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Arthur Edward Heacox.

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When the substituted tone proceeds upward to a chord
tone, it is, strictly speaking, not a suspension, but a retar-
dation. Fig. 220 c. The downward progression only,
therefore, will be called a suspension.



220. <




The suspension must be prepared. Fig. 221.

The preparation must be as long (a), or longer (b), in
time value than the suspension; but when the preparation
is not tied to the suspension it may be shorter. Fig. 221 c.



221.




178



The suspension must come on the strong beat (a), or the
strong part of the beat following the preparation. Fig.
222 b.

The resolution must come on the weak beat (c), or weak
part of the beat (d) following the suspension. Fig. 222.

In triple rhythm it may come on the second (e) or third
(f) count.

a. c. a. c.





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Any interval of a triad may be the preparation of a sus
pension.



179



The passing seventh may be used as preparation when
it is not tied to the suspension (6), or is one of a series of
degree wise suspensions in the same voice' Fig. 223 c.

The minor (d), or diminished seventh (e), and the ninth
of V 9 (f), when approached by a skip in an upward direc-
tion are also good as preparation of a suspension.

The six-four chord may be approached by skip in an up-
ward direction from another position of the same chord,
when the bass note becomes the preparation of a suspen-
pension. Pig. 223 g.

a. b.



223.



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180




Any interval of a chord may be suspended in any voice,
except that the seventh of the diminished seventh is the
only seventh that may be suspended. Fig. 224 a, b.



b.



224.






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The suspension must be foreign to the chord.

In suspending the fifth of a triad in root position, it only
results in forming a chord of the sixth. Fig. 225 a. The
suspension of a fifth, however, is good when used as in
Fig. 225 c, d, e, f, or when in a chord of the seventh as in
Fig. 225 6.



b.



c.



225.



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NOTE. The progression at c feels like a suspension because the 9th, its
preparation, calls for resolution So also those at d and e are good because
the seventh, their preparation, calls for resolution.

The one at /is Rood because the fourth between the bass and the sus-
pension calls for resolution to a third.

The note of resolution when below the suspension must
be at least a ninth from the suspension, (a) Its presence
above the suspension is forbidden. Fig. 226 b.

Do not suspend the major third (c), and seldom the
minor third (d), when already present in any other voice.
Fig. 226 c.



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The position of the chord of resolution may change be-
fore (a), or at the same time (b) that the suspension re-
solves. A change of harmony may take place simul-
taneously with the resolution of the suspension. Fig. 227 c.



a.



b.



c.



227.



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Consecutive fifths (a,, but not octaves (6), are saved by
the suspension. Fig. 228

a. b.



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183
EXERCISES.



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Suspension in Soprano only.



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184

Lesson LXTIII.

SUSPENSION. (CON).
Suspensions in lower voices.



EXERCISES.



a.



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b.









C. Tenor.












185




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Lesson LXIX.

RETARDATION.

The suspension resolving upward as Fig. 231 is called a
Retardation. It is subject to the rules given for the sus-
pention.

While some authorities permit the retardation of any in-
terval of a triad, its use is best confined to the root and
third (231 a, 6), and to the fifth only when it resolves by
rising a half step (231 c), or is accompanied by the retarda-
tion of the third, (231 d).

a. b.



231.




186



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The note of resolution may be doubled only when it is
the root and is at least a seventh below the retardation.
Fig 231 a.

EXERCISES.







232.







b.









Alto.






187



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188

Lesson LXX.

SUSPENSIONS IN MORE THAN ONE VOICE.

Suspensions may occur in more than one voice at the
same time. Fig. 233.



233.



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The retardation and Suspension may also appear simul-
taneously. Fig. 234 a. Their resolution to the unison, as
at Fig. 234 &, is good.



b.



234.



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EXERCISES.



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Lesson LXXT.

THF ORNAMENTAL RESOLUTION OF THE SUSPENSION.

Instead of the suspension being resolved directly to the
note of resolution, one or more notes may be interpolated.
The relative position of the suspension and its resolution
must, however, remain the same. The notes interpolated
take their time value from the suspension.



190

The use of the ornamental resolution will be confined to
those at Fig. 236. The suspension may skip to any tone
belonging to the chord of resolution, including the seventh
and ninth, before going to the note of resolution (a, b, c, d,
e\ or it may move up one degree and skip to the note of
resolution, or it may skip down a third and then proceed
to the note of resolution, (f, g}. Tn the resolutions at
/and <?, a note may be interpolated, instead of making the
skip, as in h and i. The resolution at Fig. 236^', although
:in exception to the rule, is good. There the note of reso-
lution, instead of being in its accustomed place, appears
on both sides of that place.

[f the ornamental notes be taken from the resolutions in
Fig. 236, it will be seen that the suspensions are the same
as in previous lessons. Fig. 236 k.



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Do not use the same kind of ornamental resolution sim-
ultaneously in two or more voices. Fig. 237 b.



237.



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192

It is also best not to use the same form of resolution in
successive suspensions. Fig. 238 b.



238.



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Lesson LXXII.

THE PASSING TONE AND THE EMBELLISHMENT.
THE PASSING TONE.



A passing tone is one that is foreign to the chord with
which it appears, and is approached and left by a step or a
half step. The movement must continue in one direction.
The number of passing tones that may succeed one another
is only limited by the distance which separates the chord
tones. Fig. 240.




240.



f^-T-^




The passing tone may be diatonic or chromatic, accented
or unaccented.

A diatonic passing tone is one that belongs to the key.
Fig. 241. .

A chromatic passing tone is one that is foreign to the key.
Fig. 241. b.

It is accented when it comes on the accented beat or part
of a beat, and unaccented when elsewhere. Fig. 241.



241.




b.



Godard.
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Accented. + Unaccented.



In triple rythm, or in groups of three the passing tone ie
accented when it is the first note of the measure or group,
and unaccented when on the second or third. Fig. 242.



196



Beethoven.



242.




The chord tones between which the passing tone is in-
troduced need not belong to the same harmony. Fig. 243.



Stiehl.



243.




Consecutive perfect fifths, in the progression of a chord
tone to a passing tone are good (a). Those in the progres-
sion of a passing tone to a chord tone should be avoided
(b). While the latter fifths, as well as those in the pro-
gression of any non-harmonic tone to a chord tone, are
ussd quite frequently by the masters, the possibility of
their misuse by the student is greater, and they are there-
fore better avoided. Fig. 244.



197



Chopin.



244.




Mozart.




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NOTE Fifths in the progression of a chord tone to a chord tone are
harmonic fifths, those in the progression of a chord tone to any non-
harmonio tone (later lessons), or vice versa, are melodic fifths.



Avoid oblique motion to the unison, but when the mov-
ing voice continues through the unison it is good. Fig. 245.



245.




Avoid.



Good.



A



1



198



A passing tone instead of progressing directly to its re-
solution may skip to some other tone of the chord with
which it appears, and then proceed to its resolution as at
Fig 246

This is similar to the ornamental resolution of the sus-
pension, and will be called ornamental resolution of a pass-
ing tone. (Free tone by some writers).





Parts may cross occasionally but should return immedi-
ately. Fig. 247.



199



247.



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In nrrtating chromatic passing tones all ascending tones
are raised, except the sixth degree, instead of which the
lowered seventh is used (a). In descending all are lowered
except the fifth instead of which the raised fourth is used
(i>), Fig. 248.

Notating the chromatic passing tones as above forms the
chromatic scale as in Fig. 248. Many writers raise all
ascending and lower all descending passing tones. The
practice of the masters in notating them is, however, far
from uniform.



248.





The notation of diatonic passing tones in minor is the
same as in the original minor scale, except that in ascend-
ing, only, the sixth and seventh degrees are raised. This
forms the Melodic minor scale as in Fig, 249.



200



249. :



The following are exceptions to the above. In harmonies
containing the leading tone as an essential chord tone the
six//t and seventh degrees are raised both ascending and
descending (b). In harmonies containing the sixth degree
as an essential chord tone they retain the notation of the
original minor scale, both ascending and descending (a).
Fig. 250.



250.




ai



VI iv



The reason for raising the sixth degree in harmonies
containing the leading tone is to avoid the un-vocal (though
not un-melodic) skip of an augmented second which
separates six from seven, when only the seventh degree is
raised. This augmented second is used by many writers
with beautiful effect in both vocal and instrumental music
Fig. 231 It is best, however, to avoid its use until more
experience is gained in writing



201



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Schumann.







In cancelling the double sharp, or double flat do as in
Fig. 252.



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Cross relation between a chord tone and a passing tone
is good. Fig. 253.

Schumann.



253.



202

THE EMBELLISHMENT.

An embellishment is a tone introduced by degree-wis<=>
progression between a chord tone and Its repetition. It
may be accented or unaccented. Fig. 254



Mozhrt.



254. /



The progression to and from an embellishment should
be diatonic as at a, and not chromatic as at 6. Fig. 255.



a E



255.



The embellishment is sometimes introduced between a
passing tone and its repetition, as at Fig 256, but its use
thus would better be deferred.





E



Beethoven.



256. <




203

A change of harmony may take place simultaneously
with the return from the embellishment, to the principal
tone. Fig. 257.



Cramer.



257.




The embellishment, when above the principal tone, may
be a whole (a), or a half (6) step distant; when below, it
should be only a half step (c), except when it is the ninth
of the chord with which it appears (d), it may then also
be a whole step. Fig. 258.



Schubert.
a b



Cramer.



258.




Bach and other old masters often used the embellishing
tone a whole step below (a), where modern writers would
use the half step (6). Fig. 259.



204



a Rach.



Seis.



259. I



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The embellishment may resolve ornamentally. Fig. 260.
(Free tone by some writers).



260.



Grieg.



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5



1



E Beethoven.



Cross relation between an embellishment and a chord
tone is good. Fig. 261.



205




261.



Consecutive fifths in the progression of a chord tone to
an embellishment are good. Fig. 262. (See note under
Fig. 244).



262.



Any interval of a chord may be doubled or omitted after
the first beat. Avoid doubling the. seventh of a chord im-
mediately before a change of harmony. When the leading
tone is doubled immediately before a change of harmony
the new leading tone should be treated as a passing tone
and both left degree wise in contrary motion. Fig. 263.



268.





206

The passing tone and embellishment may be used in
two or more voices but this is better deferred until Lesson
LXXVII.

Harmonize exercises a and 6 three times with continuous
movement of half notes in one part. With each writing
put the half notes, in turn, in the soprano, alto, and tenor
as in Fig. 261. Also harmonize exercise c as directed above
putting four quarter notes in a measure.

The movement is made continuous by the use of
passing tones, embellishments and chord tones.

Avoid frequent skipping.

Make occasional use of the ornamental resolution of the
passing tone and embellishment.

Indicate all non-harmonic notes with their proper ab-
breviations in this lesson as well as in Lessons LXXIII,
LXXIV and LXXV.



1st time.



264.



2nd time.



3rd time.




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207
EXERCISES.




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Lesson LXXIII.

THE PASSING TONE AND EMBELLISHMENT (CON).

Harmonize the following exercises. In a put four
quarter notes in a measure in the bass. In b and c use
only one harmony in a measure and account for the notes
in the melody as passing tones, embellishments or chord
tones.

Harmonize d and e as elaborately as desired.



EXERCISES



208




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209



Lesson LXXIV.

THE APPOGGIATUKA AND THE ANTICIPATION.
THE APPOGGIATUKA.

The Appoggiatura is an unprepared suspension that is
approached by a skip of. an augmented second or more.
Fig. 267.



267.



Ap. Ap. Ap.




r



The appoggiatura may be in any voice but is most often
used in the soprano. When used in any other part it is
usually accompanied by an appoggiatura in the soprano
Fig. 272. The distance which separates an appoggiatura
from its resolution is the same as that of the embellishing
tone, i. e., when it proceeds to the note of resolution from
above, it may be by either a half (a), or a whole step (b),
when from below it should be a half step ( c), except when
it is the ninth of the chord with which it appears, it may
then also be a whole step. Fig. 268.



210



268.




C C Seiss.




Seiss.



4i4 -



The progression of an appoggiatura to its resolution
should be diatonic. Fig. 269.



211



269.




The double appoggiatura is formed by taking both
neighbors of a chord tone immediately before the chord
tone itself. The first of these is often the last note of the
proceeding measure or beat (a), and need not be ap-
proached by a skip. Fig. 270.



D'bl. ap.



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D'bl. ap.



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212



.



The appoggiatura may resolve ornamentally. Fig. 271.



271.




Ap. Beethoven.






The appoggiatura may be used in two or more voices
simultaneously. Fig. 272.



Chovan.



272.







213



With the appoggiatura as with the suspension, a change
of harmony may take place simultaneously with its re-
solution. Fig. 273.



Enke.




273. (



A combination of non-harmonic tones having as its
soprano an appoggiatura or an embellishment is respect-
ively, an appoggiatura or an embellishing chord. These
tones need not be harmonically related but it is better to
have them so. Fig. 274.



274. <




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214



Cross relation between a chord tone and an appoggia-
tura is good. Fig. 275.

Schumann.



275.




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Consecutive perfect fifths in the progression of a chord
tone to an appoggiatura are good. Fig. 276. (See note
under Fig, 244).

Rheinberger.




The passing tone (a), embellishment (6), and appoggia-
tura (c), may be used as preparation of a suspension or
retardation. Fig. 277.



C. Choran.



277.




215



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THE ANTICIPATION.

The Anticipation is a chord tone introduced immediately
before the entrance of a chord to which it belongs. Fig.
278.



A. A.



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278.






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216



The anticipation should be as short (a), or shorter (6)
than the tone to which it proceeds. Fig. 279.



a b Grieg.



279.




The anticipation is the opposite of the suspension. Fig.
280.



b.



280.




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Two or more anticipations may be used simultaneously.
Fig. 281.



Schumann.



281. ,



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217



Beethoven.




When the anticipation instead of remaining stalionary
skips to some other tone of the chord to which it belongs,
it is a free anticipation. Fig 282.



Beethoven.



282.




When in the progression of a non-harmonic tone to its
resolution, the note of resolution is taken before its ex-
pected time, this note is also an anticipation. Fig, 283.

Chopin.



283. <




218



Chopin.



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Anticipating the resolution of : a the embellishment.
& " appoggiatnra.
e " suspension and retardation.
d " passing tone.

Non-harmonic tones that are left by a skip but do not
resolve ornamentally, are free tones Fig 284. The use of
these is so infrequent, and the problem of using them
musically so difficult that the student is asked not to use
them.



219



284.



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The following exercises should be harmonized without
the use of the ornamental resolution of non-harmonic
tones, or the anticipation of their resolutions. Opportu-
nity for this will be given in the next lesson.

EXERCISES.



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220



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Lesson LXXY.

THE APPOGGIATURA AND ANTICIPATION (CON.)

In the following exercises opportunity is given to use the
ornamental n solution of the different non-harmonic tones,
and also the anticipation of their resolutions.



221
EXERCISES.




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b.










222











Lesson IXXTL

PEDAL POINT (ORGAN POINT).

A Pedal Point is a tone sustained through a succession
of harmonies to which it may, or may not belong. This
tone is usually in the bass. Fig. 287.



Schumann.



287.




Any tone maybe treated as a pedal point, but the domin-
ant (a) is the most frequently used, and next to this the
tonic (b). Fig. 288.



223



288.



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224

While the following directions hold good for the pedal
point on any degree, these lessons will' be confined to the
use of the dominant and tonic pedal point only.

The pedal point usually begins (a) and ends (6) with a
chord of which it is a member. Fig. 289.



289. <



Grieg.




The progression of the harmonies accompanying a pedal
point is made as if no pedal point were present except that
in their selection it is well to make a frequent use of chords
containing the pedal point as a chord tone When the
pedal point is in an upper voice this is particularly de-
sirable. In the progression of harmonies not containing
the pedal point, it is advisable to use degreewise pro
gression as much as possible.

The dominant seventh with the fifth omitted and the
diminished seventh with third or fifth omitted may be
used when accompanying a pedal point.

When the pedal point is in the lowest voice the part
above it is the real bass.

The tonic and dominant may be used simultaneously as
a pedal point forming a double pedal point. This is most
used when writing in five or more parts. Fig. 290.



225



Mendelssohn.



290.



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The pedal point in an upper voice (inverted pedal),
especially in the soprano is used quite frequently. For this
no special directions are necessary. Fig. 291.



Holljiender.
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291.



The pedal point need not be tied, but may be separated
for rhythmical effect, or to sustain the tone as in Figs. 288 6
and 290.

Harmonize the following exercises adding the parts as
indicated.



228

EXERCISES.
a. Add alto aud tenor.



292.



Jd4



sfct=e



6. Add alto and tenor.



S



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c. Add two inner parts.



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227



d. Add alto and tenor.








e. Add tenor and bass

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-19






Lesson LXXVII.

FIGURATION.
FIGURATION OP THE PARTS ACCOMPANTNG A MELODY.



Figuration is the elaboration of any part by the intro-
duction of tones, harmonic or non-harmonic. Fig. 298.



228



a. Original.

te



293.




6. Figuration.



Bach.



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The entry of chord tones may be anticipated or delayed
by non-harmonic tones. Compare a and 6 of Fig. 294.
a.

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229



The figuration as a whole should give a continuous move-
ment of quarter notos, but no voice should use them con-
tinuously for more than, two measures.

In figurating two parts simultaneously care should be
taken that the two notes appearing in the figuration at the
same time should form a major or minor third or sixth, or
a perfect fifth or octave. When the octave or fifth is used


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Online LibraryArthur Edward HeacoxLessons in harmony → online text (page 7 of 8)