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McDougal Littell



THE LANGUAGE OF




BRITISH



1




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Digitized by the Internet Archive
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McDougal Littell



THE LANGUAGE O F

Literature



BRITISH LITERATURE




HOMAS HARDY



MARYWOLLSTONECRAFT



WILLIAM BUTLER YEAI



lib EN



ROBERT BROWNING



r.FRAlMD MAN! EY HOPKINS



PERCY E



SAMUEL JOHN SO



EDMUND SPE:



WILLIAM BLAKE



LORD BY RON



LAWRENCE



GEOFFREY



VIRGINIA WOOLE



SEAM US HE/



CHARLOTTE BRONTE



KATH BRINE N



SAMUEL TAYLOR COLER1 DC



I AM SHAKESPEARE



OH N



)HN,DONNE



McDougal Littell



T HE LANGUAGE O F

LITERATURE



BRITISH LITERATURE



Arthur N. Applebee

Andrea B. Bermudez

Sheridan Blau

Rebekah Caplan

Peter Elbow

Susan Hynds

Judith A. Langer

James Marshall



^McDougal Littell

A HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
Evanston, Illinois ♦ Boston * Dallas



Acknowledgments

A. P. Watt Ltd.: "The Ant and the Grasshopper" by W. Somerset Maugham,
from The Collected Stories of W. Somerset Maugham. Reprinted by permission of A.
P. Watt Limited on behalf of the Royal Literary Fund.

Unit One

Dutton Signet: Excerpts from Beowulf, translated by Burton Raffel. Translation
Copyright © 1963 by Burton Raffel, Afterword © 1963 by New American Library.
"Fifth Day, Ninth Story" retitled "Federigo's Falcon," from The Decameron by
Giovanni Boccaccio, translated by Mark Musa and Peter Bondanella, Translation
copyright © 1982 by Mark Musa and Peter Bondanella.
From he Morte D' Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory, translated by Keith Baines.
Translation copyright © 1962 by Keith Baines, renewed © 1990 by Francesca
Evans. Introduction © 1962 by Robert Graves, renewed © 1990 by Beryl Graves.
Used by permission of Dutton Signet, a division of Penguin Putnam Inc.

The New York Times: "A Collaboration Across 1,200 Years" by D. J. R.
Bruckner, from The New York Times, July 22, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by The
New York Times. Reprinted by permission.

Continued on page 1493



Warning: No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by
any information storage or retrieval system without prior written permission of
McDougal Littell Inc. unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal
copyright law. With the exception of not-for-profit transcription in Braille,
McDougal Littell Inc. is not authorized to grant permission for further uses of
copyrighted selections reprinted in this text without the permission of their owners.
Permission must be obtained from the individual copyright owners as identified
herein. Address inquiries to Manager, Rights and Permissions, McDougal Littell
Inc., P.O. Box 1667, Evanston, IL 60204.

ISBN- 13: 978-0-618-17075-3 ISBN-10: 0-618-17075-8

2007 Impression.

Copyright © 2002 by McDougal Littell Inc. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.



11 12 13 14 15 0914 13 12 11 10 09
iv



Senior Consultants

The senior consultants guided the conceptual development for The Language of
Literature series. They participated actively in shaping prototype materials for major
components, and they reviewed completed prototypes and/or completed units to ensure
consistency with current research and the philosophy of the series.

Arthur N. Applebee Professor of Education, State University of New York at Albany;
Director, Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature; Senior Fellow, Center for
Writing and Literacy

Andrea B. Bermudez Professor of Studies in Language and Culture; Director,
Research Center for Language and Culture; Chair, Foundations and Professional
Studies, University of Houston-Clear Lake

Sheridan Blau Senior Lecturer in English and Education and former Director of
Composition, University of California at Santa Barbara; Director, South Coast Writing
Project; Director, Literature Institute for Teachers; Former President, National Council
of Teachers of English

Rebekah Caplan Senior Associate for Language Arts for middle school and high
school literacy, National Center on Education and the Economy, Washington, D.C.;
served on the California State English Assessment Development Team for Language
Arts; former co-director of the Bay Area Writing Project, University of California at
Berkeley

Peter Elbow Emeritus Professor of English, University of Massachusetts at Amherst;
Fellow, Bard Center for Writing and Thinking

Susan Hynds Professor and Director of English Education, Syracuse University,
Syracuse, New York

Judith A. hanger Professor of Education, State University of New York at Albany;
Co-director, Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature; Senior Fellow, Center
for Writing and Literacy

James Marshall Professor of English and English Education; Chair, Division of
Curriculum and Instruction, University of Iowa, Iowa City



Contributing Consultants

Linda Diamond Executive Vice-President, Consortium on Reading Excellence
(CORE); co-author of Building a Powerful Reading Program

Lucila A. Garza ESL Consultant, Austin, Texas

Jeffrey N. Golub Assistant Professor of English Education, University of
South Florida, Tampa

William L. McBride, Ph.D. Reading and Curriculum Specialist; former middle
and high school English instructor

Sharon Sicinski-Skeans, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Reading, University of
Houston-Clear Lake; primary consultant on The Inter Active Reader



Multicultural Advisory Board



The multicultural advisors reviewed literature selections for appropriate content and
made suggestions for teaching lessons in a multicultural classroom.

Vikki Pepper Ascuena, Meridian High School, Meridian, Idaho

Dr. Joyce M. Bell, Chairperson, English Department, Townview Magnet Center,
Dallas, Texas

Linda F. Bellmore, Livermore High School, Livermore, California

Dr. Eugenia W. Collier, Author; lecturer; Chairperson, Department of English and
Language Arts; Teacher of Creative Writing and American Literature, Morgan State
University, Maryland

Dr. Bill Compagnone, English Department Chairperson, Lawrence High School,

Lawrence, Massachusetts

Kathleen S. Fowler, President, Palm Beach County Council of Teachers of English,
Boca Raton Middle School, Boca Raton, Florida

Jan Graham, Cobb Middle School, Tallahassee, Florida

Barbara J. Kuhns, Camino Real Middle School, Las Cruces, New Mexico

Patricia J. Richards, Prior Lake, Minnesota

Continued on page 1509

Teacher Review Panels

The following educators provided ongoing review during the development of the
tables of contents, lesson design, and key components of the program.

CALIFORNIA

Steve Bass, 8th Grade Team Leader, Meadowbrook Middle School, Ponway Unified
School District

Cynthia Brickey, 8th Grade Academic Block Teacher, Kastner Intermediate School,
Clovis Unified School District



Continued on page 1509



Manuscript Reviewers



The following educators reviewed prototype lessons and tables of contents during
the development of The Language of Literature program.

David Adcox, Trinity High School, Euless, Texas

Carol Alves, English Department Chairperson, Apopka High School, Apopka,
Florida

Continued on page 1510



VI



Student Board

The student board members read and evaluated selections to assess their appeal
for 12th-grade students.

Daniel Birdsall, Muhlenberg High School, Reading, Pennsylvania
Shane M. Cummins, Loudoun County High School, Leesburg, Virginia
Carrie Mitchell, Butler Traditional High School, Shively, Kentucky
Jennifer Schwab, MacArthur High School, San Antonio, Texas
Sarah Marie Slezak, Union High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan
Staci Talis Smith, Ramsay Alternative High School, Birmingham, Alabama
Eve E. Tanner, Justin F. Kimball High School, Dallas, Texas




VII



The Language of Literature



Overview



oK'e t The Anglo-Saxon and Medieval

Periods 495-1485

Part 1 Tests of Courage

Part 2 Reflections of Everyday Life

Part 3 Attempts at Perfection



LITERARY FOCUS

The Epic



Writing Workshop: Personality Profile,

Application Essay

Grammar: Achieving Sentence Variety,

Creating Compound and Complex

Sentences

Vocabulary: Using Word Origins to

Learn New Words, Understanding Words

with Multiple Meanings



two The English Renaissance 1485-1660

Part 1 Aspects of Love
Part 2 A Passion for Power
Part 3 Facing Life's Limitations

LITERARY FOCUS SKILL FOCUS

Sonnet Form Writing Workshop: Research Report

Shakespearean Grammar: Using Adverbs and

Tragedy Adverb Phrases

Metaphysical Vocabulary: Analyzing Word Parts-
Poetry



Roots



three The Restoration and
Enlightenment 1 660-1798

Part 1 Views of Society

Part 2 Arguments for Change

Part 3 Revelations About Human Nature

LITERARY FOCUS SKILL FOCUS

Nonfiction in Writing Workshop: Proposal, Satire
the 18th Century Grammar: Using Adjectives and

Satire Adjective Phrases, Using Elements

in a Series

Vocabulary: Precision in Language,
Recognizing Denotations and
Connotations



four The Flowering of
Romanticism 1 798-1 832

Part 1 Seeking Truth

Part 2 Embracing the Imagination

SKILL FOCUS

Communication Workshop:

Performance Presentation
Grammar: Using Adjective and
Noun Clauses

Vocabulary: Homonyms, Homophones,
and Homographs



LITERARY FOCUS

Romanticism

Form and
Meaning in
Poetry



five The Victorians 1 832-1 901

Part 1 Personal Relationships
Part 2 New Voices, New Directions

LITERARY FOCUS SKILL FOCUS

The Growth and Writing Workshop: Subject Analysis
Development Grammar: Using Adverb Clauses
of Fiction Vocabulary: Using Context Clues to

Determine Meaning



six 17 Emerging Modernism 1901-1950

Part 1 New Images of Reality
Part 2 Shocking Realities

LITERARY FOCUS SKILL FOCUS

Irony in Modern Writing Workshop: Dramatic Scene
Literature Communication Workshop: Web Site

Grammar: Creating Sentence Closers,
Creating Sentence Openers
Vocabulary: Identifying the Parts
of a Word, Learning Ways to Develop
Your Vocabulary



seven Contemporary Voices 1950-Present

Part 1 Appearance and Reality
Part 2 Culture and Conflict

LITERARY FOCUS

Point of View in

Contemporary

Fiction

Literature as
Social Criticism



SKILL FOCUS



Writing Workshop:

Critical Review

Grammar: Creating Subject-Verb Splits

Vocabulary: Understanding Analogies



VIII



Table of Contents



Student Resource Bank

Reading Handbook

Writing Handbook

Communication Handbook

Grammar Handbook

Glossary of Literary Terms

Glossary of Words to Know in English and Spanish



T HE LANGUAGE O F

Literature




Literature Connections

Each of the books in the
Literature Connections series
combines a novel or play with
related readings — poems,
stories, plays, personal essays,
articles — that add new
perspectives on the theme
or subject matter of the
longer work.

Listed below are some of
the most popular choices to
accompany the Grade 12 anthology:

Hamlet by William Shakespeare

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen

Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte

Tess of the d'Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy

Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw

Great Expectations by Charles Dickens

A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens

Beowulf

The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer

1984 by George Orwell

Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe

Nervous Conditions by Tsitsi Dangarembga

When Rain Clouds Gather by Bessie Head






















Becoming an Active Reader

STRATEGIES FOR READING



Reading Literature


8


READING MODEL




The Ant and the Grasshopper by W. Somerset Maugham


Reading Handbook




READING FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES


1324


READING DIFFERENT GENRES


1326


READING DIFFERENT FORMATS


1327


ENRICHING YOUR VOCABULARY


1328


READING FOR INFORMATION


1334


Reading a Textbook


1334


Reading a Magazine Article


1336


Reading a Web Page


1337


PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION


1338


Main Ideas and Supporting Details


1339


Chronological Order


1340


Comparison and Contrast


1341


Cause and Effect


1342


Problem-Solution


1343


FUNCTIONAL READING


1344


Guide to Colleges


1344


Campus Map


1345


College Application


1346


Online Job Search


1348


Job Application


1350


Workplace Document


1352



IX



UNIT ONE




TV Ldng/fr-<Scuxx)fv




and



449-1485



14



r i



INTERNET
CONNECTION



Time Line

Historical Background

Development of the English Language

Literary History



Part 1 Tests of Courage



The Beowulf Poet



translated by Burton Raff el



D. J. R. Bruckner



Learning the Language of Literature: The Epic

from Beowulf

• GUIDE FOR READING

Grendel

Beowulf

The Battle with Grendel

IQl LITERATURE IN PERFORMANCE VIDEO

Grendel's Mother

The Battle with Grendel's Mother

Beowulf's Last Battle

The Death of Beowulf

Mourning Beowulf

Literary Link

A Collaboration Across 1,200 Years



16
18



EPIC POETRY



REVIEW



27
28

30

33
36
40

45
47
52
56
60

61



Comparing Literature of the World

The Epic Hero Across Cultures: Ancient Greece

Homer from the Iliad

translated by Robert Fitzgerald

•GUIDE FOR READING



EPIC POETRY



66






Anonymous

translated by Burton Raffel

translated by Ann Stanford
The Venerable Bede



from the Exeter Book
•GUIDE FOR READING
The Seafarer
The Wanderer
The Wife's Lament

from A History of the English Church
and People



POETRY



84



HISTORICAL WRITING



Part 2 Reflections of Everyday Life



106



Geoffrey Chaucer


Author Study






^^^^


Life and Times




107


$?& 8&


<\ INTERNET CONNECTION






4§ ^\|


from The Canterbury Tales


POETRY


111


■ J^


translated by Nevill Coghill

• GUIDE FOR READING






J& w


The Prologue




113


^ w


from The Life and Times of Chaucer


NONFICTION


139


^^ ^r


by John Gardner






#\ NETACTIVITIES:
VJr Author Exploration


from The Pardoner's Tale




141


H LITERATURE IN PERFORMANCE VIDEO








The Wife of Bath's Tale




154




The Author's Style




168



Giovanni Boccaccio



Comparing Literature of the World

The Storytelling Tradition Across Cultures: Italy

from The Decameron
Federigo's Falcon



TALE



171



The Paston Family from The Paston Letters

Anonymous Barbara Allan

Sir Patrick Spens

Get Up and Bar the Door



LETTERS



BALLAD


192


BALLAD


192


BALLAD


192



READING AND WRITING SKILLS

Writing Workshop Personality Profile (Observation and Description) 200

STUDENT MODEL Her Three-Inch Feet 201

REVISING SKILL Adding Detail 204

EDITING SKILL Comma Splices 204

Assessment Practice Revising and Editing 205

Building Vocabulary Using Word Origins 206

Sentence Crafting Inverting Word Order 207



XI



Part 3 Attempts at Perfection



The Gawain Poet

translated by John Gardner

Sir Thomas Malory,

retold by Keith Baines

William Caxton



from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

• GUIDE FOR READING

from Le Morte d'Arthur



from Preface to the First Edition
of Le Morte d'Arthur

• READING FOR INFORMATION



ROMANCE



ROMANCE



PREFACE



208
209

225

239



Comparing Literature of the World

Legendary Deeds Across Cultures: India

Valmiki from the Ramayana

translated and adapted by R. K. Narayan



EPIC



240



Margery Kempe from The Book of Margery Kempe autobiography 252

Milestones in British Literature: Mystery, Miracle, 258
and Morality Plays

READING AND WRITING SKILLS

Reading for Information Paraphrasing and 239

Summarizing

Writing Workshop Application Essay (Personal and Reflective) 260

STUDENT MODEL Whomp! 261

REVISING SKILL Using the Active Voice 264

EDITING SKILL Subject-Verb Agreement 264

Assessment Practice Revising and Editing 265

Building Vocabulary Understanding Words 266

with Multiple Meanings

Sentence Crafting Creating Compound and 267

Complex Sentences

UNIT WRAP-UP

Reflect and Assess 268

Extend Your Reading 270



XII




UNIT TWO The



(Snafi&A




148 5-1 660






272



INTERNET
CONNECTION


Time Line

Historical Background

Development of the English Language

Literary History




274
276


Part 1

Sir Thomas Wyatt


Aspects of Love

My Lute, Awake!


POETRY


282
283


Elizabeth 1


On Monsieur's Departure


POETRY


283


Christopher Marlowe


The Passionate Shepherd to His Love


POETRY


289


Sir Walter Raleigh


The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd


POETRY


289




Learning the Language of Literature: Sonnet Form




295


Edmund Spenser


Sonnet 30
Sonnet 75


POETRY
POETRY


297
297


William Shakespeare


Sonnet 29
Sonnet 116
Sonnet 130


POETRY
POETRY
POETRY


302
302
302



Comparing Literature of the World

The Sonnet Across Cultures: Italy

Francesco Petrarch Sonnet 169
Sonnet 292



POETRY
POETRY



308
308



XIII







Part 2 A Passion for Power

William Shakespeare Author Study



313




®



NETACTIVITIES:
Author Exploration



Life and Times

C| INTERNET CONNECTION

The English Renaissance Theater

The Rebirth of the Globe

Learning the Language of Literature: Shakespearean Tragedy

The Tragedy of Macbeth drama

•GUIDE FOR READING

Act One

LITERATURE

NONFICTION
NONFICTION



PERFORMANCE VIDEO
Act Two

Duncan's Murder from Holinshed's Chronicles
Act Three

Banquo's Murder from Holinshed's Chronicles
Act Four
Act Five

The Macbeth Murder Mystery by James Thurber short story
The Author's Style

READING AND WRITING SKILLS
Writing Workshop Research Report
STUDENT MODEL The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 and Macbeth
REVISING SKILL Paragraph Building
EDITING SKILL Shifting Verb Tense
Assessment Practice Revising and Editing
Building Vocabulary Analyzing Word Parts — Roots
Sentence Crafting Using Adverbs and Adverb Phrases




314

318
320
321
323

328

348
361
363
380
382
401
417
421



423

424
430
430
431
432
433



Part 3

King James Bible



Sir Francis Bacon



John Donne

Ben Jonson

Robert Herrick

Andrew Marvell

Richard Lovelace



ESSAYS



Facing Life's Limitations

from Ecclesiastes, Chapter 3

Psalm 23

Parable of the Prodigal Son

from Essays
Of Studies
Of Marriage and Single Life

Learning the Language of Literature: Metaphysical Poetry

A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
Holy Sonnet 10
from Meditation 17

On My First Son
Still to Be Neat





434


SCRIPTURE


435


SCRIPTURE


435


SCRIPTURE


435



To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time

•GUIDE FOR READING

To His Coy Mistress

•GUIDE FOR READING

To Lucasta, Going to the Wars

•GUIDE FOR READING



POETRY



POETRY



Poetry



442



449



POETRY


451


POETRY


451


N0NFICTI0N


451


POETRY


458


POETRY


458



463



463



463



Comparing Literature of the World

The Theme of Carpe Diem Across Cultures: Persia

Omar Khayyam from the Rubaiyat

translated by Edward FitzGerald



POETRY



471



How Soon Hath Time


POETRY


476


When 1 Consider How My Light Is Spent


POETRY


476


from Paradise Lost


EPIC POETRY


480


•GUIDE FOR READING







John Milton



Margaret Cavendish Female Orations

Literary Link
Amelia Lanier from Eve's Apology in Defense of Women

Milestones in British Literature: John Btinyan's
The Pilgrim's Progress

UNIT WRAP-UP

Reflect and Assess

Extend Your Reading

Reading and Writing for Assessment



DEBATE



POETRY



493

498
502



504
506
508



xv




UNIT THREE
The^
and





1660-1798




514



<t



INTERNET
CONNECTION



Time Line

Historical Background

Development of the English Language

Literary History



Part 1

Samuel Pepys
Alexander Pope



Views of Society

from The Diary of Samuel Pepys

from An Essay on Man

Epigrams, from An Essay on Criticism



DIARY

POETRY
POETRY



516
518



524
525

534
534



Comparing Literature of the World

Observing Society Across Cultures: France

Jean de La Fontaine The Acorn and the Pumpkin fable

The Value of Knowledge fable



540
540



Joseph Addison

Philip Stanhope,
Lord Chesterfield

Lady Mary
Wortley Montagu



Mary Astell



Learning the Language of Literature:
Nonfiction in the 18th Century

from The Spectator

from Letters to His Son

Letter to Her Daughter

Literary Link

from Some Reflections upon Marriage



ESSAYS
LETTERS

LETTER
ESSAY



546

548
554

554
563



XVI



Milestones in British Literature: Daniel Defoe's
Robinson Crusoe

READING AND WRITING SKILLS
Writing Workshop Proposal (Informative Exposition)
STUDENT MODEL A Proposal to Enhance Arts Education at
Stevenson High School
REVISING SKILL Transition Words
EDITING SKILL Using Adverbs Correctly
Assessment Practice Revising and Editing
Building Vocabulary Precision in Language
Sentence Crafting Using Adjectives and Adjective Phrases



566



568
569

572
572
573
574
575



Part 2 Arguments for Change

Daniel Defoe from An Academy for Women

Learning the Language of Literature: Satire



ESSAY



576
577

584



Jonathan Swift


Author Study






^NB^


Life and Times




586


Mt T "^k


^INTERNET CONNECTION






^^k^KbF/ *^~ fc *^^^L


from Gulliver's Travels


FICTION


590


1 jLI 1


from Part 1. A Voyage to Lilliput




591


I u i


from Part 2. A Voyage to Brobdingnag




600


\|t ^]l ■ mSfw


Letter from Richard Sympson


LETTER


609


&\ NETACTIVITIES:
vJP Author Exploration


A Modest Proposal

• ACTIVE READING SUPPORT

The Author's Style


ESSAY


611
621



Comparing Literature of the World

Satirical Commentary Across Cultures: France

Voltaire from Candide



FICTION



624



Mary Wollstonecraft



from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Essay

• ACTIVE READING SUPPORT

READING AND WRITING SKILLS
Reading for Information Denotation and Connotation
Writing Workshop Satire (Persuasion)
PROFESSIONAL MODEL A New "Modest Proposal"
^k Ellen Goodman
REVISING SKILL Using Appropriate Diction
EDITING SKILL Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Assessment Practice Revising and Editing
Building Vocabulary Recognizing Denotations

and Connotations
Sentence Crafting Using Elements in a Series



631

658

640

643
643
644
645

646



XVII



Part 3

Samuel Johnson



Samuel Johnson

James Boswell
Thomas Gray

Fanny Burney



Revelations About Human Nature

from The Rambler

On Spring
from The Idler

On Idleness

from A Dictionary of the English Language

• READING FOR INFORMATION

from The Life of Samuel Johnson

Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

• GUIDE FOR READING



from The Diary and Letters of
Madame d'Arblay



lire


647


ESSAY


648


ESSAY


648


DICTIONARY


658


BIOGRAPHY


659


POETRY


666



DIARY



674



Comparing Literature of the World

Personal Narratives Across Cultures: France

Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun from Memoirs of Madame Vigee-Lebrun



MEMOIRS



681



UNIT WRAP-UP
Reflect and Assess
Extend Your Reading



692

694




XVIII





UNIT FOUR The



INTERNET
CONNECTION



Part 1



William Blake



Srlotoerinw



of




1798-1 832

Time Line

Historical Background

Development of the English Language

Literary History



696

698

700



Seeking Truth

Learning the Language of Literature: Romanticism



from Songs of Innocence
The Lamb
The Little Boy Lost
The Little Boy Found

from Songs of Experience
The Tyger
The Fly
The Sick Rose



POETRY



POETRY



706
707

709



709



Matsuo Basho and
Kobayashi Issa



Comparing Literature of the World

Nature Poetry Across Cultures: Japan

Haiku



POETRY



717



XIX



William Wordsworth


Author Study






^^_


Life and Times

Cj INTERNET CONNECTION




722


^^H ^^Ln ~^rz ^fl HHJk


Selected Poems

• GUIDE FOR READING






ifl T' 1


Lines Composed a Few Miles Above
Tintern Abbey


POETRY


725




Composed upon Westminster Bridge,
September3, 1802


POETRY


725


^F\ NETACTIVITIES:
vJP Author Exploration



Online LibraryArthur N.; Bermudez ApplebeeThe Language of Literature; British Literature → online text (page 1 of 154)