind, a closing cadence must
be added.



Major Key to Dominant Major*



Closing Cadence.
L _L



30.







C I GV? I IV 12 V? I

Minor Key to Dominant Minor*



Closing Cadence.




o i g V| i

Commit the two models, No. 30, to memory and play them,
beginning in every key, both major and minor.

In making a modulation as in No. 30, the dominant
seventh chord may be taken in any of its inversions.
(See No. 31.)

a. b.




27




Write No. 31 in every major and minor key.

NOTE. Avoid the skip of an augmented interval in any Toice ; change
to diminished by inversion. Thus 32 a is corrected at 32 6.



82.




Not.



Correction.



The exercises in this lesson all modulate through the use
of the dominant seventh chord. They are figured as little
as possible. The student should keep in mind what
material is at his disposal, and with this material he
should seek to write only musical solutions. In using the
inversions which are permitted him, he should remember
that the bass in an inverted chord is quite as much bound
to move degreewiee as is the case with an upper part, ex-
cept in the six-four chord at the close where it may skip
the octave, preferably downward.



28



EXERCISES.
Model.



33.



f~T



-s>-



ffrrrf
-j-j- j-*-*-. 1 -



**




a.



b.



-* "-



1 #* (5



1



C.



te-i I 1 ' l-Ezt^F-rE=bt:^rr



Lesson X.

Commit to memory No. 35 and play it in every major key.

'



35.



A J -

-*-



: ?=F=f :



^



a^_J_l_i



=t



J_iL_i



I V i IV la IV



29



=r?=ir;-
i: f 9\ ~i~ * f



I I i I I

9. J. A. JL



1 in



=



a.



36.



EXERCISES.



Hymn Tune.

b. 8 7



6
6 5






-H P-



6 7
65 65



66 47



30
c. 3 7 66626



gig^ijg=^^r^ *> Ft^FF^^-u ri



64 6

5 3 63 32 6 47






d.



cilz:~ cZ: ^ c




31



Lesson XI.

THE SECONDARY SEVENTH CHORDS IN THE MAJOR KEY.
In addition to the Primary Chord of the Dominant Sev-
enth, Secondary Seventh chords are formed upon each of
the remaining degrees of the scale as follows :



% &. %. : __5-_ si"




The chords, I 7 and IV 7 are major triads with a major
seventh ; n 7 , in 7 and vi 7 , minor triads with a minor sev-
enth ; and vn 07 , a diminished triad with a minor seventh.
It should be observed that none of these is like the domi-
nant eleventh chord, which always consists of a major triad
with a minor seventh.

THE CHORD OP THE SEVENTH ON THE SUPERTONIC.
Of these secondary seventh chords, the one on the Super-
tonic (u 7 ) is the most important. Its regular resolution is
effected in nearly the same manner as that of the domi-
nant seventh. The seventh and the fifth each descend one
degree, and the root, when in the bass ascends a fourth or
descends a fifth, or when in any other part, it remains as a
binding tone. The third ascends one degree if the bass
descends, as at A ; descends two degrees if the bass as-
cends, as at B ; or remains stationary when the succeeding
chord appears as_a dominant seventh, as at C.



38.




n 7 V



V ii 7 V 7



32

Like the dominant seventh, this chord has three inver-
sions all of which are available.



39.



& st



.^ a.



ETI g =3]

~~b^rgf ^ y I"!

Ins



EzEE



C ng V n$ V ii 2 VB

One of these inversions, the chord of the Sixth and Fifth,
is of especial importance, and the student should become
thoroughly familiar with it in every major key. It is this
inversion of the chord which is most usual in cadences.



40.






b,



& -3 F-zg

[ ^_E



:=1:



*&
\ .



===.



K \ _v_

3^^3 ] -g jg - ~g|jv=:




33

In writing or playing this chord, the following rule must
be adhered to. The chord of the seventh on the super-
tonic in its first inversion, must invariably appear complete
in all its parts.

Write and play the following cadence in every major
key.

J -rS=^
j=t3=B




Each of the following exercises contains at least one
place where n should be used, sometimes with the entire
soprano note as in No. 41, at other times with the first half
of the note, as in No. 40, c. Only this one new chord is to
be introduced ; all the other material is the same as in the
previous lessons. Be on the lookout for modulations, re-
membering that in exercises like No. 42, a, each phrase
must have a natural cadence.

EXERCISES.







34




iz:



EgEESE



-9 -(2



in IV V 2 I 6 n V




87

=3^F



/f>

r_i| -



6-



87



Lesson XII.

In the preceding lesson the supertonic seventh chord
resolved directly to the dominant harmony, No. 41. This
cadence is sometimes enlarged by inserting between these
two chords the tonic six-four chord, as in No. 43. In this
case the seventh in nf remains stationary,



In double time.

a.



In triple time.



-.z+initN-H^^* -H=




35

Write and play No. 43, a, in every major key.

Observe that in these cadences the tonic six-four chord
always immediately precedes the dominant, and that these
chords so emphatically pronounce a full close that they
must not be used where a cadence is not suitable.

PREPARATION OF THE SEVENTH.

Thus far especial attention has been given to the resolu-
tion of the chords of the seventh, but nothing has been
said of their introduction. Dissonances require careful
treatment in their introduction, and most of the sevenths
in the secondary seventh chords are so harsh as to require
Preparation. A tone is prepared if it exists in the same
voice as a harmonic tone in the previous chord. Thus in
No. 43, cz, the seventh in \\\ which appears in the soprano,
is prepared, because it exists in the same voice in the pre-
vious chord as a harmonic tone. The note of preparation
should seldom be shorter than the dissonance which it
prepares.

REGARDING THE INTRODUCTION OF THE DOMINANT SEVENTH.

The seventh in the chord of the dominant seventh does
not require preparation, but when it has appeared in the
previous chord, it is best to retain it in the same voice in
both chords. If the seventh cannot thus be prepared, it is
well if the root be prepared. When neither root nor sev-
enth can be prepared, these two notes should generally be
approached by contrary motion. This principle applies to
any chord of the seventh in which the seventh does not
require preparation.

RULE : The seventh in the chord of the seventh on
the supertonic must be prepared. (Exceptions to this rule
are not to be considered now.)

The exercises in this lesson are selected so that the ca-
dences should be made through the use of IT!?, but not
always with the insertion of the tonic six-four chord.
Other forms of cadence are quite possible, but the pupil



36

must rather make it a point to master the one in question,
than to seek a variety of forms, at least for the present.
Care should be used in the selection of each solution. If
the exercise sounds unmusical, or the voices are led
awkwardly, the work is not well done. The chords now at
the disposal of the student are sufficient to permit a thor-
oughly musical treatment of the little melodies given.
Indeed some excellent chorals contain no material with
which the student is now unacquainted. It is strongly
recommended that the student play many of the short ex-
ercises when correctly solved, in as many keys as possible,
seeking rather to use few materials fluently than many
chords merely in writing.



EXERCISES.
Models.



44.




r ZtztziZH



^-^> -A 1 I Y<9 * pH 1 f V - I9 -

r^s=c=r tzzci, pmq pzzczaq




37



6
65




c. Commence in open position. d. +






V



f. In C.



InF.



-!=



*T\vo chords

Lesson XIII.

THE CHORD OP T*TE SEVENTH ON THE SUPERTONIC IN THE
MINOR KEYS.

Secondary seventh chords are formed upon the degrees
of the minor scale, with the exception of the fifth degree.



46.



m



II 07 Itt'7 IV? V 7 VI 7 VII7



38



These chords are formed as follows :

i 7 , a minor triad with major seventh.

ii 07 , a diminished triad with minor seventh.

III'?, an augmented triad with major seventh.

IV7. a minor triad with minor seventh.

VI 7 , a major triad with major seventh.

vii7, a diminished triad with diminished seventh.

Some of these chords are of little value and rarely used,
while others are of considerable importance. We shall at
present use the supertonic seventh chord only. It is
treated quite the same as the supertonic seventh in major.
It is best to use it in its first inversion, jif, it should be
complete in all its parts, and the seventh should be pre-
pared. The exercises will now cadence with this chord,
every one in this lesson being given with especial reference
to this progression.



EXERCISES.

Cadence in minor with



Write and play No. 47
in every Minor key.



47






Model.



48.



feE*E3^ E3E EH

y?=f=3ifi.= i=?-^i= = |zi 3 33




39





Ve

5


j|


^







_\_ j____^_ f_


1 ,




1




I



I



Lesson XIY.

CADENCES.

Nearly all the exercises thus far have been fragmentary
for the purpose of presenting over and over again, a limited
number of the most used chord progressions, especially in
cadences. We have seen that where a bit of melody, as a
line of a choral, closes in a key not indicated by the signa-
ture of the piece, it still cadences with simple material.
That is to say, whether we write a cadence in C, or G, or
F, or any other key, the material is practically the same,
i. e., IV, W>, I ; or If, V( 7 >, I ; or n, V (7 >, I ; in whatever
key is entered. In these cadences the dominant harmony
may generally appear either as a triad or a chord of the
seventh, at pleasure. The important thing is that these
few forms be perfectly familiar to the student in all keys.



40



All the exercises in this lesson consist of the last few
notes of melodies in previous lessons. Here the student
must decide for himself in each case, whether the cadence
should be in the major or the minor key. Where either
mode is satisfactory, a solution in each should be written.
The notes given may not always cadence in the key which
corresponds to the signature. In this case they are from a
line of a choral, which modulated, and in such a case care
must be taken to discover the new key and use the necess-
ary accidentals. It should be observed that these lines
which cadence in a key not corresponding to the signature
are always to be found in the course of the piece, (if they
appear at all) and not at the end, for a complete piece of
music must close in the same key in which it began.



MODELS OF CADENCES.
b.



60. <






il



2EE




a ng ij V? i F I iig V I

Play each cadence in No. 50 in at least two other keys.



41



(In this work at the piano the pupil is expected to play
from the book, but not from a copied transposition of the
cadences.

EXERCISES.

* Two chorda.
b. *











7 &



^.



Lesson XV.

THE HALF CADENCE AND THE DECEPTIVE CADENCE.

As has been seen, each line of a choral needs a cadence
in some form, and to add interest one or more of the lines
have often closed in a related key. Another useful close
for any line except the last one is the Half Cadence.

A Half Cadence is a cadence in which the final chord is
the dominant triad preceded by the tonic triad. As the
name implies this close is only partial, and not available at
the end of a piece, but it is often better to close some of
the lines with a half cadence than to use a full close on the
tonic too often.



*_ I_J I



* -= f

i _ 1




A A 1 j. + ;+-

** * r-f | ~f~/ g r IT31

E^Et^SEgEEEEB

|_j v_ _J



Half Cadence.



A Deceptive Cadence occurs when the dominant seventh
chord, instead of resolving to the tonic triad, progresses to
some other chord. The most common deceptive cadence is
that in which the dominant seventh chord resolves to the
triad on the sixth degree.



Wm. Mather.




Deceptive Cadence.



43

In the following exercises opportunity is offered to write
quite a variety of cadences, viz., the half cadence, the de-
eeptive cadence, the complete cadence in a related key, and
the complete cadence in the tonic key, employing the super-
tonic seventh, or the tonic six-four chord, or both. Dis-
tinguish carefully these various forms and write the name
of each cadence over the prepared exercises. No. 54, g,
may be treated as one problem or as five short ones, each
ending at the hold.

EXERCISES.




: ~ [~ ~ ji ~ii




rz_o . '. c_^-3_~ r







6
6 5



6 6
645




587 5 6



6




Lesson XVI.

REVIEW LESSON FROM BACH'S FIGURED CHORALS.

To the given bass and soprano add the alto and tenoi
according to the figuring. In addition to this written
work, the teacher will assign review work at the piano
according to his judgment.



45
EXERCISES.



65.



4>7-r ^



I



:t=:



6 6






= ? -

- - ^i i ^-



66687 6-66 5
45 4 jf



b.

|^^i=^=^E ^= =*= =2=



JJ



6 6 6 tt

5

i _ TN />

/ * ^*-t- i f_ft-I_^* _^* _| L^ ^ 0_ . L.^,J _i

I I )



2?:



I ' -'-"^ 1 -' i S

6 87 6 66 6 ;

5 55



46
Lesson XVII.

THE CHORD OF THE DOMINANT NINTH.

The Chord of the Dominant Ninth is formed when the
dominant seventh chord is enlarged or extended, by the
addition of a third above the seventh, as follows :

Chords of the Dominant Ninth.




*Chord of the Major Ninth. Chord of the Minor Ninth

*NoTE, In the major key this ninth is a major ninth above the root
and in the minor key, a minor ninth above ; hence the terms.

Do not consider this as a new chord, but simply as a dom-
inant seventh chord with an interval added. The presence
of the ninth does not in any way alter the natural resolution
of the underlying seventh chord, except that the fifth
(when present) ascends one degree to avoid consecutive
fifths. This is true in both the major and the minor
modes, even though in the latter case the fifths are in the
order of diminished to perfect. The student should ob-
serve that the complete dominant ninth chord (5 part) re-
solves to the tonic triad in such a way that the triad
necessarily appears with its third doubled. This has also
an important bearing on the resolution of the dominant


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