Arthur George Hill.

Annual of the universal medical sciences and analytical index. A yearly report of the progress of the general sanitary sciences throughout the world. [1888-1896.] ... online

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T^SaithlTHbin.] GENERAL THERAPEUTICS. A-135

and liver, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic muscular rheumatism, and
skin diseases. The sulphur is administered in the form of a
lozenge, composed of 5 grains (0.32 gramme) of the milk of sul-
phur and 1 grain (0.06 gramme) of cream of tartar. It may be
continued for a long while without any complaint from the patient.
One of these lozenges is to be taken at night. As sulphur is a
natural constituent of many of the chief organs (?) of the human
body, d priori one would naturally suppose that it would often be
beneficial ; and clinical experience bears this out. One of the most
important advantages of the administration of the drug in this
manner is its laxative action on the bowels without the unpleasant
symptoms which so often attend the continued employment of an
aperient. J. Emerson Reynolds I^ thinks that a good disinfectant
can be prepared by acting on camphor with sulphur-dioxide gas.
A large quantity of the gas is absorbed, and is liberated on ex-
posing the preparation to the air.

Squills. — Sirot g^,, does not wish the diuretic action of squills
to be forgotten. He claims for this drug the following advantages:
The diuresis commences on the second or third day, and is
abundant. In one case as much as 9 litres (9 quarts) of urine
were voided in twenty-four hours. The heart becomes better.
There is no cumulative action ; so it can be employed for a long
while. Finally, there is no necessity for increasing the dose.

Tansy. — W. A. BeltaJ^Ls^'eports poisonous symptoms arising in
a woman through the taking of slightly over a dmchm (4 grammes)
of oil of tansy, with the object of procuring abortion. A half-ounce
(15.50 grammes) of oil of tansy, taken with suicidal intent, is re-
ported by S. B. Witheringtoni2i.to have resulted in an hour in
coma, with contracted pupils, slow respiration, and weak pulse.
Morphia and atropia, along with stimulants, were given, and the
woman recovered.

Tatuleth — Grozopharia Tindoria. — J. Homsy Casson, of
Persia, ,5 9 reports that 6 persons who accidentally ate of this herb
died.

Tereben. — George E. DeWitt^Jhas had good results with
tereben not only in the treatment of bronchitis, but also in irri-
tation of the bladder, prostatitis, puerperal fever, and anal fistula.
Sebastian J. Wimmer disconsiders it wise to administer tereben in
capsules. It is a sedative as well as a stimulant, and is almost



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A-136 GRIFFITH AND CATTELL. C^'iStV^l^.;^::^^:"'

equal to the oil of eucalyptus as an expectorant. Dyspnoea is
relieved by its use. If there is any renal trouble the drug is
contra-indicated.

Thallin. — G. L. Simmons i^. reports that in Europe thallin is
now chiefly used in the treatment of gonorrhoea. In acute cases a
1-per-cent. solution is injected ; in chronic, a 5-per-cent. solution,
mixed with olive-oil.

Thermifugine. — Methyl trihydroxyguinoUne sodium carbo-
nate has been found by Demme,J2.to be a good antipyretic, as it
reduces temperature, slows the pulse, and increases blood-pressure.

Thiol. — F. Buzzi^i^ agrees with Reeps that we have in thiol
a remedy possessing the same therapeutic value as the well-known
salts of ichthyol. It is used in the treatment of seborrhoea, acne
vulgaris, eczema, etc. There are two preparations on the market :
1. Thiolum liquidum, an aqueous solution of a specific gravity of
1080, containing about 40 per cent, of thiol, and not possess-
ing a disagreeable odor. This preparation is used for the same
purpose and in the same manner as ichthyol. 2. Thiolum sic-
cum, a carefully-prepared dry powder, soluble in water. This
preparation can be given internally, and can be employed as a dust-
ing-powder in skin diseases, bums, erysipelas, etc. For use, 1 part
of it should be mixed with from 5 to 10 parts of starch, oxide
of zinc, or other inert matter.

Thioresorcin, — E. B. Landis SiJ thinks that in thioresorcin we
have found a good substitute for iodoform. While he has not used
it in a major operation, he cites 5 cases of minor surgery to show
its value. (See Resorcin.)

Thymol. — Frederick P. Henr)-^ ^Sii ^^ ^sed thymol, prepared
with castile-soap, in 2- to 3- grain (0.13 to 0.19 gramme) doses
every six hours. This treatment was employed in acute and
chronic intestinal disorders. In typhoid fever the temperature
falls, the stools become less frequent, cerebral symptoms diminish,
and a moist and clear tongue appears. Testi ^, has used thymol
in 150 cases of typhoid fever. He says that the drug lowers the
temperature, diminishes the tympanites, hinders the formation of
offensive matter in the faeces, reduces the excretion of urea, and
increases the blood-pressure without injury to the heart.

Tiirpeiithie. — ^Emst FeibesSSJ relates a case of erythema follow-
ing the internal administration of the oil of turpentine. The



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'^DSlSSr;'VJSi!£?ri GENERAL THERAPEUTICS. A-13T

author considers it to be due to the vasomotor centres being
strongly irritated.

Tyrotoxicon. — J. N. Martin, ^^ Ann Arbor, Mich., records a
case of poisoning with tyrotoxicon. Two hours after drinking the
aflFected milk the woman was seized with dizziness, violent head-
ache, and convulsive movements of the limbs. Free emesis relieved
her.

Ulexine. — The active principle of Ukx Europceiia has been
found by A. W. Gerrard to be ulexine. E. H. Fenwick considers
it a powerful diuretic. In a case of stricture -^ grain (0.006
gramme) produced suppression of urine, vomiting, and fever.
Pinet believes, from his experiments, that the drug possesses
properties antidotal to strychnine. ^^

Uralinm. — Gustavo Poppip^,.Mli. enthusiastically praises ura-
lium, a combination of urethan and chloral hydrate, as superior
in hypnotic powers to any other drug. He seems to think that it
is useiul in the insomnia of hysterical origin or of cardiac trouble.

Vaseline. — J. Roussel J2^i condemns the use of vaseline as a
vehicle for hypodermic injections because it inhibits the efficacy
of the drug administered, and is dangerous from the fact that it
may be converted into hydrocyanic acid in the nascent state, and
thus, entering the circulation, may produce grave accidents. The
great objection to the general use of vaseline is that water cannot
be incorporated with it as it can with lanoline. j2f* V. Krebs has
found that 2 drops of castor-oil to the gramme (15 J grains) of
vaseline will permit the introduction of an aqueous solution.

Veratmm Viride. — G. Meillere J^is writes of the chemical
composition of the veratrines a, /?, and y. Ch. Liegeois ,^ con-
siders it a vascular cardiac tonic, an antithermic, and a nervine.
In idiopathic, and especially in functional palpitations, great suc-
cess has been achieved by its use. Authors are quoted showing
its value in pneumonia and in typhoid fever. The most interesting
part of the paper is the reference to the treatment of Basedow's
disease, as recommended by Sie. He states that Guyot has cured
a patient suffering with that disease for three years. In the
discussion which followed the reading of the paper at the SociStS
de TMrapeiUiqn^^ Huchardj^„also declared that he had success-
fully treated a case of exophthalmic goitre by means of 20 to 25
drops a day of the tincture. Carl Semelroth J21 thinks that veratrum



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A-138 GRIFFITH AND CATTELL. [vibaJSim^p^^foSLm.

viride is of value in the treatment of rheumatism on account of
its controlling the hearths action and producing diuresis. P. H.
Brothers ^ gave a boy 6 years old 6 drops of tincture of veratrum
viride. In half an hour the patient violently tried to vomit ; the
action of the salivary and sudoriferous glands was stimulated, the
extremities became cold, the pulse 90, and the temperature 99° F.
(37.22° C). In two hours afterward his pulse was 60. He re-
covered rapidly under a treatment of blistering the epigastrium,
rubbing the extremities, and the internal administration of car-
bonate of ammonia. Lewis Pedigo,t^ describes a case of poisoning
produced in a child by eating the root of the American hellebore.
When seen the patient was in a stupor, with cold extremities, and
feeble pulse and respiration. Amyl nitrite by inhalation gave
most satisfactory results.

Viburnum PrunifoUum. — ^Wm. C. Wood }21 highly recom-
mends the use of drop doses of the fluid extract in cases of singul-
tus, and also, in very small doses, in threatened abortion. In the
latter case, if too large doses be given, the uterine contractions
appear to be increased.

Virga Latifolia. — Both Mascarel and L. Roch6,^„have used
virga latifolia as a diuretic; the former gives the powder mixed
with the yelk of an egg and the latter follows the plan of Duche,
by giving large quantities of a very weak infusion.

Watei'-Gas. — ^1). A. CleavelandjJJu reports the resuscitation of
a woman almost moribund through the inhalation of water-gas by
the transfusion of 10 ounces of milk.

Wild Parsnip. — G. S. Phillips ,^4 says that the symptoms of
poisoning by wild parsnip are flushing of the face, mental dull-
ness, convulsions, coma, dilated pupils, shallow respiration, weak
pulse, dry and swollen tongue. His treatment is with emetics,
enemata, opium, and prolonged etherization.

Wormwood. — ^A quarter of a pint of infusion of wormwood
is reported by Beniard Robinson a,J.,s to have caused, in a man,
vertigo, trembling of the limbs, pain in the abdomen, desire* to
micturate, and pain in the head of the penis.

Xanthoxylum Senegalense. — Giacosaand Soave5J..A^4 found in
xanthoxylum Senegalense four alkaloids, one of which, artarine,
appears to be analogous to berberine, and another to cubebine.



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EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS.

By HOBART a. HARE, M.D.,

PHILADELPHIA.



Absinthe Liqueur. — At a meeting of the Academy of Medi-
cine of France, held on the 10th of September, 1889, Cadeac and
Albin MeunieroL;i!l. submitted a memoir on a physiological study
of absinthe liqueur. The Academy, thereupon, appointed a com-
mission, composed of Messrs. OlUvier and Laborde, to examine
and report upon this memoir. At the meeting of the Academy,
held on the 1st of October, the commission presented their re-
port. Cadeac and Meunier's researches seem to those gentlemen
to lead to the conclusion that the essence of absinthe liqueur does
not possess the serious toxic properties generally ascribed to ab-
sinthe. The essence is the essential principle of the liqueur ; but
it seems that it usually contains other ingredients, especially the
essence of anise-seed, coriander, fenugreek, etc. Admitting the ex-
istence of what has been termed absinthism, the authors contend
that the proper designation for that aflFection should be anisism.
If the anise-seed be eliminated from the liqueur, or reduced to a
very small proportion of the liquid, the absinthe liqueur will then
be found non-toxic, and will but impart to those who imbibe it
the " amiable quality of hilarious excitement ! " Laborde, of the
commissioners, has himself experimented with the essence of ab-
sinthe. He administered, subcutaneously, to a guinea-pig weigh-
ing 400 grammes (1 pound), a gramme (15 minims) of essence of
absinthe, and to a second guinea-pig, of about similar weight and
age, a gramme of essence of anise-seed. Within barely five minutes
the first animal was in violent convulsions, having the character-
istics of an epileptic attack, and died asphyxiated in about an hour.
The second animal squatted in a comer, became drowsy, although
it was easily aroused, but exhibited the want of co-ordination in
movement which is observed in drunkenness ; no convulsive signs
were observed. If the guinea-pig succumbs to the dose of anise-seed

(B-l)

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B-2 HARE. [lJS."u^

it is not until twenty-four or forty-eight hours have elapsed.
Cadeac and Meunier speak of essence of hyssop — ^an ingredient of
absinthe Uqueur — as a powerful agent m producing epilepsy ; but
tliis is, according to Dr. Laborde, a very exaggerated statement.
One to 2 cubic centimetres injected into a guinea-pig produced
increased vivacity, impulsive movements, bilateral cephalic trem-
blings, and contraction of the paws ; ultimately the animal became
somnolent — a state which seems to be produced by all the ingre-
dients of absinthe liqueurs except absinthe itself. The reporters
conclude (1) that the absinthe is, of all the essences in the
Hqueurs of that name, the most toxic and dangerous, and it alone
produces the epilepsy of the absinthe drinkers ; (2) that it is an
error, scientifically and practically, to give the titles " beneficent "
and " con-ective " to absinthe essences ; (3) that absinthe liqueurs,
and all liqueurs of the sort, said to be aperient, and, above all, the
non-purified and adulterated alcohols, constitute poisons the most
prejudicial to health ; (4) that absinthism and alcoholism consti-
tute the two great enemies to public health and the improvement
of the human race.

Acetophone or Methylrphenylrketone. — ^Kamenskiijl^.has made
a research on the physiological effects of acetophone or methyl-
phenyl-ketone on animals in Sushchinski's laboratory. He finds
that it lowers the sensibiUty and interferes with reflex action.
Large and medium doses produce a moderate amount of sleep. It
quickens the heart's action, probably by stimulating the accelerator
nervous apparatus. It increases the irritability of the respiratory
centre, except in large doses, which may arrest respiration alto-
gether. It lowers the blood-pressure by its action on the vaso-
motor centre and by weakening the heart's action. Medium and
large doses lower the irritability of the brain, and even small doses
have a similar effect upon the cord. The oxygenation of the blood
takes place more rapidly under the influence of acetophone than
without it. The fall of temperature is due to increased giving off
of heat to the surrounding atmosphere.

Alcohol. — In order to study the action produced by an occa-
sional (dietetic) use of alcohol on the nitrogenous metabolism and
the assimilation of proteids and fats, Mohilansky,^. house-physician
to Manassem's clinic, has undertaken careful experiments on 15
healthy men (mostly medical students), aged from 18 to 28.



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AlMhoi. ] EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS. B-3

Some of the subjects were total abstainers, some were occasional,
and others habitual alcohol drinkers. The administration of alcohol
varied according to the subject's habit, the daily dose oscillating
between 60 and 140 cubic centimetres (2 to 5 ounces) of absolute
alcohol, or from four small wine-glassfuls (rumka) to half a bottle
of a 40- or 42-per-cent. vodka (aquavit). To put it otherwise,
the beverage was given in a dose sufficient to produce slight
intoxication (high spirits and talkativeness, etc.). The principal
results of Mohilansky's important and very instructive researches
may be given as follows: 1. In people habituated to alcohol, when
taken in moderate quantities, it distinctly improves the appe-
tite, and gives rise to a marked increase in the assimilation of the
nitrogenous constituents of food, the average surplus amounting
to 2.09 per cent., the maximal to 4.22 (e.g.. a patient who had
been assimilating 93.10 per cent, of nitrogen, without alcohol,
proved to be assimilating 96.07 per cent, nitrogen when alcohol
was added to his dietary). 2. In habitual total abstainers, how-
ever, the assimilation sinks somewhat (0.28 or 0.33 per cent.).
3. The increased assimilation in the former category must be
attributed to a more complete absorption and intensified gastric
digestion, which result from a prolonged retention of food in the
stomach on one side, and from increased digestive power and
secretion of the gastric juice (Claude Bernard, Kretschy, Richet,
Lever, Petit and Semerie, Gluzinski) on the other. 4. The ni-
trogenous metabolism or disintegration of proteids almost invariably
(in 13 out of 15 cases) decreases; the average fall being 8.73 per
cent, the maximal 19.42. the minimal 0.14 (e.g.^ in a patient in
whom the metamorphosis on non-alcoholic days had amounted to
80.11 per cent.; on alcoholic days it fell to 63.78). The decrease
is frequently observed even when small doses are taken; it is
invariable in the case of moderate or medium quantities. There
does not, however, exist any strict parallelism between the dose
and the amount of the inhibition of the metabolism. 5. The
decrease remains still perceptible for some time, even after dis-
continuing alcohol. 6. It is probably dependent mainly upon alco-
hol inhibiting the systematic oxidation processes (V. A. Manassein,
Schmiedeberg, Boecker), and further upon its changing the blood-
pressure, dilating blood-vessels, retarding the circulation, and de-
pressing the bodily temperature. 7. Alcohol also diminishes



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B-4 HAKE. [ AlcohoL

somewhat the assimilation of fats (to judge from the fact that
the amount of fatty acids eliminated with faeces is augmented).
8. It does not possess any diuretic action; on the contrary, it
rather tends to inhibit the elimination of water by the kidney,
which, after all, should be expected beforehand, since alcohol
dilates cutaneous blood-vessels and depresses the arterial tension ;
that is, favors cutaneous perspiration and interferes with the renal
action. (As a matter of fact, in 2 patients the daily amount of
urine remained unaltered; in 5 it increased on an average 7
per cent.; while in 8 it fell 12 per cent.) 9. Such organs as
are not habituated to the use of alcohol show a much stronger
reaction from the substance than habituated ones.

Amido-benzoic Acid Oroup. — With a few exceptions, it may
be stated that this class of substances is without any effect upon
the animal organism. Whether they are given to animals by the
stomach or intra-venously there still remains the normal condition
of the system unchanged in its functional activity. OrilKhamido
benzoic Acid. — ^The administration of 2 grammes (30 grains) of
this substance for every 8 kilos (17 pounds) of dogs' weight was
entirely without effect. On the circulation the results are almost
equally barren. After the injection of 1 gramme (15 grains)
for every 6 kilos (13 pounds) by the jugular vein no symptoms
appear for about nine minutes, when a decided slowing of the
pulse occurs. As this occurs both in the curarized and non-
curarized animal, it must depend on some direct effect of the drug.
Further experimentation has shown that the inhibitory nerves are
stimulated centrically and peripherally, since under these circum-
stances section of these nerves causes slight increase in rate not
equal to that occurring in the normal dog, — a fact which points to
peripheral inhibitory stimidation. This action would seem proved
since atropine failed to produce an increase in rate if ortho-amido-
benzoic acid was given first. Metaramido-benzoic Acid. — This
compound also has little influence on the animal economy.
Careful manometrical studies of the circulatory apparatus, aft;er
doses of the compound by the jugular vein, show results identical
with those already given, and even so much as 1 gramme (15
grains) to every 5 kilos (11 pounds) of the dog's weight produces
no influence. In one experiment, in which the entire mass of the
injection (1 gramme — 15 grains — ^in 40 centimetres — 1-J- fluidounces



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Amido-b^nxoic



Acidtol^ ] EXPERI3CENTAL THERAPEUTICS. B-5

— of aq.) was sent en masse into the heart, there was for a moment
a fall of blood-pressure of about 20 millimetres of mercur)\ which
lasted for only 10 seconds, and was dependent on the rapidity of
the injection. Para-amidohenzoic Acid, — AVhen para-amido-ben-
zoic acid is given by the stomach to a dog, so that for each 7
kilos (15 pounds) of the animal 500 milligrammes (8 grains) of
the drug are used, nothing occui"s, and this is likewise true when
such a large dose as 2 grammes (30 grains) to ever)' 5 kilos (11
pounds) are employed. In one case slight vomiting came on, but
as a very small amount of liquid was ejected none of the drug was
lost, and it is probable that the efforts at vomiting was largely
voUtional, and due to the irritation of the fauces by the oesophageal
tube used when giving the dose. No fall in the normal bodily
temperature occurred, as was proved by the insertion of a rectal
thermometer before and after dosage. On the circulation, as
studied by the mercurial manometer, this compound gives results
of no more importance than those already stated. The pulse-rate
and arterial pressure undergo no changes when doses of from 500
milligrammes (8 grains) to 1 gramme (15 grains) to every 8 kilos
(17 pounds) of the dog's weight are given by the jugular vein, in
the space of 10 seconds, in 30 centimetres (1 fluidounce) of sodium-
carbonate solution. (Gibbs and Hare^).

Anilides {Formanilide^ Methylformanilide^ MethyJacetanilide),
— Binet,Api,^ working in the laboratory of Prevost, has carried out a
careful and lengthy research on these substances. The conclusions
which he reaches are as follow : Formanilide, methylformanilide,
and methylacetanihde present for consideration two points of view ;
namely, those in which they possess properties in common, and
those in which they differ. Considering first their common prop-
erties, he finds that they possess a local action on the tissues, more
particularly on the muscles. On the frog, when given hypo-
dermically, they produce loss of motor power and finally paralysis
of the peripheral nerves, with depression of the nerve-centres ; the
respirations are suspended, the heart is simply slowed, unless the
drug be injected directly into the heart, when it is paralyzed. In
warm-blooded animals the blood is altered, becoming black and
asphyxiated by the reduction of oxyhsemoglobin. When the
poisoning is prolonged the blood becomes coarse and brown-look-
ing, as is characteristic of the formation of methsemoglobin. That



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B-6 HARE. [ Anlllde..

this change does occur is proved by the spectroscope. The num-
ber and form of the red corpuscles are not decreased or changed.
These changes in the blood and respiration are the causes of death
in warm-blooded animals ; there is always a marked fall of tem-
perature, as of the heart-force, arterial pressure, and excitability of
the vagus nerves. When the anilines are taken, para-amido-phenol
can be found resulting from the oxidation of the aniline in the
urine by means of the indo-phenol reaction. Very frequently the
urine under these circumstances will reduce a cupro-potassic solu-
tion. The special properties of these bodies are centred around
the central nervous system. Formanilide and methylformanilide
produce an inertia and torpor, with shivering, salivation, and
jerkings of the muscles, as an advanced form of the poisoning.
On the other hand, methylacetanilide rapidly provokes crises of
clonic, epileptiform convulsions with salivation. The attacks are
alternated with intervals of quiet, during which the animal is rest-
less and nibbles the objects about him. The movements of the
limbs are incessant, and collapse with cyanosis terminates the
scene if the dose be a lethal one. The toxicity of these bodies is
governed by their molecular weights, for formanilide is the least
toxic, methylformanilide is next, and methylacetanilide is the most
dangerous. With these three bodies one observes the fact that the
system becomes rapidly accustomed to them, for each succeeding
dose is not followed by such severe symptoms. The introduction
of these bodies into therapeutics is hardly to be thought of, owing
to their poisonous properties.

Aniline and Toluidine. — Wertheimer and Meyer ,i, have
published the results of a series of experiments, which show that
the chloride of aniline and of toluidine injected into the veins of a
dog in the proportion of 30 centigrammes (5 grains) to the kilo
(2 pounds) causes within a few minutes a transformation of
haemoglobin into methaemoglobin, as shown by the spectroscope.
In regard to the quantity of carbonic acid in the blood, they found
that this drug produces a slight decrease in it, and that the quan-
tity of oxygen was very notably decreased. Thus, when aniline
was given, the percentage of oxygen was only 7.3 instead of 23.1,
which is the normal percentage. When metatoluidine was
employed, 6.8 per cent, instead of 23.1 per cent, of oxygen was
found, — a decrease which is considerably more than that caused by



Online LibraryArthur George HillAnnual of the universal medical sciences and analytical index. A yearly report of the progress of the general sanitary sciences throughout the world. [1888-1896.] ... → online text (page 15 of 71)