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Ecclesia Restaurata, or the History of the Reformation of the Church
of England (ed. by James Craigie Robertson and printed by the
Ecclesiastical History Society, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1849), and
Thomas Fuller, Church History of Britain (ed. J. S. Brewer, 6 vols.,
London, 1837), were written by clerics of the English Church who
adhered to Charles I and to the High Church Laudian party.
W. Corbett, Protestant Reformation (ed. F. A. Gasquet, 2 vols.,
London, 1896), with which it may be interesting to compare
Charles Hastings Collette, Queen Elizabeth and the Penal Laws,
with an Introduction on Wm. Cobbett's "History of the Protestant
Reformation." Passing in review the Reigns of Henry VIII, Ed-
ward VI and Mary (Protestant Alliance, London, 1890). Henry
Soames, History of the Reformation of the Church of England
(4 vols., London, 1826-28), and the same writer's Elizabethan
Religious History (London, 1839), are less interesting than the
older works.

The examination of more recent writers on the Church, cover-
ing the whole or parts of the Tudor period, will convince the
careful American student, unprejudiced by national and ecclesi-
astical sympathies, that in some respects even greater care is



204 Bibliographical Appendix

required in their use than is the case of the older historians.
Documents and sources are used more accurately, there is little
or no conscious polemic purpose, and prejudices are less obvious,
but the student who compares the equally scholarly work of a
modern Anglican cleric, a modern Catholic priest, and a noncon-
formist scholar will often find widely divergent conclusions equally
honest. Religious and national prejudices are so difficult to escape
that the student should be on his guard constantly, both in his
own work and in estimating the work of even the most conscien-
tious of modern scholars.

Richard Watson Dixon, History of the Church of England
from the Abolition of the Roman Jurisdiction (6 vols., of which
vols, v and vi were compiled from the notes and papers of Canon
Dixon by Henry Gee), is one of the fairest written by an Anglican
clergyman. It is frankly stated that the writer's standpoint is
that of a Church of England cleric. James Gairdner, The English
Church in the 16th Century (1902), and the same author's History
of the English Church from Henry to the Death of Mary (1902),
covering part of the same period, while not entirely free from
faults, are most excellent. W. H. Frere, The English Church in
the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I, 1558-1625 (in the History of
the English Church, edited by W. R. W. Stephens and W. Hunt,
London and New York, 1904), is a scholarly introduction to the
period, although Frere's patience with the Puritans is not always
unstrained. John Hunt, Religious Thought in England from the
Reformation to the Last Century (3 vols., 1870), is a somewhat
older work deserving examination. To the same class belongs
John Henry Blunt, Reformation of the Church of England (2 vols.,
New York, 1882). Henry Gee, Elizabethan Clergy and the Settle-
ment of Religion, 15 58-1 564 (Oxford, 1898), is a scholarly treat-
ment of one phase of the subject, but this Anglican treatment
should be compared with the study of the same subject by a
Catholic scholar, Henry Norbert Birt, The Elizabethan Religious
Settlement ; A Study of Contemporary Documents (London, 1907).
Gilbert W. Child, Church and State under the Tudors (London and
New York, 1890), is as clear-sighted as any work the student can
wish to examine. On the same topic as Arthur Elliot, The State
and the Church (London and New York, 1896), a great deal of
literature of historical value will be found arising from the recent
attempts to bring about disestablishment. Roland G. Usher,
The Reconstruction of the English Church (2 vols., New York and
London, 1910), is a brilliant work written by an American scholar.
S. F. Maitland, Essays on Subjects connected with the Reformation
in England (reprinted with an introduction by A. W. Hutton,



Bibliographical Appendix 205



London and New York, 1899), is the work of one of the most able
of the older English scholars and deals with early and pre-Eliza-
bethan topics. These essays should be studied carefully. Bishop
Stubbs, Seventeen Lectures on the Study of Mediaeval and Modern
History (Oxford, 1900), is, naturally, scholarly and suggestive.

Histories of particular dioceses are published by the Society
for Promoting Christian Knowledge in a series called Diocesan
Histories. Of particular interest are J. L. Low, Durham (London,
1881); R. H. Morris, Chester (London, 1895); H. W. Phillott,
Hereford (London, 1888) ; R. S. Ferguson, Carlisle (London, 1889).
For the Universities consult J. B. Mullinger, History of the Uni-
versity of Cambridge, and Anthony a Wood, Historia et antiqui-
tates universitatis Oxoniensis (Oxoniae, 1674). Thomas Baker's
History of the College of St. John the Evangelist, Cambridge, has
been edited by J. E. B. Mayor (2 vols., Cambridge, 1896). Among
the many local histories published by local history societies and
antiquarians William Watson, Historical Account of the Ancient
Town and Port of Wisbeach (Wisbeach, 1827), will be very helpful.

For Convocation, T. Lathbury, History of the Convocation of the
Church of England (1st ed., London, 1842; 2d ed., London, 1853) ;
F. Atterbury, Rights and Privileges of an English Convocation (2d
ed., London, 1701). G. Nicholsius, Defensio Ecclesice Anglicance
(London, 1708), has an interesting section on u homiliarum in nas-
cente Reformatione usus," and some material on the same topic
will be found in J. T. Tomlinson, The Prayer Book, Articles and
Homilies (London, 1897).

On the Prayer Book there are several works of first-rate im-
portance, but the following will prove particularly useful: F.
Proctor and W. H. Frere, New History of the Book of Common
Prayer (London, 1901); Nicholas Pocock, The Reformation and
the Prayer Book (London, 1879); F. A. Gasquet, Edward VI and
the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1890); J. Parker, The First
Prayer Book of Edward VI (Oxford, 1877); N. Pocock, Troubles
connected with the First Book of Common Prayer (Papers from
the Petyt MSS., Camden Society, London, 1884) ; L. Pullan, His-
tory of the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1900); H. Gee, The
Elizabethan Prayer-book and Ornaments (London, 1902) ; E. C.
Harrington, Pope Pius IV and the Book of Common Prayer.

For the Thirty-nine Articles cf. E. C. S. Gibson, The 39 Articles
(2d ed., London, 1898); C. Hardwick, History of the Articles of
Religion (Cambridge, 1859).

For the liturgies : Liturgies of Edward VI (Parker Society, edited
by J. Kelley, Cambridge, 1844) ; Liturgies set forth in the Reign of
Elizabeth (Parker Society, edited by Clay, Cambridge, 1847).



206 Bibliographical Appendix

For episcopacy and the apostolic succession consult: Bishop
Hall, Episcopacy by Divine Right Asserted ; E. E. Estcourt, Ques-
tion of Anglican Ordinations (London, 1873); Stubbs, Apostolical
Succession in the Church of England; John Bramhall, On Apostolic
Succession of the Church of England , in Works (ed. by A. W.
Haddon, 5 vols., Oxford, 1842-45); Samuel F. Hulton, The Pri-
macy of England (Oxford and London, 1899); Francis Johnson,
A Treatise of the Ministry of the Church of England; Pierre Francois
Courayer, Dissertation on the Validity of the Ordinations of the
English and of the Succession of the Bishops of the Anglican Church ;
with the proofs establishing the facts advanced in this work (Oxford,
1844). The works of Saravia should be examined, especially De
diver sis gradibus ministrorum (London, 1590). He defended the
episcopal forms and the succession during the last years of
Elizabeth's reign and had considerable influence upon the
Anglican divines. There are long quotations from sixteenth-
century Anglican writers in A. J. Mason, The Church of England
and Episcopacy (Cambridge, 1914).

For an understanding of what Erastianism is, cf. J. N. Figgis,
"Erastus and Erastianism" (Journal L of Theological Studies,
vol. 11, p. 66).

The older histories of the nonconformists and dissenters are
many of them prejudiced in the extreme and misrepresent facts
and motives, but should be examined as carefully as the Anglican
histories of the same class. Neal, History of the Puritans, should be
read in connection with Madox, Vindication of the Church of Eng-
land against Neal. Benjamin Hanbury, Historical Memorials
Relating to the Independents (1839-44); Marsden, History of the
Early Puritans; Samuel Hopkins, The Puritans or the Church,
Court, and Parliament of England during the Reigns of Edward VI
and Queen Elizabeth (3 vols., Boston, 1859-61), a common book,
but of little value; Benjamin Brook, Lives of the Puritans (3 vols.,
London, 1813), is little more than a series of brief biographical
sketches, sometimes useful in locating particular men, but of no
historical value. John Brown, The English Puritans (Cambridge,
1912, Cambridge Manuals of Science and Literature), is a good
recent introduction to the subject. Henry W. Clark, History of
English Nonconformity from Wictif to the close of the 19th Century
(vol. 1, 191 1, deals with the period up to the early Stuarts; vol. 11,
London, 1913, The Restoration) . Champlin Burrage has written
and published much on various phases of English dissent and all
his work is worthy of examination, some of it indispensable. Of
his writings the following are important : The Early English Dis-
senters in the Light of Recent Research, 1550-1641 (2 vols., Cam-



Bibliographical Appendix 207

bridge, 1912. Vol. 1, History and Criticism ; vol. II, Illustrative
Documents, many of them hitherto unpublished), is a most schol-
arly treatment from the factual standpoint, and the introduction
contains a valuable discussion of the literature. Cf., also, Cham-
plin Burrage, The True Story of Robert Browne, 1 550-1633, Father
of Congregationalism (London, 1906); The 'Retraction' of Robert
Browne, Father of Congregationalism, being a Reproof e of certeine
Schismatical persons [i.e., Henry Barrowe, John Greenwood and
their Congregation] and their Doctrine, etc., written probably about
1588 (London, 1907); The Church Covenant Idea; Its Origin and
its Development (American Baptist Publication Society, Phila-
delphia, 1904); John Penry,the So-called Martyr of Congregation-
alism as revealed in the Original Record of His Trial and in Docu-
ments related thereto (Oxford and London, 19 13); Elizabethan
Puritanism and Separatism. The work of Henry M. Dexter is also
important, although of somewhat different character and perhaps
not so accurate as that of Burrage. Cf. Dexter, Congregationalism,
What it is, Whence it is, How it Works, etc. (Boston, 1865); Con-
gregationalism as Seen in its Literature (New York, 1880); The
True Story of John Smyth, the se-baptist as told by himself and his
contemporaries (Boston, 1881). For the Congregational and Bap-
tist development: R. W. Dale, History of English Congregational-
ism (London, 1907); John Clifford, The Origin and Growth of the
English Baptists (London, 1857); Thomas Crosby, A History of
the English Baptists from the Reformation to the Beginning of the
Reign of King George I (London, 1738) ; and for the Anabaptists,
H. S. Burrage, The Anabaptists of the 16th Century (American
Society of Church History Papers, vol. in, pp. 145-64, 1891);
John Waddington, John Penry, the Pilgrim Martyr, 1559-1503
(London, 1854), may prove of some assistance.

For the Martin Marprelate controversy: William Pierce, An
Historical Introduction to the Marprelate Tracts, A Chapter in the
Evolution of Religious and Civil Liberty in England (New York,
1909), and the same writer's Marprelate Tracts, 1588, 1589, with
notes historical and explanatory (London, 191 1), are the best
books on the subject. William Maskell, A History of the Martin
Marprelate Controversy ; Edward Arber, An Introductory Sketch
to the Martin Marprelate Controversy {English Scholars' Library) ;
H. M. Dexter, Martin Marprelate Controversy, present the views
of older scholars. Many of the original tracts, and some of the
replies as well, are in the McAlpin Collection in the Union Theo-
logical Seminary Library. For detailed literature see Pierce,
Introduction, and Tracts.

Other writings of the dissenters and nonconformists will be



208 Bibliographical Appendix

found in various collections and libraries. W. H. Frere and C. E.
Douglas have edited Puritan Manifestoes, A Study of the Origin of
the Puritan Revolt. With a reprint of the Admonition to the Parlia-
ment and kindred documents, 1572 (Society for Promoting Chris-
tian Knowledge, in the Church History Society Publications, vol.
lxxii, London and New York, 1907). Arber, English Scholars'
Library, contains many things and the list for that series should
be consulted. It contains a reprint of Brief Discourse of the
Troubles at Frankfort ; J. Udall,^4 Demonstration of the Truth of
Discipline ; Udall, Diotrephes, Pappe with a Hatchet, is printed in
Elizabethan and Jacobean Pamphlets", edited by George Saintsbury.

For the Presbyterians and their leaders in Elizabeth's time,
there is abundant source material, but few works of first-rate
importance. Benjamin Brook, Memoirs of the Life and Writings
of Thomas Cartwright (London, 1845), is still, so far as the writer
knows, the only life of that eminent and vigorous Presbyterian,
and it is to be hoped that a new one will soon take the place of
Brook's work. Roland G. Usher, The Presbyterian Movement in
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth as illustrated by the Minute Book of the
Dedham Classis, 1582-1589 (Camden Society, 1905), presents
an interesting theory with considerable backing of fact. W. A.
Shaw, "Elizabethan Presbyterianism" {English Historical Review,
vol. in), is worth reading.

Three works touching the Familists are the chief source for the
English group: Henry Nickolas, An Introduction to the holy under-
standing of the Glass of Righteousness ; J. Knewstubs, Confutation
of certain monstrous and horrible heresies taught by H. N. 1579; and
John Rogers The displaying of an horrible sect of gross and wicked
heretics, naming themselves, the Family of Love ; with the lives of the
Authors etc. (London, 1578).

For the Catholics in England during the reign of Elizabeth a
great deal of material has been published, much of it unfortu-
nately, whether written by Anglican, Catholic, or nonconformist,
not very reliable. Arnold Oskar Meyer, England u. die Katholische
Kirke unter Elisabeth u. den Stuarts (vol. 1 unter Elisabeth, Rom,
1911; translated, St. Louis, 1916), is a scholarly work by a Ger-
man who has carefully studied the documents. Ranke, Analecte
in die Romische Papste (translated in the Bohn Library) is still a
very useful work. F. G. Lee, Church under Q. Elizabeth (2 vols.,
1880), is a work by no means fair, but suggestive in many respects.
Nicholas Sander, Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism, pub-
lished 1585 with a Continuation of the History by the Rev. Edward
Rishton (translated with an introduction and notes by David
Lewis, London, 1877), is an excellent example of contemporary



Bibliographical Appendix 209

Catholic writing. Catholic Tractates of the 16th Century (ed. T. G.
Law, Scottish Text Society, Edinburgh, 1901), gives further ma-
terial of somewhat the same character. Raynaldus, Annates
Ecclesiastici, should most certainly be used although on many
points not to be depended upon. For the Council of Trent the
old classical histories of Sarpi and Pallavicino remain the best
works.

For the Popes: W. Voss, Die Verhandlungen Pius IV mit den
katholischen Machten (Leipzig, 1887); an article by Maitland,
"Queen Elizabeth and Paul IV" {English Historical Review, vol.
xv, p. 326) ; Mendham, Life and Pontificate of Pius V (London,
1832; supplement, 1833).

Works of value in the study of the treatment of the English
Catholics are: Phillips, Extinction of the Ancient Hierarchy (Lon-
don, 1905) ; T. E. Bridgett and T. F. Knox, The True Story of the
Catholic Hierarchy deposed by Queen Elizabeth (London, 1889);
T. F. Knox, Records of Anglican Catholics under the Penal Laws
(London, 1878); Bishop Challoner, Memoirs of Missionary Priests
and Other Catholics of Both Sexes that have suffered Death in England
on Religious Accounts from 1377-1684 (ed. T. G. Law, Manches-
ter, 1878) ; Charles Buller, Historical Memoirs of the English, Irish
and Scottish Catholics since the Reform (3d ed., 4 vols., London,
1822) ; Cardinal Manning, Calendar of Martyrs of the 16th and 17th
Centuries (London, 1887); T. G. Law, A Calendar of the English
Martyrs of the 16th and 17th Centuries (London, 1876) ; Pollen and
Burton, Lives of the English Martyrs, 1583-1588 (1914), is the
latest. All these works must be used with considerable cau-
tion.

The work of J. H. Pollen, a modern Catholic scholar, deserves
the highest consideration. Cf. especially his Unpublished Docu-
ments relating to the English Martyrs (vol. 1, 1584-1603, Catholic
Record Soc. Pub. v, 1908); Acts of the English Martyrs hitherto
unpublished (London, 1891), and various articles in The Month.
Especially "Religious Terrorism under Q. Elizabeth" (March,
1905); "Politics of English Catholics during the Reign of Q.
Elizabeth" (1902); "The Question of Queen Elizabeth's Suc-
cessor" (May, 1903).

Consult also the following: F. A. Gasquet, Hampshire Recusants,
a story of their troubles in the time of Elizabeth (London, 1895);
J. J. E. Proost, Les refugies anglais et irlandais en Belgique a la
suite de la reforme religieuse etablie sous Elisabeth et Jacques I;
Guilday, English Catholic Refugees on the Continent (vol. 1, 1914);
M. A. S. Hume, Treason and Plot, Struggles for Catholic Supremacy
in the Last Years of Q. Elizabeth (new edition, London, 1908) ; the



210 Bibliographical Appendix

article by R. B. Merriman, "Notes on the Treatment of the Eng-
lish Catholics in the reign of Elizabeth" (American Historical
Review, vol. xni, no. 3), is by an American scholar and exceed-
ingly fair.

On the Bull of Excommunication two of the most interesting
contemporary pamphlets are Bullce Papisticce ante brennum contra
sereniss. Anglice \Francice et Hibernice Reginam Elizabetham et
contra indytum Anglice regnum promulgatce Refutatio, orthodoxceque
RegincB et Universi regni Anglice defensio Henry chi Bullingeri
(London, 1572), and A Disclosing of the great Bull and certain
calves that he hath gotten and specially the Monster Bull that roared
at my Lord Bishops Gate. (Imprinted at London by John Daye.)
On the same topic see M. Creighton, "The Excommunication of
Q. Elizabeth " (English Historical Review, vol. vn, p. 81).

For the Jesuits consult : Robert Persons, The First Entrance of
the Fathers of the Society into England (ed. J. H. Pollen, Catholic
Record Society, Miscellanea, vol. 11, 1906); Henry Foley, Records
of the English Province of the Society of Jesus (8 vols., London,
1877-83) ; Ethelred L. Taunton, The History of the Jesuits in Eng-
land, 1580-1773 (Philadelphia and London, 1901); T. G. Law,
Historical Sketch of the Conflicts between Jesuits and Seculars in the
Reign of Queen Elizabeth with a Reprint of Christopher Bagshaws'
'True Relation of the Faction begun at Wisbich' (London, 1889).
Biographical material: Richard Simpson, Edmund Champion, a
Biography (London, 1867); The Letters and Memorials of Wm.
Cardinal Allen, 153 2-1 5 Q4 (edited by the Fathers of the Congre-
gation of the London Oratory, London, 1882); Morris, Life of
Father John Gerard (London, 1881).

For the student particularly interested in the development of
toleration and liberty the following books are suggested : James
Mackinnon, A History of Modern Liberty (3 vols., London, 1906-
08, vol. 11, The Age of the Reformation, and vol. in, The Stuarts).
Sir Frederick Pollock, "The Theory of Persecution," in Essays on
Jurisprudence and Ethics; SchafT, Religious Liberty (in Publica-
tions of the American Historical Association, 1886-87); Mandell
Creighton, Persecution and Tolerance (Hulsean Lectures, 1893-
94, London and New York, 1895) ; J. O. Bevan, Birth and Growth
of Toleration (London, 1909); Sir James Fitzjames Stephen,
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. One of the best studies is A. A.
Seaton, Theory of Toleration under the Later Stuarts (Cambridge,
191 1), and it has an introduction of primary importance. Cf.,
also, C. Beard, The Reformation of the 16th Century in its relation
to modern Thought and Knowledge (London, 1883). H. T. Buckle,
History of Civilization in England (2 vols., New York, 1891, from



Bibliographical Appendix 211

the 2d London ed.), takes a view now somewhat antiquated, but
worth considering. The intellectual aspects of the develop-
ment are ably presented by J. B. Bury, A History of Freedom
of Thought (Home University Library) , and in greater detail by
J. M. Robertson, A Short History of Freethought (2 vols., New
York, 1906).



Index



INDEX



Act for the Assurance of the Queen's
Supremacy, 30.

Act for the Better Enforcement of
the Writ de Excommunicato Capi-
endo, 30.

Act of Supremacy, 21-24, 29, 67, 72,
105.

Act of Uniformity, 21-24, 72, 97, 105,
142.

Acts of Parliament, religious, 70, 73,
80, 82, 97, 150.

Advertisements, Parker's, 142.

Agnostics, Congregationalists intol-
erant of, 181.

Anabaptists, 69 «., 131, 134, 175.

Anglican Church, 5, 64, 142. See also
Established Church.

Anglicanism, 93-130, 161, 180, 187,
190.

Answer e to a certen Libel intituled An
Admonition to the Parliament, An,
155.

Anti-Vestiarians, 159.

Apostolic succession of bishops, 1 10-

15-

Ascham, 16.

Atheists, Congregationalists intoler-
ant of, 181.

Aylmer, Bishop, 25, 157.

Bacon, 80, 114, 147.

Bancroft, Bishop of London, 47, 68,

113. H7-

Barlow, Bishop, 43, no.

Barrow, 175.

Barrowists, 131, 134, 175.

Bell, Speaker, 151.

Bible, publication of official, 117; pri-
vate interpretation of, 120.

Bigotry, 90.

Bishops, opposed religious changes,
18; refused to debate with reform-
ers, 19; removal of Catholic, 23;
selection of Protestant, 25; courts
of, 76; apostolic succession of, 110-
15.



Blackstone, 73.

Book of Common Prayer, 10, 11 n., 70,

97, 117, 150; of Edward VI, 20.
Book of Discipline, 157.
Book of Homilies, 20.
Bridges, Dr. John, 158 ».
Browne, 176, 177, 180.
Brownists, 131, 134, 175.
Bullinger, 146.

Calendar of English Martyrs, 50.

Calvin, 65, 136.

Calvinism, 10, 99, 165, 188.

Campion, Jesuit missionary, 40, 51.

Capias, Writ of, 32.

Cartwright, Thomas, 119, 133, 135,
154, 160-65, 181.

Catechism, Nowell's, 98.

Catholicism, Roman, 9, 14, 125, 173,
186.

Cecil, Sir William, 13, 18, 21, 61, 98,
141, 172; quoted, 39, 68.

Ceremonies, religious, 109, 141; a
cause of dissent, 135, 138, 152.

Chancery, Court of, 31.

Church, a, Congregationalist idea of,
176.

Church, the, and the secular courts, 76.

Church and State, 64-92, 122, 153,
168, 172, 180, 189.

Church of England. See Established
Church.

Clergy, removal of Catholic, 19, 23;
required to take oath of supremacy,
22; selection of Protestant, 26; in-
competent, 26, 95, 102; restraints
on, 98; illiterate, 100; lack of mor-
als of, 102; opposed use of habits,
142-45.

Clerical offices, desire for, 15, 100.

Commissions, Ecclesiastical, 70; of
Royal Visitation, 23, 27; of Review,
73-

Common Pleas, Court of, 78.

Confiscation of property for absence
from church, 55.



2l6



Index



Conformity, 22, 54.

Congregationalism, 135, 174-82, 188.

Congregationalists, 134, 135, 174-82.

Continental Protestantism, 15, 115,
128, 137, 145.

Convocation, 18, 150.

Cooper, Bishop, ioi, 113, 149, 151.

Copping, John, 181 n.

Cosin, 74.

Council, the, 12, 18, 74, 77, 84-87.

Court of Arches, 80.

Courts, 84; ecclesiastical, 71-82; sec-
ular, 76.

Covenant, the, 10.

Cox, 20, 53.

Cranmer, ill, 182.

Crown, power of the, 72-76.

Defence of the Answer e, 157.

Democracy of Presbyterianism, 166.

Disloyalty, Presbyterian, to Queen,
172.

Dissent, 116, 129; causes of, 90;
Protestant, 131-82.

Doctrinal standards, Anglican, formu-
lation of, 96-99.

Ecclesiastic Discipline . . . Explicate;

157.

Ecclesiastical apologetic, 117.

Ecclesiastical polity, 135, 161, 164.

Ecclesiastical Polity, Hooker's, 164.

Ecclesiastical theory, formulation of,
105.

Edward VI, 14.

Elizabeth, Queen, 5, 183; alleged ille-
gitimacy of, 7; attitude toward the
Pope, 8; attitude on the religious
question, 12-16, 33, 57; her first
Parliament, 18-22 ; and the clergy,
25, 88, 145, 147; second Parliament,
28-33; excommunication of, 37; the


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