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highest variance-to-mean ratios.

Table 3 also shows changes in the estimate of the total number of
individuals per sample and individuals of major groups per sample.



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(3) Number of Sample Replications . In choosing the number of
replicates to take at each station, the practical limitations of time
and resources, the nature of the research objectives, and the results of
the preliminary analysis should also be considered. In Oliver and
Slattery (1976), eight replicates contained 87 percent of the total number
of individuals. The confidence limits (Table 3) indicate the accuracy
of the abundance estimates with the various numbers of replicate samples.
Eight samples contained 76 percent of the total number of species in the
28 samples and additional replicates added new species at a much slower
rate (Fig. 2). Also, diversity, H", and evenness, J, values, commonly
used for population analysis (Sec. VII), appear to stabilize between four
and eight replicate samples (Fig. 3). Therefore, eight appears to be the
optimum number of replicates to estimate the number of species based on
the additional cost and manpower that would be required to increase the
replications (see Sec. VIII).




12 14 16
Replicates




2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 !8 20 22 24 26 28
Replicates

Figure 3. Species diversity, H", and evenness, J, values

calculated from increasing numbers of replicate samples
(Oliver and Slattery, 1976).

4. Distribution of Samples .



The detailed patterns of distribution of the species sampled are
not examined in this report. However, to construct a quantitative



sampling plan, it is necessary to have some measure of the gross
"patchiness" of the populations. Patchiness refers to the aggregation
or clumped distribution of individuals in which distribution is not ran-
dom and the variance is significantly greater than the mean value. Sam-
pling can be stratified by locating stations at different depths, but
without further preliminary sampling it is not known whether the magni-
tude of spatial variation of the endofauna warrants the further strati-
fication of sampling within a depth contour.

To determine the gross patchiness of the endofauna, sets of replicate
samples should be taken randomly within depths from progressively larger
areas. If any of the major parameters change significantly from one
depth to the next, it is necessary to adjust the sampling plan (e.g.,
stratify) to produce a more reliable estimate of the population.

V. SAMPLING METHODS
1. Establishing Sampling Transects .

After the sampling methods and number of replicate samples needed
are determined, transects can be established and marked by inserting
stakes or screw anchors at the upper limit of the transects (Fig. 4).



VI



-to5-in Diometer. ^P|3

r i



3 to 48 in



Figure 4. Screw anchor,



17



Install the screw anchor by inserting a rod through the eye and turning
it into the bottom. Determine the location of each sampling station
along the transect with a tape or marked line, and mark each with a
screw anchor. Thread a 3/8 -inch polypropylene line through the eyes of
the screw anchors along the transect to provide a lifeline and to help
keep the divers on station. A float attached to another line through
the eye of the seaward screw anchor will provide a visual aid to help
keep the screw on station. Place, two range posts on the upper beach to
assure that the divers stay on the transect, as longshore currents will
tend to drift them down current. After the transect has been established
survey the elevation of each of the sampling stations using the level,
tripod, and surveying rod.

2. Sampling the Swash and Surf Zone .

The swash zone and the upper surf zone usually include the intertidal
and the near subtidal areas. (Generally speaking, if you can stand up :
and breathe without scuba, you're in this zone.) This zone can be further
subdivided into two areas based on whether the area is covered with water
or is not usually covered with water, except for occasional swash (Fig. 1).

If the area is not covered with water, sample the larger organisms
by excavating 0.12-square yard (0.1 square meter) quadrats with a trench-
ing shovel to a depth of at least 4 inches (10 centimeters), however, 8
inches (20 centimeters) is preferable (Fig. 5); sample the smaller orga-
nisms with a coring device (Fig. 6). Place the excavated material
directly in a sieve box (Fig. 5) or the core in a standard sieve. Place
the sieve in an area of nonbreaking waves and sieve the organisms by
allowing water through the bottom of the screen. Do not dip and pour
water directly into the sieve as this may contaminate the sample with
animals in the water. Presieved water may be used to wash the sample.
Place the part of the sample retained by the sieve in a labeled plastic
bag or a sample jar with preserving solution as described in Section VI.
This sampling technique can be used to the low tide line by following an
ebbing tide. However, a coring device (Fig. 6) is the only effective way
to quantitatively sample benthic organisms if the sampling station is
covered with 2 feet of churned -up water and is in or immediately adjacent
to an area of breaking waves.

Directions for transferring the core sample from the bottom are given
below in the discussion of coring devices.

3. Sampling the Near shore Zone .

a. Airlift Dredge and Scuba . The nearshore zone (Fig. 1) can
be sampled using ah airlift (suction) dredge (Fig. 7) and scuba. The
water must be- 6 or more feet (2 or more meters) deep for an airlift
dredge to work efficiently.

The dredge must be calibrated before use to collect a known volume of
sediment at a specific depth and air pressure. Calibrate by removing the



Stainless- Steel Screen
(1.0- or 1.5-mm Mesh



Trenching
Shove




Mesji Screen 10.500-of I OO-mm Mesh) stainless St««l




U.S. STANDARD SIEVE



Figure 5. Trenching shovel and sieves used
for macrofaunal extraction.




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Figure 7. Airlift suction dredge (modified from Cox, 1976)



21



1-millimeter mesh collecting hag from the dredge and replacing it with
a larger fine meshbag that will retain the sand hut allow water to pass
through. Make several uniformly timed digs to a depth of 4 inches or
more, the depth depending on the animals sought. Keep the air pressure
and water depth constant; a change in air pressure or water depth will
require recalibration. Measure the volume or material excavated. Aim
for a uniform volume to be excavated at all sample depths by keeping the
air pressure constant and varying the length of time of the dig according
to water depth.

To collect the sample, attach the 1-millimeter mesh collecting bag
to the dredge. The meshbag should allow about 95 percent of the sedi-
ment to pass through, retaining only the organisms and a small amount of
sediment. Excavate to a given sediment depth (at least 4 inches, 8 inches
is preferable) for the calibrated length of time. Remove the meshbag from
the dredge, tie it closed, and put in a labeled plastic bag.

b. Coring Devices . Benthic fauna can also be sampled at sta-
tions along the transect by coring. Corers may be made from sections
of round or square tubing or fabricated from sheet material (Fig. 6).
Either plastic, steel, or aluminum may be used. Push the coring device
at least 4 inches (8 inches is preferable) into the sediment. If the
diameter of the corer is appropriate in relation to the type of sediment,
the sample will be retained by friction, but the bottom of the corer
should be covered with the hand, a plate or cap, or held against the body
to prevent loss of the extracted sample. If the corer has a top venthole,
cover it with a thumb to prevent the loss of the sample. The sampler may
be inverted to retain organisms if necessary.

Empty the cores with the contained organisms into labeled plastic
bags and close the bags with plastic-coated twist-ties. Collect sample
bags in a diver's "bug" bag with snap closure and haul several bags at
a time to the beach.

If away from the shore, bagged samples should be temporarily stored
in a rubber raft, a large inner tube with a net or tub insert, or a boat
anchored outside the surf zone. The samples should be secured to pre-
vent loss in case of upset in the surf. Waves breaking on outer sandbars
influence the positioning of a support boat or a raft in the nearshore
zone. The "surf beat," the pattern of oscillations of breaking waves
caused by the interaction of two or more wave trains, must be considered.
An unexpected large wave or series of waves can be dangerous to a sam-
pling crew.

VI. SAMPLE TREATMENT

Samples should be taken to the beach, placed in a sieve (mesh size
of 0.5 to 1 millimeter) and sieved. If practical, it is desirable to use
a 0.5-millimeter sieve, particularly for the core samples for small
organisms; 1.0 millimeter is generally more cost-effective. If a large
number of samples are taken in coarse sediments, use a larger mesh sieve



22



(1.5 or 2.0 millimeters) as a preliminary screening. The material left
after sieving a sample should be preserved in 10-percent formal in-seawater
solution and buffered with marble chips or a borax solution (1.5 grams
per liter) . Samples should be processed as completely in the field to
ensure that the specimens will be in the best possible condition. If
samples cannot be adequately processed in the field, place them in ice
coolers and return the samples to a laboratory for immediate i preliminary
processing. During transport, samples should be kept cool (1° to 4°
Celsius) to retard decomposition.

In the laboratory the preserved samples should be rinsed in freshwater
or 70-percent ethanol, organisms stained with rose bengal dye, and sorted
into major taxonomic groups. Before preserving live animals for identi-
fication, immerse in 6-percent magnesium chloride (MgClg) or Epsom salts
CMgSOit . 7H 2 0) in seawater to relax them. This procedure is usually not
practical in the field. Identify organisms to the lowest practical tax-
onomic group, then count and measure by groups. Identification of animals
to genus or species may require either a binocular dissecting scope or a
compound microscope depending on the size of the organisms and the desired
level of identification.

The processed samples should then be transferred to specimen jars or
vials containing 70-percent ethanol with 5-percent glycerin. It is im-
portant to add glycerin to prevent the organisms from becoming brittle.
A waterproof paper label should be placed inside each jar to identify
the specimens. Each label should include the following information
printed in India ink.

(1) Accession number (specimens should be logged in a notebook) .

(2) Lowest taxonomic identification.

(3) Location: State, county, local direction and distance
from landmarks (post office, bench mark, range and section, or
island and peninsulas) .

(4) Sampling station number.

(5) Date: Spell name of month or use Roman numerals.

(6) Collector's name.

(7) Identifier's name.

VII. POPULATION ANALYSIS

Several commonly used statistics are included in this report for
general information (see App. C for formulas). The Shannon-Weaver for-
mula can be used as the measure of species diversity, H" (Pielou, 1966).
and J as a measure of evenness of species abundance (Pielou, 1969) .
These indices should be used with caution; however, their use in a
strictly relative sense is justified.



23



The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests can be used to determine
if the populations of different areas are the same. Elliott (1971) anci
Sokal and Rohlf (1969) give detailed explanations of these tests.

Similarity indices and coefficients are becoming popular as a numeri-
cal method for classifying many species populations. Over 25 indices and
coefficients exist; therefore, care must be exercised in choosing which
to use and in interpreting the results. Pielou (1977) discusses the
general literature on their use and presents four of the more commonly
used methods. These indices and coefficients have no comparative sta-
tistical basis, but do give some indication of the similarity of samples.

VIII. COST AND MANPOWER ESTIMATES

One set of samples, using a minimum number of personnel, is estimated
at $3,000 to $6,000 (1977 prices). A set is assumed to consist of six
stations (three intertidal and three subtidal) at each of three transects.
The cost varies with the number of samples taken per station, frequency
of sampling (seasonal, etc.), and the. surf and wave conditions.

The minimum manpower required to obtain a set of samples and identify
the animals is: A four -man field crew (two qualified scuba divers and
two excellent swimmers) ; one trained laboratory technician (invertebrate
specialist) ; and one consultant to identify rare animals or difficult
groups of animals.

The time required to analyze benthic samples varies with the level
of identification for the species collected. Generally, at least 3
hours is required in the laboratory for each hour in the field. There-
fore, the analysis may require the greater part of the budget.



24



LITERATURE CITED

COX, J.L., "Sampling Variation in Sand Beach Littoral and Nearshore
Meiofauna and Macrofauna," TP 76-14, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers,
Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., Sept. 1976.

EDGE, B.C., SPERLING, P. A., and MAGOON, O.T., "Compendium of Coastal
Wave Data in North America," Ports '77 , 'Fourth Annual Symposium of
the Waterway j Port 3 Coastal and Ocean Division, American Society of
Civil Engineers, Vol. II, Mar. 1977, pp. 187-217.

ELLIOTT, J.M., Some Methods for the Statistical Analysis of Samples of
Benthic Invertebrates, Scientific Publication No. 25, Freshwater
Biological Association, The Ferry House, Ambleside, Cumbria, Great
Britain, United Kingdom, 1971.

GONOR, J.J., and KEMP, P.F., "Procedures for Quantitative Ecological
Assessments in Intertidal Environments," EPA-600/3-78-087, Corvallis
Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Corvallis, Greg., Sept. 1978.

OLIVER, J.S., and SLATTERY, P.N., "Effects of Dredging and Disposal on
Some Benthos at Monterey Bay, California," TP 76-15, U.S. Army, Corps
of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va.,
Oct. 1976.

PIELOU, E.C., "Shannon's Formula as a Measure of Specific Diversity:
Its Use and Misuse," American Naturalist, Vol. 100, 1966, »pp. 463-465.

PIELOU, E.C., An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology 3 John Wiley and
Sons, New York, 1969.

PIELOU, E.C., Mathematical Ecology, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1977.

SNEDECOR, G.W., and COCHRAN, W.G., Statistical Methods, 6th ed., Iowa
State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1967.

SOKAL, R.R., and ROHLF, F.J., Biometry: The Principles and Practice of
Statistics in Biological Research, Freeman, San Francisco, Calif., 1969.



25



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CERC -SPONSORED RESEARCH

ON SAMPLING MACRO INVERTEBRATES ON HIGH-ENERGY

SAND BEACHES AND THE NEARSHORE ZONE



COURTENAY, W.R., Jr., et al., "Ecological Monitoring of Beach Erosion
Control Projects, Broward County, Florida, and Adjacent Areas," TM-41,
U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center,
Fort Belvoir, Va., Feb. 1974, NTIS AD No. 778 733.



COX, J.L., "Sampling Variation in Sand Beach Littoral and Nearshore
Meiofauna and Macrofauna," TP 76-14, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers,
Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., Sept. 1976,
NTIS AD No. A032 115.



MATTA, J.F., "Beach Fauna Study of the CERC Field Research Facility, Duck,
North Carolina," MR 77-6, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal
Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., Apr. 1977, NTIS AD
No. A040 573.

NYBAKKEN, J., and STEPHENSON, M., "Effects of Engineering Activities on
the Ecology of Pismo Clams," MP 8-75, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers,
Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., Sept. 1975,
NTIS AD No. A016 948.



OLIVER, J.S., and SLATTERY, P.N., "Effects of Dredging and Disposal on
Some Benthos at Monterey Bay, California," TP 76-15, U.S. Army, Corps
of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va.,
Oct. 1976, NTIS AD No. A032 684.

PARR, T., DIENER, D., and LACY, S., "Effects of Beach Replenishment on
the Nearshore Sand Fauna at Imperial Beach, California," MR 78-4, U.S.
Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort
Belvoir, Va., Dec, 1978, NTIS AD No. A067 308.



SALOMON, C.H., "Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characteristics of
Nearshore Zone of Sandy Key, Florida, Prior to Beach Restoration,"
Final Report, National Marine Fisheries Service, Panama City, Fla., 1974.

SALOMAN, C.H., "A Selected Bibliography of the Nearshore Environment:
Florida West Coast," MP 5-75, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal
Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., Apr. 1975, NTIS AD
No. A012 854.



26



SALOMAN, C.H., "The Benthie Fauna and Sediments of the Nearshore Zone
off Panama City Beach, Florida," MR 76-10., U.S. Army, Corps of Engi-
neers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., Aug.
1976, NTIS AD No. A031 992.

THOMPSON, J.R., "Ecological Effects of Offshore Dredging and Beach
Nourishment: A Review," MP 1-73, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers,
Coastal Engineering Research Center, Washington, D.C., Jan. 1973, NTIS
AD No. 756 366.



NOTE - Annotations and instructions for ordering these reports are
contained in: PULLEN, E.J., et al., "An Annotated Bibliography of CERC
Coastal Ecology Research," MR 78-2, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers,
Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., May 1978.



27



APPENDIX A

NOAA CLIMATOLOGICAL INFORMATION SOURCES

1. Sources for current conditions to determine specific favorable
sampling days.

a. Marine Weather Services Charts :

MSC-1 Eastport, Maine, to Montauk Point, New York

MSC-2 Montauk Point, New York, to Manasquan, New Jersey

MSC-3 Manasquan, New Jersey, to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

MSC-4 Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Savannah, Georgia

MSC-5 Savannah, Georgia, to Apalachicola, Florida

MSC-6 Apalachicola, Florida, to Morgan City, Louisiana

MSC-7 Morgan City, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas

MSC-8 Mexican Border to Point Conception, California

MSC-9 Point Conception to Point St. George, California

MSC-10 Point St. George, California, to Canadian Border

MSC-11 Great Lakes: Michigan and Superior

MSC-12 Great Lakes: Huron, Erie, and Ontario

MSC-13 Hawaiian Waters

MSC-14 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands

MSC-15 Alaskan Waters

These charts are available at $1.00 each from:

National Ocean Survey
Distribution Division (C44)
Riverdale, Md. 20840
Telephone: 301-443-8005

b. Navigational Charts . Navigational charts are also available at
the above address; telephone: ' 301-436-6990. A wide variety of charts
is available and a catalog should be requested for the area of interest
assfollows:

NAUTICAL CHART CATALOG 1

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Including Puerto Rico and the
Virgin Islands)

NAUTICAL CHART CATALOG 2

Pacific Coast (Including Hawaii, Guam and Samoa Islands)
NAUTICAL CHART CATALOG 3

Alaska (Including the Aleutian Islands)
NAUTICAL CHART CATALOG 4

Great Lakes (and Adjacent Waterways)



29



Nautical Chart Catalogs are availahle free and give the prices and order-
ing information for navigational charts and numerous other useful publi-
cations, including Tide Tables and Tidal Currents. The small -craft charts
often list many of the same weather information sources as the Marine
Weather Service (NWS) charts. Navigational charts are also frequently-
available at local marinas and marine supply stores.

c. NOAA Weather Radio . Use of this service is highly recommended.
This service consists of continuous, around-the-clock broadcasts of 4-
to 6-minute taped weather messages '. The reports are updated every 2 to
3 hours or more frequently if necessary, and are broadcast on one of
three high-band FM frequencies - 162.40, 162.475, or 162.55 megahertz.
Several different receivers are available and the manufacturers usually
provide literature on the system. If more information is required write:

National Weather Service (Attn: W112X1)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Silver Spring, Md. 20910

d. Direct Contact with National Weather Service . Listed in tele-


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