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both tones of the interval should be treated as passing
tones. Fig. 295.



295.




The diminished fifth and seventh, and the augmented
fourth nmy also be used if properly resolved as in Fig. 296.



296.



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D. 7, A. 4, D. 5.

While the figuration of three and four voices simulta-
neously is much used these lessons will confine themselves
to figurating not more than two voices simultaneously.



230

Avoid frequent use of the chromatic passing tone.

Use degree progression as much as possible.

The parts under the hold (^) should not be flgurated.

An analysis of the Bach Chorals will greatly assist in
writing musical solutions of the following exercises.

Figurate 297 a with quarter notes in all parts except the
soprano.

Harmonize 2976 and c and figurate as directed above.

Use 297<2 a the bass, harmonize, and figurate the alto
and tenor only. Make the soprano a good choral melody

Exercise care in cadencing at the end of the lines.
Notice whether the lines close in the tonic key or have
modulated.



a.



297.



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231




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Lesson LXXVI1I.

FIGURATED MELODIES.

A simple melody may be figurated, the figuration in the
present lesson consisting of a continuous movement of
notes of equal value Fig. 298 Figurated melodies of this
kind are usually found in the "Theme and Variations."



232



Original melody.



Mozart.





5. Figuration. Three notes to the beat.



^ :





( Another figuration. Four notes to the beat.





m _ fftf-. ^

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m



233



It is necesssary to figurate the theme in such a
way that the original theme is easily recognized. The
following directions may assist the student in this.
The notes of the original melody should appear in their
same relative position in the figuration, unless temporarily
displaced by a non-harmonic tone. After treating a tone
of the melody in this manner, anything that can be just-
ified may be written between it and the next melody note.
While the student is thus held more strictly to the original
theme than is customary with the masters, these directions
will however serve as a guide until he can decide for him-
self what deviations from the original theme are good.



EXERCISES.



Two notes to a beat




c< Four notes.




234



e. Four notes.



&






lesson LXXIX.

FLORID FIGURATION.

A simple melody may als6 be figurated with notes of
unequal value, and may then be called Florid melody.
Fig. 300.



a.



Bach.



300.







235



Chopin.



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In a figuration of this kind a strict adherence to the
suggestions for figurating with notes of equal value is not
necessary, i. e., the position of the important notes in the
original melody need only be approximated in the fig-
uration.

Repetition of a note when it has decided rhythmic value
is good. Fig. 301.



so




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236

Before figurating the following exercises a careful analy-
sis of Fig. 300 will prove helpful. Fig 300c is a solution of
the first four measures of exercise 3026

Harmonize the following exercises and treat with florid
figuration.

EXERCISES.



302.



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237
Lesson LXXX.

REDUCTION OF MELODIES.

To reduce a melody is to eliminate all non-har-
monic and unessential chord tones, retaining only those
chord tones necessary for a simple and clear harmonization.
Fig. 303.



303. <









238

In reducing it is necessary to write out or have in mind
a harmonization of the original melody. All tones not be-
longing to the chords with which they appear should be
removed.

in broken chord effects as in Fig. 304 retain only those
tones necessary to give an outline of the melody.



Beethoven.



Reduction.



304.




Beethoven.



Reduction.




When the melody exceeds the limits of four part writing
raise or lower the reduction so as to come within the usual
compass. Fig. 305.



Beethoven.






Reduction.



305.




A rest which clearly takes its time value from the note
that precedes or succeeds it, is not recognized in the re-
duction. Fig. 306.



239

Beethoven. Reduction



306.



Beethoven. Beduction.



gi



Write two solutions each of the following melodies.
First reduce and harmonize as simply as possible; and then
harmonize the unreduced melodies as elaborately as de-
sired.



EXERCISES.











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c.






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241





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242

Lesson LXXXI.

FLOUID MKLODY.

In Lesson LXXIX the Florid Melody was constructed by
elaborating a simple melody. In this lesson a succession
of harmonies is given over which, on a separate staff, a
melody is written that has as its harmonic basis the chords
over which it appears. This allows more freedom, and
affords the student greater opportunity to display his
creative ability. Fig. 308.




308.



-&-



*



*




243

The relation of the melody to the harmonies is the same
as that of a solo, vocal or instrumental, to its accompani-
ment.

All the material of the previous lessons may be used.

Consecutive octaves are permitted between the melody
and any part in the harmonies except the lowest. Those
between the lowest part and the melody are often found in
the works of the masters but are better avoided here.

Any interval of an accompanying chord may be omitted
provided it is present in the melody. Fig. 309.



Wagner.








Any interval may be doubled between the melody and
harmony.

The resolution of a second to a prime between the mel-
ody and any part in the harmony is to be avoided. That
of a ninth to the octave 5s good. Fig. 310.



244



Avoid.



Avoid.



310. /



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Essential intervals omitted in the chord should be sup-
plied in the melody.
Write several melodies to each of the following exercises.

EXERCISES.



311.



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246



lesson LXXXII.

ACCOMPANIMENT.

Au accompaniment is formed by adding one or more
parts to a melody for the purpose of re-enforcing it, or en-
hancing its beauty by harmonic, melodic or rhythmic
support.

It is to be observed that the greater number of ac-
companiments are based either on a repetition of harmonic
figures a (which may be accompanied by non-harmonic
tones 6, or a melodic figure c), or broken chord effects
(d) (which may be accompanied by non-harmonic notes
.). Fig. 312.



312.



Grieg.




Weber.




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248




Leschetizky.




The progression from one chord to the next should be
made as if all notes were sounded simultaneously and
sustained throughout that chord. Fig. 313. While this
is disregarded in many instances by the masters, it is
nevertheless found to be their general practice.



Aleneff.



313.




249




It may be well to write the harmonies under the mel-
odies as in Lesson LXXXI and then transcribe into the
style of accompaniment desired.

The following exercises may be divided into two lessons.



EXERCISES.



* Grazioso.



250



b. Moderate.




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Lento




251





A llegretto.












252



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Lesson LXXXIII.

ADDITIONAL WORK.

If it is desired to do further work, the principles of the
foregoing lessons may be incorporated in writing eight and
sixteen measure periods for either piano or voice, also some
of the primary forms. It is left to the direction of the
teacher to outline the above forms.



The Analysis of Form
in Music

F. J. LEHMANN

Professor of Theory
Oberlin Conservatory of Music

Written especially for the analysis of Form in Music,
and for use in the Oberlin Conservatory of Music.

The Text incorporates the ideas of the author as to
what materials should be presented and the method of
presentation. These are the results of his fifteen years'
experience as a teacher of this subject.

It covers all instrumental forms from the Motive to
the Symphonic Poem.

Cloth binding ; 65 pages.

PRICE $1.25 NET
Send all orders to

A. G. COMINGS & SON

OBERLIN. OHIO

(OVER)



Harmonic Analysis



F. J. LEHMANN

Professor of Theory
Oberlin Conservatory of Music



This book is the regular text in the Oberlin Con-
servatory of Music.

It is primarily a work for classroom, assigning de-
finite lessons couched in language that is not too technical.

Cloth binding; 156 pages.

PRICE $1.50 NET
Send all orders to

A. G. COMINGS & SON

OBERLIN. OHIO



(OVER)



The Publishers of ''Lessons in Harmony by Heacox &
Lehmann" are pleased to announce the appearance of

Keyboard Training in Harmony

BY

ARTHUR E. HEACOX

All who are interested in modern methods of harmony
teaching will welcome the appearance of this, the author 7 s
latest and best work. It makes available the keyboard
training (harmony realized) which has long formed so
important a part of the theory course in Oberlin Conserva-
tory of Music, and is so arranged as to be usable with any
standard harmony textbook. In addition to very many
models with brief accompanying texts the book contains
725 exercises graded from the easiest basses and melodies
up to the difficult sight-playing tests required by the Amer-
ican Guild of Organists.

Two volumes, beautifully printed in large, clear type,
in Arthur P. Schmidt's Educational Series.

Vol. I. Triads, Chords of the Seventh.

Vol. II. Alteration, Modulation, Suspension, etc., to-
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Price $1.00 per volume, postpaid



FOR DISCOUNTS TO TEACHERS AND DEALERS WRITE

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A Guide Through the

Lessons in Harmony

BY

HEACOX & LEHMANN



FOR TEACHER OR PUPIL



A GUIDE THROUGH THE HARMONY LESSOXS by HEACOX
& LEHMAXX, prepared by the Authors and containing
important solutions of one or more of the exercises in every
lesson, accompanied by copious notes on special points, and
a complete index.

Xot a "key" to be kept away from the student, but a
guide planned by the Authors for use in connection with
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together. Especially adapted for private studying.

Put up in neat cloth binding, 64 pages, 75c net, post-
paid. Special discounts to the Trade and to Teachers when
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Online LibraryArthur Edward HeacoxLessons in harmony → online text (page 8 of 8)