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UNIVERSITY OF CA RIVERSIDE. LIBRARY




3 1210 01850 1526




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE



E^DUCATIOI^

IN ITS RELATION TO MANUAL
INDUSTRY.



ARTHUR MacARTHUR.



NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1, 3, AND 5 BOND STREET.
1886.



/it5



COPTEIOHT, 1884,

By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.



PEEFAOE.



It is believed that a system of rudimental science
and manual art can be adapted to tlie usual methods of
instruction ; and although the teaching of particular trades
is neither desirable nor practical in school-life, yet the
time has now arrived when education should give the
children practical knowledge in those general principles
which relate to the trades and arts that are destined to
become the business of their subsequent life.

Had this book been written for those only who have
specially studied the question, I should feel it necessary
to apologize for so many details concerning industrial
schools in Europe and the United States ; but my object
is to instruct the general reader, and elicit his interest
by the results of experience. The mind is delighted
with a logical demonstration, because it is so conclusive ;
but a successful example is of much more value than
the most conSdent affirmations or deductions. This is
the excuse, if one were necessary, for giving a pretty
full account of these successful experiments in industrial
training.



iv PREFACE.

What is industrial education? What are its merits
and objects, and, above all, what power does it possess
of ministering to some useful purpose in the practical
arts of life ? Whether I have answered these questions
with a reasonable degree of exactness and precision, can
only be determined by a perusal of the volume.



OOS-TEl^TS.



CHAPTER I.

PAQK

Industrial education neglected — The lessons of things — The education
of children befoi'e the period of school — The understanding and the
senses — The education of thought and language — Mission of the
senses and physical organs — The eyes and the- fingers translate
the works of the spirit — Sensible objects sources of information —
Cultivating half the faculties — Simple ideas powerless unless em-
bodied in some form — The hand — Montaigne on the hand — Outis
on the void in education — The senses 1



CHAPTER ir.

Industrial history in France — Her skilled labor and prosperity — Art-
schools and the excellence of her fabrics — British trade — Its effect
on Europe — Schools on the Continent — The £cole municipal
(V Apprentis in Paris — School at Besan^on — School of the Chris-
tian Brothers — The J^cole professionnelle of MM. Chaix et Cie. —
School at Creuzot — Count Hasrach — Weaving-school at Mulhouse
and Epinal — Industrial education at Limoges — The Ecole des
Arts et Metiers — Government aid to art-education in France —
State aid discussed — Belgium, Germany, Bavaria, WUrtemberg,
Nuremberg — The French commission — Schools in other countries
of Europe 10



CHAPTER III.

Industrial education in Russia — The Practical Technological Institute
at St. Petersburg — The Imperial Technical School at Moscow —



vi CONTENTS.

PAGE

Exhibits of, at the Exposition of 1876 and 1878 — Moscow fitly
chosen — Two other schools for teaching trades to boys — Move-
ment in England — Continental artisans — British artisans at Paris
Exposition, 1867 — Schools of art-instruction — South Kensington
Museum — Walter Smith — French and English methods compared
— Spread of art-schools in the United Kingdom — Their effect upon
industries requiring art — Comparison of art-products — The lead-
ing nation in the industries depending upon art — Advantages
stated — The favorable effect upon the artisan — Favorable to mo-
rality — The problem abroad 29



Cn AFTER IV.

The United States — Dependent upon Europe — Want of trained skill
— Our cotton and woolen fabrics superior — Pottery and other
articles from abroad — The material produced in the United States
purchased back — Russia and other countries — Art pervades all
things — Political economy — Its maxims — American taste for luxu-
ry — Cheap lands scarcer — Industrial classes must rely upon trades
— Effect of making what we need — Adam Smith on home-trade
— We should acquire skill — Raise wages — Raw material in the
United States — Causes of national prosperity — Our natural re-
sources — Practical education — Linen, hemp, wool — Other articles
— Effect of training industrial classes — The value put on material
by art — Its general effect — New England — Massachusetts — Arts
and manufactures of — Education in — The Worcester Free Insti-
tute — The Illinois Industrial University 45



CHAPTER V.

Technical schools in the United States — Massachusetts Institute of
Technology — Manual School, Washington University — Stevens In-
stitute of Technology — The usefulness of these in this country —
Scheme of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and course
of study — General .Walker on science-schools — The School of
Mechanics therein, and its course of instruction — Mr. Foley's re-
port — Russian plan of manual teaching — The use of hand-tools
still neces.sary — The Slanual School in Washington University,



CONTENTS. vii

PACE

St. Louis — Its plan of teaching shop-work — Pennsylvania Museum
and School of Industrial Art — Other technical schools in Phila-
delphia — Science schools attached to universities — Agriculture and
mechanical colleges under land grants — Some statistics concerning
them — In order to be useful, they must teach by practice — The
Massachusetts Institute of Technology a good example — Institu-
tions for the superior education of women — The number of such
schools in the United States — Every facility should be afforded
for their education — Brief discussion on this subject — Their em-
ployment as farmers, decorators, and architects — The numerous
trades open to women — Emily Faithful's views — Industrial edu-
cation of women — Equality of Education — Co-education — Should
women pursue the old system of college studies? — This is a
utilitarian era — Victor Cousin on the fine arts — Auguste Comte
on science — Other thinkers — The Greeks can be studied without
studying Greek — Should girls pursue the same studies as the boys,
in matters of superior education ? — Advantages of industrial edu-
cation to women 62



CHAPTER VI.

Education for hand and eye — Method of instruction at Athens — Public
schools — Improved methods — Main facts in regard to public
schools — Optimistic views of the same — Other lessons than those
of the school-room — Statement of the same — Our obligations to
the public schools — Want of practical education — Manual training
a necessary part of— Foreign designers and workmen — Jewelers'
Association — Speech at banquet of — Necessity of art-education to
American artisan — Mechanic arts passing out of our hands — Rush
for clerical employment — An illustration of their dependence —
Decorative art — Science applied to necessities — Telegraphy, pho-
tography, aniline — Artistic employments, their effect — Education
enhanced by manual exercise — Eclectic education — The highest
aim — Intellectual culture not alone education — Our physical con-
stitution — Description of — Association of, in elevating the mind —
In expressing its ideas in tangible forms — Their intimate co-opera-
tion — Equality of education, the true method — Standard of educa-
tion in Europe — Commensurate education — Duty of the State —



viii CONTENTS.

PAOB

Conclusions from, classified — First, second, third, fourth — Techno-
logical education — Not for the mass of children — Object of studies
— Right of the State — American Institute of Instruction — Use of
tools — Reforms in matters of education difficult — Science in the
colleges 96



CHAPTER VII.

The art of drawing — Natural order of studies begins with it — The les-
son of things — Effect of, on industrial education — Indispensable
in education — Massachusetts and New York — Branch cf primary
education in — Prejudice against it — Practical use of drawing —
Exhibit at Centennial — French commission at — Experience at
Taunton — Women's Art School, Cooper Union — Walter Smith's
system — Drawing ought to be directed to the industries — Beauty
of outline — It is teaching every trade that depends upon design —
Involves easy lessons in geometry, botany, architecture, and his-
tory — Geometrical drawing first — Ornament — Its almost universal
application in the olden time — Then came utility alone — The
working artist — Improvement of public taste — Effect upon our in-
dustries — Mr. Outis's work — Dxawing in France — French styles —
Expenditures for teaching it — The reason of her beautiful works —
Great Britain — Iler expenditure to promote the art of drawing —
Drawing as a branch of study in this country — Common schools —
The importance of drawing to various industries — Architecture in
New York — Importation of workmen for building . . , . IIY



CHAPTER VIII.

The decorative arts depend upon principles of design — Their position
between the useful and scientific — Their immense development —
Roman and Greek decoration — Pompeii — Its uncovered orna-
ments — Moorish decoration — Its magnificence and extent — Table-
service for the President — Glass-blowers sent to the United States
— Immigration — Skilled occupations of immigrants — The economic
value of immigrants — Influx of cheap labor — Exclusion of Chinese
— William A. Carsey — An American mechanic on the tariff, cheap



CONTENTS. ix

PAGE

labor, etc. — Cheap labor from abroad — Trades-unions limiting the
number of apprentices — Growth of our productive force, and of
our population — Skilled labor enriches our industries — " Sheffield
is coming to America " — American steel exhibit — American por-
celain — Palissy — Wedgwood — Gladstone's speech — Wedgwood's
improvements — His beautiful productions — Palissy — Enameled
pottery rediscovered by him — Our work in pottery — Our styles
and workers obtained from abroad — Centennial vase — New branch
of industry — Every potter should be a draughtsman — Drawing as a
study — Colored patterns for cotton and woolen fabrics — The use
of machinery in printing — Chemistry in that art — Value of draw-
ing in it — It yields the grand secret of modern industry — Univerr
sal practice of drawing in skilled work — Should be taught to all —
The beautiful is overlooked — It is a universal element in nature . 136



CHAPTER IX.

Drawing (continued) — The Massachusetts act of 1870 — Want of teach-
ers — Normal Art School — Current methods of teaching drawing —
Professor Kriisi's views — Drawing as an intellectual discipline —
It compels observation — Its influence upon the understanding and
the imagination — It is an educational study 169



CnAPTER X.

Technical education of artisans — Art-industry — Industrial school —
Apprenticeship — Trades-unions — Restriction in the number of
apprentices — No restriction except want of character — Trades to
provide technical instruction — University extension in England —
American boys — Clerks and artisans — Manual skill and literary
education — Duty of parents — Apprentice-schools in Belgium —
Truth and knowledge 175



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XL

PAGE

Education of young artisans — Apprenticeship — English legislation —
Mr. Jevons's views — Adam Smith's opinion — Practically no ap-
prenticeship in the United States — Technological schools in Europe
— Trade-schools in Germany — Established by law — Supported by
the state or local authorities — The school at Hamburg — Trade-
schools the most interesting — The one at Barmen — Drawing in all
the German schools — The school at Chemnitz — Schools at Vienna
— Technical education in Switzerland — The great benefits thereof
to that country — Opinion of the French minister in that country
— The first industrial school founded there by Pestalozzi — These
institutions in France — After the Crystal Palace Exposition — A
commission appointed — Important changes — Classification of in-
dustrial schools by Professor Thompson — Impossible to exemplify
them separately — £cole municipal d'Apprcntis — Account of the
same — Visit of British Commission to the same — French industrial
schools not national — 'Scole Saint-Nicolas — School at Roubaix —
Government support within two years — The republican govern-
ment established a national system recently — Schools in Belgium
— Those at Ghent, Tourn.iy, Verviers, and the cities — Apprentice-
school for weaving — Technical education in Great Britain — Letter
of the Chancellor — Views of Mr. McLaren — Report of the British
Commission — Questions which arise as to effect in Europe — Is it
suitable for the United States ? — Universal opinion in its favor —
Report of the British Commission — French commission of inspection
— School la Villette — Corbon, senator, upon the same — Tolain, sena-
tor, on apprenticeship-schools — Industrial training the necessity of
the age — Good effect on the industrial classes — Opinion on this
subject — Views of educators in the United States — Shall it be in
the public school? — Different views entertained — Dr. E. E. White
— John E. Clarke — The necessitv of this instruction admitted . 196



CHAPTER XIL

Education applied to industry in the United States — Impulse given to
it — Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York — Mr. Auchmuty's
contribution — Instruction in trades, common and decorative —



CONTENTS. xi

PAGB

To turn out trained mechanics — New York trade-schools — Art-
school at Trenton, New Jersey — The youth at the potteries —
Lasell Seminary — A modified industrial school — Dwight School,
Boston — Sewing-classes for girls in Boston schools — Excellent
work by them — Art needle-work an industry — For house decora-
tion — On ladies' dresses — Code in England — Schools for sewing in
Switzerland — Germany — Bavaria — Drawing in embroidery — Dor-
Chester industrial school — Public schools at Montclair, New Jersey
— Industrial department — The order of exercises — Industrial art-
school in Philadelphia — Mr. Leland's system of teaching the
minor arts — Their great variety — Outlay for such a school —
Practical results — It revives the popular arts — Useful to all — The
Spring Garden Institute — Mechanical handiwork — Course of in-
struction — Kcsults — Technological and industrial training schools
— At Worcester and St. Louis — Industrial home school at West
Washington, District of Columbia — Cincinnati School of Design
— A school of industrial art — New mode of industrial education
required — Reasons for the change — Subdivision of labor — The gen-
eral artisan — Great advantage of — Manual and technical instruc-
tion the practical want — Appeal to the wealthy .... 221



CHAPTER Xlir.

Industry a matter of state importance — Schools for industry to be es-
tablished by the state — Course pursued by Great Britain — Art-
schools and drawing in England — Effect of, on prosperity — Jlanual
instruction correlated — IIow to treat the question — Not to be in-
troduced into the school-room — Dr. White's and Mr. MacAlister's
views — Schools at Montclair and Philadelphia — Manual training in
Europe — It improves the pupils — Public opinion— Conflicting
opinions and objections — Statement of the same — Diversity of
views — Mr. Stetson's — Dr. White's — United States' limited pro-
vision for industrial education — Consideration of popular objec-
tions — Instruction in the use of tools and machinery — Illustra-
tions — Pursuits that resemble each other — Mechanical powers —
Trades easily learned — Occupations will multiply — No danger of
glutting them — Jlode of industrial instruction — Moderate instruc-
tion at outset — Pupils with a general knowledge of hand-tools



xii CONTENTS.

FAGB

prepared for a variety of trades — Illustrated by Mr. Lcland'a
school — A community of skilled workmen, its value — Further no-
tice of industrial schools in Europe — Statement of M. Rossat —
School at Charleville — Industrial training in French elementary
schools — School of the Rue Tournefort — The French act of 18S0
— ^Programme of the commission — Report of II. Tolman, senator
— Conclusions of the Boston committee — Views of Mr. Steel —
Important as coming from the right quarter 248



CHAPTER XIV.

Application of experience — Speculative improvement tardy — Franklin's
discovery not applied for one hundred years — Industrial education
in the United States rendered simple — Classification of industrial
schools into three kinds — Each described — The developing plan
of Ruggles — The one for teaching mechanic art recommended,
and the reasons stated — Public education a fundamental maxim —
It ought to be for the greatest number — Manual training in public
schools — Law in Massachusetts — The great body of the people
employed — Education should, therefore, form an ability for the
business of life — Intellectual training at the expense of manual
and social virtue — Division of labor, and development of art —
The children and their employment — Mr. MacAlister's address —
Inexpensiveness of industrial education shown — Absolute necessity
of manual training — Education at public expense — Reliance on
the state — Form of government depends upon people — How chil-
dren are taught — In an ignorant society man becomes debased —
Education should be for useful purpose — Multiplicity of employ-
ments, and the inducement to self-perfection — Training the great
mass of workers a matter of life or death — Illustrations — Its
proper place allotted it — Richard Grant White — Special trades
not favored in public schools — Working-people not opposed to
the manual element in education — The reason why they should
not be unfriendly to it — Spring Garden Institute — Examples of
working-men receiving instruction — Night-schools attended by
working-people for studies relating to industry — Encouragement
from extensive firms and corporations illustrated by an example
— Opportunities for industrial education — Industrial establish-



CONTENTS. xiii

PAGR

ments willing to aid — Object of industrial education — Wendell
Phillips — Lord Brougham's remark — Professor Smith's views —
Views of the Boston School Committee — Expenditure in the £colc
municipal d^Apprends — Effect on Paris — Graduates of our schools
— Professor Kunkle's views — Mechanic art of wide application —
Confers mental discipline and increases the mental powers . . 271

CHAPTER XV.

Question of expense considered — Cost of workshop at Gloucester — At
the Dwight School, Boston — Estimates of Mr. Chaney — Mr. Leland's
school at Philadelphia — Of the Industrial School at Montclair,
New Jersey — Estimates of Mr. Royce — Of the Spring Garden Insti-
tute — Helpless condition of the graduate, growing out of an exclu-
sively intellectual training — Natural substances are fitted by indus-
try for use — Cost of support for public schools — Object of educa-
tion — Manual skill and knowledge — High-schools — Professor
Runkle's remarks upon high-schools — Manual training ; its ad-
vantages — Mechanical art — Multiplicity of talent — The benefit of
generalizing illustrated by botany and chemistry — Applied to me-
chanic art — Drawing in all art — Generalizing tools — The use of
machinery — Has not superseded the necessity for skilled work-
men — Machinery has multiplied employments — Illustrations of
the power-loom, printing-press, steam-engine, and cotton-gin —
Effects of machinery in reducing prices and increasing conven-
iences — The demand for perfection of workmanship — Examples
of well-paid skill — Inventions and industrial ambition — The
forces of matter made useful — Machine-tools — Hand-skill still
required — Building, carriage-making, etc. — The useful arts co-
operative — The use of machinery not art — The trained artisan
thinks while he works — Connection of science with useful art —
The mechanic the true demonstrator — Science-schools in Great
Britain — In the United States — In public schools — Education in
the rudiments of science a necessity — Laboratories and work-
shops attached to high-schools — Not to teach a particular trade,
but the underlying principles of all trades — Objection answered —
System illustrated — Mr. Magnus — City and Guilds of London In-
stitute — Finsbury Technical College — The system adapted to our
public schools . . . 296



XIV CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XVI.

PAGB

Chemistry as an industrial science — Its necessity in the ai-t of dyeing
— Colors elaborated by chemists — Those derived from coal-tar —
Its use in the fine arts and in other industries — Mathematics ilkis-
trated in the useful arts — Views of Herbert Spencer and Dr. Dick
— Hydrostatics — Principles of the law of fluids and their application
to industrial purposes — Electricity as a mechanical agent — Its sub-
serviency to man's direction — Its wide diffusion and power — Prog-
ress made, and the new arts to which it is applied — Geology and
n:^incralogy — Geological deductions — Irregularities in formation
and their study — Various facts of the science set forth, which
have been applied to artificial uses — Mineral wealth of the United
States — Methodical study in our schools — The division of labor —
Applied in every branch of industry, especially where machinery is
used — If one has been educated in the mechanic art, he is not hkely
to become a machine — Technic knowledge opens access to many
occupations — The invention of labor saving machines frequent in
this country — Universal education, its advantages — American in-
ventions — London " Times " on the exhibit at the Paris Exposition,
1878 — Those in general use — Causes of inventive activity — Clas-
sical learning, a digression — Amherst — The English language —
Greek and Latin should not take all the time and space — True
knowledge not to be sacrificed to verbalism — The ingenuity of the
people is a national characteristic — Plan of education at Athens —
Rome — In Germany — In France — England — Scotland — Lord Bacon
and Locke — Bede and Alcuin — Mechanical training to develop our
capacities — The effect of machinery upon the condition of the
working-man — ^Various instances cited — Does it dispense with his
vocation ? — Agricultural implements — The railroad — Iron ships —
Improvements give more and finer work than they displace — Ma-
chinery depends upon scientific principles — A knowledge of these
important to the artisan who fabricates them — The study of me-
chanic art indispensable — Industrial instruction — England and
France — It is a public question — It is a mistake to wait for local
industries to begin the educational work — Wealth, population,
and intelligence 321



CONTENTS. xy

CHAPTER XVir.

PA(.E

Moral influence of industry — West Philadelphia Penitentiary — Criminal
statistics — Necessity of manual training to correct degrading
views of labor — Also as preparatory for the safety of society —
Advantages of industrial education to workmen — It improves their
condition and cultivates the moral affections — Early impressions —
Mr. Richards's views — Exclusive intellectual training creates a
disdain for labor — The connection between idleness and vice —
Public schools progressive — The friends of industrial education
should vindicate the public schools for their reconstructing tend-
ency — Mr. Eraser's report to the British Government — The im-
provement of public schools since that time — The education of
Indians — Hampton Institute — It is an industrial school — Indians



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