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Arthur Lyon Bowley.

Livelihood and poverty; a study in the economic conditions of working-class households in Northampton, Warrington, Stanley and Reading online

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bined with a maximum error in judgment, and I think
that we may safely say " between 19 and 26 per cent." 1

We shall not be far wrong if we affix mentally +2 or
3 to every percentage statement for the three towns,
and 4 or 5 to those for West Stanley.

Actually we have a greater security and a smaller
margin of error than this formula shows, because our
samples were deliberately taken from houses distributed

1 The population is a larger proportion (25 to 30 per cent.)
than are the houses, since the poor houses have more than the
average number of occupants.



182 LIVELIHOOD AND POVERTY

nearly uniformly through the towns, whereas the formula
applies to samples taken quite at random, as if the
houses had been numbered and numbers drawn from a
bag. Our distribution cannot then contain a greater
number of extreme cases ; it must have a relation to the
distribution of the rich, the comfortably off, the poor
and the destitute, so far as these are aggregated, similar
families in similar streets. We have no data for using
the mathematical expression appropriate to this con-
sideration, but it most likely reduces the margin of error
sufficiently to allow us to neglect all roughnesses and
unbiassed errors of record, and regard 2 per cent, as a
very safe limit.

Where the number of cases is relatively very small
(as, for example, houses in Northampton overcrowded by
the Census definition), we may miss them altogether, and
generally it is unsafe to rely on measurements that relate
to characteristics possessed by less than say 3 or 4 per cent,
in the three larger towns, and perhaps 6 percent, in Stanley.

Where we could obtain a complete enumeration from
any official statistics, we compared it with the fore-
cast from the sample. In two cases we were able to
correct the official statistics as given to us ; for, finding
that they differed from the sample we made further
enquiries, and found that the official statistics had been
erroneously stated. In the case of school children and the
most definite occupations, our sample was very near the
actual numbers. Where employees of particular firms
were concerned, the data were not in all cases good, and the
sample less perfect in the case of two Warrington firms
very imperfect. Where we were able to compare a whole
occupation (such as police) we found the forecast good.

The numbers of cases of overcrowding at the Census
standard (more than 2 persons to a room) appear unduly
small in the samples. This is probably due in part to a
different working definition of tenement and of separate



CRITICISM ON THE ACCURACY OF RESULTS 183

occupation, in part to the different definitions of rooms,
and in part to improvement since igu.

We did not expect to hear of all cases of out-relief ;
and in any case it is difficult to get comparable numbers
since the unit counted may be either a person or a family.

The deficit in the number of Old-Age Pensioners is
difficult to explain. Some of the absent ones may be
found in shops, institutions, or better-class houses. It
should be noted that there were practically no cases
where people apparently over 70 were finally entered as
below the poverty line, when an unrecorded Old-Age
Pension would have brought them above it.

The following Table gives the comparison between the
numbers obtained in the samples with their probable
errors and the whole number otherwise found in the towns
divided by the number (22.7, 19.3, 17.4, 21.5), which
expressed the ratio of the town to the example. The
names of the towns are given by initial only.

This Table helps to distinguish between the inform-
ation which can be readily obtained in a house-to-house
enquiry from that which needs more exhaustive methods.





Number


Probable


Proportionate
Number from


C* 7 1 fJ '1J 1


from
Sample.


Error.


Completed
Records.


School Children}-
N


570


16


576








(in 1912)


W


735


18


699


R


623


16


632


S


214


9


248



NOTE. In the original Reading Report (Stat. Journ., 1912-3
the standard deviation, which is of the probable error, was used
in the tests.

1 The last column refers to all public elementary school chil-
dren of 5 to 14 years, and includes a small number from non-
working class houses,



184



LIVELIHOOD AND POVERTY





Number
from
Sample.


Probable
Error.


Proportionate
Number from
Completed
Records.


Overcrowding (more








than 2 to a. room)








N





?


4


W


15


3


40


R


8


2


ii


Houses assessed at








less than 8.


about






R


206


8


204


N


316


12


3ii


Occupations and em-








ployees of firms :








N


59


5


62




70


6


57




5i


5


44




47


5


44


W


131


8


131




48


5


52




99


7


121




40


4


62




36


4


52


R. . . . .


7


2


5




8


2


9




13


2


12




29


4


35




54


5


58




185


10


230 (or less)


Old- Age Pensioners.








N


49


5


86


W


25


7


4i


R


43


4


78


Out-door Relief.








W


22


3


34


R


10 to 23


?


25



CONTENTS OF APPENDIX

PAGE

SPECIMEN OF ENQUIRY CARD .... 187
TABLES I. ACCOMMODATION OF TYPICAL HOUSES 188

TABLES II. EARNERS AND NON-EARNERS BY

SEX AND AGE 190

TABLES III. CLASSIFICATION IN DETAIL OF

HOUSEHOLDS 1 194

TABLES IV. CLASSIFICATION OF HOUSEHOLDS
ACCORDING TO EARNERS AND THE MINIMUM
STANDARD 207

1 The corresponding table for Reading will be found in the
Statistical Journal, 1912-13, pp. 697-790.



APPENDIX



187



d

U.Z




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III




































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WAGE EARNERS. "f"
Relationship Age Occupation Employer Jastl










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auiooui 10




















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i88



APPENDIX



ACCOMMODATION OF TYPICAL HOUSES

TABLE F



Rent


4/6


5/6


6/6


7/6


Number of rooms


5


6


6


6


Height of ground floor . .


8ft. 6in.


8ft 6in.


8ft. 3ft.


9 ft.


Height of first floor


8ft. 6in.


8ft. gin.


8ft. 6in.


8ft. 6in.


Cubic contents


c.ft.


c. ft.


c. ft.


cjft


Ground floor : Front room


1,205


915


1,015


1,080


Back room


935


1,004


i,057


1,125


Living room




758


891


1,215


First floor : Front










bedroom


1,362


i,39


1,339


1,232


Back bedroom


818


855


1,015


1,041


a it


795


695


860


1,029


Total Bedrooms . .


2,975


2,859


3,214


3,302


Garden : Length


27ft.


42ft.


75ft.


42ft.


Breadth


I 5 ft.


I 5 ft.


1 8ft.


2lft.



TABLE I w



Rent


4/6


5/3


6/6


Number of rooms


3


5


5


Height of ground floor rooms


8ft. 6in.


8ft. gin.


9 ft.


Av. height of first floor rooms . .


8ft. 6in.


8ft. 6in.


8ft. gin.


Cubic contents


c. ft.


c. ft.


c. ft.


{Front room


1,204


1,050


i, 080


Back room




i,H3


1,386


Scullery, &c


918


708


918


{Bedroom


1,204


1,190


1,428





995


884


1,098







723


708


Total bedrooms


2,199


2,797


3,234


Yard : Area (square feet) . .


200


200


various



ACCOMMODATION
TABLE 1 s



Rent


Free


Free


6/-


6/6


Free


Number of












rooms . .


2


3


3


4


3


Height of












rooms . .


9 ft.


9 ft.


9 ft.


9 ft.


9ft.




Tenement House


Tenemen^ House


Self-contained House




Ground


First


Ground


First






Floor


Floor


Floor


Floor


Ground




c. ft.


c. ft.


c. ft.


c. ft.


Floor : c. ft.


Bedrooms i


1,687


1,215


1,336


1,336


Kitchen 2,896


2




709


720


720


Scullery, etc. 567


3






. .


720














First floor :


Kitchen ..


1.539


1.458


1,080


1,080


Bedrooms i 1,485


Scullery,










2 1,411


etc.


Small


Fair


486


486




Total Bed-












rooms


1,687


1,924


2,056


2,776


2,896



TABLE I R



Rent
Number of rooms
Height of ground floor
rooms
Average height of first floor
rooms


4/6
4

7ft. gin.
7ft. 2in.


5/6
5

7ft. 6in.
7ft. gin.


6/6
5

8ft. 2in.
8ft. gin.


71-
5

8ft.
8ft.


Cubic contents
Ground floor :
Front room
Back room
Scullery, &c.
First floor :
Bedroom



Total bedrooms


eft.

670
640



685
575


c ft.

630
680
470

i,i35
600

1,135


eft.

630
1,000
640

990
890
740


c. ft.
760

1,020
?

I,OOO

780

680


1,260


2,870


2,620


2,460


Garden : Breadth
Length


1 2ft.

36ft.


I 4 ft.
38ft.


1 2ft. 6in.
55ft.


1 2ft. 6in.
59ft.



190



APPENDIX



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193



APPENDIX



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EARNERS AND NON-EARNERS



193





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194 APPENDIX



In Tables III; and IV. the following abbreviations are used: m,
man over 18 years, distinguished as s (son) if living in his parents'
house; /, lad of 16 to 18 years; b, boy of 14 to 16 years.

/, woman over 16 years, distinguished as w (wife or widow) if
married, and as d (daughter) if living in her parents' house; g, girl of
14 to 1 6 years.

sc (scholar), boy or girl of 5 to 14 years.

in (infant), child under 5 years.

In Tables III s and d are not considered to be dependent children.

CLASSIFICATION OF 693 HOUSEHOLDS

ACCORDING TO WAGE - EARNERS AND

DEPENDANTS THEY CONTAIN

NORTHAMPTON
TABLE III N

No. of
house-
Wage-earners. holds. Dependants.

Man only . . . . 79 No children, viz., no deps., i ; w, 74 ; w, f,

i ; w, d, i ; s, i ; d, s, i.
71 i child, viz., w, in, 32 ; f, in, i ; w, sc, 28 ;

w, g, 3 ; w, f , in, i ; w, d, sc, i ; w, f , b,

i ; w, m, f, in, 3 ; d, sc, i.
48 2 children, viz., w, in, in, 5 ; w, sc, in, 17 ;

w, sc, sc, 24 ; w, b, sc, i ; w, s, sc, in, i.
33 3 children, viz., w, in, in, in, 2 ; w, sc, in,

in, 8 ; w, f , sc, in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, in, 12 ;

f, sc, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, 8j w, 1, sc, in,

i.
22 4 children, viz., w, s"c, in, in, in, 2 ; w, sc,

sc, in, in, ii ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, 6 ; w, f , sc,

sc, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc, i ; w, g, sc,

sc, in, i.
6 5 children, viz., w, sc, sc, sc, in, in, 4 ; w, sc,

sc, sc, sc, in, 2.
4 6 children, viz., w, sc, sc, sc, in, in, in, i ;

w, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, 3.
4 7 children, viz., w, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, in, in, 2 ;

w, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, in, 2.

Total .. ..267



NORTHAMPTON



195



Wage-earners.
Man and school-boy
Man and girl . .



Man and boy



Man and lad



Man an daughter



Man and son . ,



No. of
house-
holds. Dependants.

. i w, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, i.
. 9 o, i ; sc, sc, i ; w, i ; w, in, i ; w, sc, i ;
w, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc,
in, i ; w, f, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, i.
.14 w, 2 ; w, sc, 2 ; w, sc, sc, 2 ; w, sc, sc, sc,
i ; w, sc, sc, in, 2 ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, 2 ;
w, m, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, i ; w,
f, sc, i.

.12 o, i ; w, 2 ; w, sc, 2 ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc,
sc, in, i ; w, g, sc, sc, in, i ; w, d, sc,
sc, in, j w, g, sc, sc, sc, in, in, in, i ; w,
f, i ; g, sc, sc, i.

. 25 w, 12 ; w, sc, 2 ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, g, sc, i ;
w, d, sc, 2 ; w, sc, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc,
in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i ; w, s, g,
sc, sc, sc, sc, i ; w, f, i ; w, d, d, i ;
d, i.

. 28 w, 14 ; w, sc, 2 ; w, sc, sc, 2 ; w, sc, sc,
in, i ; w, g, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i ;
w, sc, sc, sc, sc, i ; rn, w, d, s, sc,
sc, i ; w, d, i ; w, d, in, i ; w, f, i ;
d, sc, 2.
Man, girl, and school- i w, i.

boy
Man, boy, and school- i w, sc, in, i.

boy
Man, lad, and boy . . 5 w, i ; w, in, i ; w, sc, i ; w, sc, in, i ; w,

sc, sc, sc, i.

Man, lad, and girl . . i w, sc, sc, sc, i .
Man, daughter, and girl 3 w, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, in, in, i ; w, b, sc,

sc, in, i
Man, daughter, and boy 3 w, sc, sc, in, i "; w, sc, sc, sc, in, in, i ; sc,

sc, i.
Man, daughter, and lad 2 w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i.

6 w, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, 2 ; w, sc, sc, in, i ; w,

sc, sc, in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i

1 w, f, sc, i.

2 w, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i.

7 w, 3 ; w, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc,

2.

Man, daughter, and 13 w, 4; w, in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, in,

in, in, ij w, sc, sc, sc, sc, i; w, sc,
sc, sc, in, in, in, i ; w, b, i ; w, g, i J
w, d, ij d, i.
w, ii ; w, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, g, i ;

w, s, i.
o, i ; w, i.



Man, son, and girl

Man, man, and girl
Man, son, and boy
Man, son, and lad



daughter

Man, daughter, and son 1 5
2



Man, daughter, and

woman

Man, son, and lad .
Man and 2 sons .
Man, lad, and man . .



I W,8C, I.

5 w, 2 ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, d, 2-
i w, in, in.



196 APPENDIX



No. of



Wage-earners. holds. Dependants.

Man, son, boy, and i w, i.

school-boy

Man, lad, and 2 boys . . i w, i .
Man, son, lad and boy 2 w, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, i.
Man, daughter, lad and i w, i.

girl

Man, son, lad and girl i w, sc, sc, i.
Man, son, daughter and 2 w, i ; w, sc, f, i.

girl
Man, son, daughter, and i o, i.

boy
Man, son, daughter 3 w, sc, sc, 2 ; w, d, i.

and lad.

Man, 2 sons, and lad . . 3 w, i ; w, sc, i ; w, sc, s, i.
Man, 2 daughters and 3 w, in, i ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, i.

lad
Man, son, lad, and 2 w, i ; w, sc, i.

woman

Man and 3 daughters 3 w, 2 ; w, sc, sc, in, i.
Man, 2 sons, daughter 7 w, 4 ; w, sc, 2 ; w, m, sc, sc, i.
Man, son and 2 daugh- 5 w, 3 ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, in, in, i.

ters

Man and 3 sons . . 4 w, 2 ; w, in, in, i ; d, i.
Man, son, daughter i w, in, i.

and woman
Man, son, daughter, i w, sc.

lad and boy
Man, 2 daughters, lad i w, sc, sc, sc, sc, i.

and boy
Man, 2 daughters, lad i w, sc, in, in, in, i.

and girl
Man, 2 sons, lad and i w, sc, sc, sc, in, i.

boy
Man, son, 2 daughters i w, sc, i.

and boy
Man, son, 2 daughters i w, s, i.

and girl
Man, 2 daughters, son i w, i.

and lad
Man, 2 sons, daughter i w, i.

and girl
Man, 2 sons, daughter 2 w, sc, 2.

and boy
Man, 2 sons, 2 daugh- 4 w, 2 ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, s, i.

ters
Man, 3 sons and daugh- 3 w, 2 ; w, sc, i.

ter
Man, 3 daughters, lad i w, sc, i.

and girl
Man, son, 2 daughters, i w, sc, sc, i.

lad, and boy



NORTHAMPTON



197



No. of

house*

Wage-earners. holds.

Man, son, 3 daughters, i w, sc, i.

and lad
Man, son, 3 daughters i w, sc, sc, i,

and girl
Man, 2 sons, and 3 i w, d, 1, i,

daughters

Man and 5 daughters i w, i.
Man, 3 sons, daughter, i w, sc, i.

lad and boy
Man, 4 sons, daughter i w, sc, sc, sc, in,

and boy
Man, 3 sons, 2 daugh- i w, sc, sc, in, i,

ters, lad and boy



DcpcndantSg



Total



.224



Man and wife . . 30 o, n ; in, 3 ; f, in, i ; sc, 2 ; in, in, 2 ;

sc, in, i ; sc, sc, 5 ; sc, sc, in, 2 ; sc, sc,
sc, sc, in, in, 2 ; m, f, sc, i.

Man, wife and lad .. i in, i.

Man, wife and son . . i o, i .

Man, wife and daughter 3 o, i ; sc, 2.

Man, wife, son and i sc, g, i.

daughter

Man, wife and 2 2 o, i ; sc, sc, i,

daughters

Man, wife, 2 daughters i sc, sc, sc, in, i.

and boy

Man, wife and 3 sons i b, i.



Total



.. 40



Man only

Woman only

Man and boy. .

Man and wife

Man, son, and lad . .

Man, son and daughter

Man, 2 daughters, son

and lad

Man, 2 sons, daughter
Widow, woman, 2 sons

and daughtei

Total



10 o, 2 ; w, 3 ; w, in, i ; w, sc, in, i ;\ w,|sc,

sc, i ; w, s, sc, i ; f, i.
o, i.

w, sc, in, i.
o,
w,



18 This Group " Working on own Account.



ig8



APPENDIX



Wage-earners.
2 men



Man, man and lad
3 men

Man and woman
Man and 2 women

2 men and i woman

3 men and 2 women

Total



No. of
house-
holds.

. 10



Dependants,
o, 2 ; w, i ; w, sc, i ; w, sc, in, 2 ; w, sc,

in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc,

in, in, i ; w, d, in, i.
w, in, i.

w, in, i ; w, sc, in, i.
w, i ; f, i ; w, in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, i.
o, i ; in, i ; sc, in, i ; w, sc, in, i.
w, i ; d, i ; w, w, in, in, in, i ; w, sc, in, i.
o, i.



One woman . . . . 15 o, 8 ; sc, i ; sc, sc, sc, i ; m, 3 ; w, i ; m,

d, i.

Woman and school- i o, i.

boy

Woman and girl . . i sc, i.

Woman and daughter 3 o, i ; sc, i ; s, i.

Woman and son . . 2 o, 2.

Woman, lad and boy i o, i.

Woman, son and girl i sc, i.

Woman, son and 2 o, 2.

daughter

Woman, daughter, lad i o, i.

and boy

\Vomanand3daughters i m, s, sc, sc, i.

Woman, son and 3 i m, i.

daughters

Woman, 2 sons, 2 i sc, i.

daughters and boy

3 women .. .. i o, i.

Total . 31



1 lad

Son

Daughter
Son and boy
Son and daughter

2 Sons

2 daughters
Daughter, lad, girl . .
2 daughters and girl . .
Son, daughter and girl
Son, daughter and lad
Son, woman and lad . .
Son and 2 daughters . .



i m, w, sc, i.
i m, w, sc, sc, i.
17 w, 8 ; m, 2 ; m, w, 3 ; m, d, i ; w, f, i ;

w, d, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc, b, i.
6 w, i ; m, w, 4 ; w, d, i.



1 w, sc, sc, i.

6 w, 5 ; m, w, i.
4 w, 3 ; m, w, s, i.

2 w, i ; w, m, i.
w, i.

m, w, i,

W, S, I.
W, I.

m, i.
2 m, w, i ; m, w. d, i.



NORTHAMPTON 199



No, of
house-
Wage-earnersi holds. jUependanis,

2 sons and daughter . . i w, in, I.

3 sons . . . . . . 2 w, i ; m, w, i .

3 daughters . . i w, i .

Son, daughter, girl and i m, w, sc, i .

lad

3 daughters and boy . . i m, sc, i .

3 daughters and girl. . i w, in, i.

2 sons and lad . . i w, i .

2 sons and 2 daughters 2 w, i ; w, sc, sc, i,

Son, 2 daughters, lad 2 w, d, i, w, sc, i.

and boy

2 sons, man and i w, in, i.

woman

2 sons and 3 daughters i w, sc, i.

3 sons and 2 daughters i w, sc, sc, in, g, i.

2 sons, 3 daughters and i w, sc, i .

girl

4 sons, daughter and i m, w, i.
lad

3 sons and 3 daughters i m, w, i .

Total .. ..63



No earners .. . . 24 f, 12 ; f, f, i ; m, 2 ; m, f, ij; m, *v, 3;

w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, in, in, i ; w, sc, in,
in, in, i ; m, w, in, in, i ; w, d, i .

Total . . . . 693



200



APPENDIX



CLASSIFICATION OF 640 HOUSEHOLDS,

ACCORDING TO WAGE - EARNERS AND

DEPENDANTS THEY CONTAIN



WARRINGTON
TABLE III W

See note, page 194.



No. of
house-
Vr age-earners, holds. Dependants

Man only .. ..64 No children, viz., no dependants, 2 ; w, 60;

w, d, i ; w, d, d, i.
66 i child, viz., w, in, 40 ; w, sc, 19 ; w, b, i ;

w, f, in, i ; w, w, in, i ; w, m, in, i ; w,

f, sc, i ; w, d, d, sc, 2.
59 2 children, viz., w, in, in, 21 ; w, sc, in, 16 ;

w, sc, sc, 17 ; w, w, sc, in, i ; w, d, d, sc,

in, i ; w, d, sc, sc, 2 ; w, g, sc, i.
57 3 children, viz., w, in, in, in, 2 ; w, sc, in,

in, 21 ; w, sc, sc, in, 23 ; w, sc, sc, sc, 8 ;

f, sc, in, in, i ; w, m, sc, in, in, i ; f, sc,

sc, sc, i.
31 4 children, viz., w, sc, in, in, in, 3 ; w, sc,

sc, in, in, 12 ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, n ; w,

sc, sc, sc, sc, 5.
15 5 children, viz., w, sc, sc, in, in, in, i ; w,

sc, sc, sc, in, in, 5 ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, 6 ;

w, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, i ; w, w, sc, sc, sc, in,

in, i ; w, s, d, sc, sc, sc, in, in, i.
5 6 children, viz., w, sc, sc, sc, in, in, in, i ;

w, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, in, 4.
4 7 children, viz., w, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, in, in, 2 ;

w, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, in, 2.



Man and school child
Man and girl . .



Man and boy



301



i w, sc, in, in, i.
13 w, sc, i ; w, sc, in, 2 ; w, sc, sc, 2 ; w, sc,

in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, i ;

w, sc, sc, sc, in, 2 ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc, 2 ;

w, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, i.
15 w, i ; w, sc, 3 ; w, sc, in, i ; w, d, sc, in, i ;

w, d, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, in, i ; w, sc,

sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, 2 ; w, sc, sc,

sc, in, in, i ; w, g, sc, sc, sc, in, in, i ;

w, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc,

sc, in, i.



WARRINGTON



201



No. of
house-
Wage-earners. holds. Dependants.

Man and lad . . . . 8 w, d, i ; w, in, i ; w, d, sc, i ; w, sc, in, i ;

w, sc, sc, i ; f, sc, sc, i ; w, d, sc, sc, in,
i ; w, m, d, sc, sc, in, i.

w, 3 ; w, d, 2 ; w, in, 2 ; w, sc, 4 ; w, d,
sc, i ; w, g, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, i ; w,
d, sc, sc, sc, sc, i ; w, g, sc, sc, in, in, i ;
w, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, i.
19 w, 7 ; w, d, 3 ; w, s, d, i ; w, sc, i ; w, 1,
sc, in, i ; w, d, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, i ;
w, d, sc, sc, i ; w, d, sc, sc, sc, i ; w, d,
d, sc, in, in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i.

w, sc, sc, in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i.



Man and daughter . . 17



Man and son .



Man, boy and school- 2

boy

Man, girl and school-
child

Man and 2 girls . . i
Man, lad and boy . . 2
Man, lad and girl . . 4
Man, daughter and girl 3
Man, daughter and i

school child
Man, daughter and boy 5



Man, daughter and lad 3

Man, son and school- 2

boy

Man, son and boy . . 4



2 w, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i.



Man, son and girl
Man, son and lad



Man and 2 daughters 4
Man, son and daughter 12

Man and 2 sons . . 7

Man, lad, girl and i

school-boy
Man, daughter, lad and i

school-girl
Man, daughter, lad and 3

boy
Man, son, daughter and i

school-boy
Man, son, daughter, 3

and boy
Man, son, daughter and 5

girl
Man, son, daughter and i

lad



W, SC, SC, I.

sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, i.
w, 2 ; w, sc, in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, in, i.
w, sc, i ; w, sc, in, i ; w, sc, sc, i .
w, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, i.

w, d, i ; w, d, sc, in, i ; w, d, sc, sc, i ;

w, sc, sc, sc, in, in, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc,

sc, i.

w, i ; w, sc, sc, 2.
w, d, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, i.

w, sc, in, 2 ; w, d, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, i ; w, d,

sc, i.

w, d, sc, sc, in, i.
w, i ; w, d, i ; w, g, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc,

sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, i.
None, i ; w, d, i ; vr, w, i ; m, w, w, i .
w, 7 ; w, d, i ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, in, i ;

w, sc, sc, sc, i ; w, g, sc, sc, in, i.
w, 4 ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, g, sc, sc, i ; w, g,

sc, sc, sc, sc, in, i.
w, sc, sc, sc, in, in, i.

w, sc, sc, i.

w, i ; w, sc, i ; w, w, sc, sc, sc, in, i.

w, sc, sc, sc, sc, in, in, i.

w, d, d, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc, sc, sc, i j w, sc,

sc, i.
w, sc, i ; w, g, i ; w, sc, sc, i ; w, sc, sc,

in, in, i ; d, sc, sc, sc, sc, i.
w, sc, i.



202 APPENDIX

No. of
house
Wage earners. holds. Dependants.

Man, 2 sons and boy i w, d, d, sc, sc, i.
Man, 2 sons and lad. . 3 w, 2 ; w, sc, sc, i.


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