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the sacred cause of Teutonism.

The Eussian Government unfortunately played
into the hands of the minority in Finland. After the
too brief period in which the countries seemed to
be drawing together, the reactionaries at Petrograd
succeeded in frightening the Government into a re-
sumption of the policy of russianization, on the plea
that Finland was disloyal and could only be held
down by force. Up to this time, the disloyalists in
Finland were a negligible quantity, but the natural



328 FINLAND AND THE FINNS

result of this change of policy was to make many
people in Finland say, "If this is what we get from
Russia for showing our loyalty, have we not more
to gain from a German victory 1" Indeed, the ques-
tion suggests itself whether the change of policy
may not have been the result of German intrigue.
A disloyal Finland would embarrass Russia, and
the policy adopted and carried out by the Governor-
General, himself of German origin, was exactly cal-
culated to exploit any disloyalty there might be in
the country. This, however, is matter for specula-
tion. What is certain is that German agents were
profuse in their promises to the Finns, if only these
would revolt from Russia. With a fine inconsist-
ency, German agents in Finland were promising to
make Finland an independent republic, while others
in Sweden were offering to restore the Grand Duchy
to the Swedish Crown!

The net result of German intrigue and Russian
mistakes was to cool the sympathy of the mass of the
people for the Allies, and to make Finland, in feeling,
a neutral country. It was common to hear the hope
expressed that Britain and France might be victori-
ous on the west, and Russia suffer defeat on the east. 1

No attempt will be made in these pages to lift
the veil which has shrouded events in Finland dur-
ing the greater part of the war. Nor is it profitable
to attempt any detailed mapping-out of the future.
In times of uncertainty, judgment must be based on,

1 The feeling of neutrality was strengthened by the fact that
the Finns do not serve in the Russian army. The application
of the Russian system to Finland was several times mooted,
but has never been carried out, chiefly from a fear of the pos-
sible consequences. Finns are fighting both in the Russian and
German armies as volunteers.



FINLAND AND THE WAR 329

and action guided by, broad principle. Broadly
speaking, the future of Finland depends on whether
the rights of the smaller nations are or are not
going to be respected. In the event of a victory for
the Central Powers, those rights would be trampled
under foot as ruthlessly as were the rights of Bel-
gium. The only hope of the smaller nations rests
in an Allied victory. But even in the event of an
Allied victory, there are certain small nations which
may be pardoned if they view the future with con-
siderable anxiety. Of these the Finns are one.

The future of their country depends on what hap-
pens in Russia, on whether liberal or bureaucratic
tendencies prevail there. The Finnish patriot in-
evitably asks himself, ' ' Is there any prospect of Rus-
sia becoming more liberal as a result of the war?"
Let us glance at the nature of the prospect.

Among the forces making for liberalism are these.
The war is taking the Russian peasant out of his
narrow village life and showing him his own coun-
try and other countries. His mind is expanding, he
is asking questions he has never asked before. He is
comparing the conditions of life in Russia with the
conditions of life in other lands. It was men who had
fought in the Napoleonic wars who sowed the seeds
of liberalism which were to result in the emancipa-
tion of the Serfs fifty years later, and no less a
revolution may result from the impregnating of the
Russian mind to-day with ideas current in Western
Europe. The close association of Russia with
France and Britain strengthens the same tendency.
The Russian may not be easily coerced, but he can
easily be won if his heart and imagination are
touched. It was a British Prime Minister who won



330 FINLAND AND THE FINNS

Eussian confidence by his gallant words at a critical
time "La Douma est morte. Vive la Douma!" A
similar spirit in France and Britain may achieve
similar results to-day. Eussia has no desire to ap-
pear illiberal in the eyes of her Allies.

The war has advanced the cause of progress in
other ways also. The prohibition of the sale of
Vodka has been accompanied by a great increase of
prosperity and of self-respect. The savings of
peasants have increased by leaps and bounds, and
therewith the feeling that they have a stake in the
country. By cutting off supplies from the outer
world, the war has given a tremendous stimulus to
industry and to industrial organisation. This, as in
other countries, is accompanied by a greater feeling
of independence among the working classes. The
political sense of the people has been developed by
having to face great issues, and the power of organi-
sation has been increased by the war-work which,
in spite of the jealousy of the central government,
has had to be entrusted to the Zemstvos. The army
can no longer be officered exclusively by the aristoc-
racy, and new men who have come to the front and
tasted responsibility will not be denied their right
to a share in the life of the nation after the war.

Last among the forces making for liberalism is the
fact that Eussia is fighting Germany. The conflict
is not merely the external one that is being fought
out on the plains of Central Europe it is also an
internal conflict, which is being fought out in Eus-
sia itself. This is easily realised by anyone who
is able to estimate at their true value the many
changes in the Government machine during the war,
the many swingings of the pendulum towards and



FINLAND AND THE WAR 331

away from the Central Powers. It is not always
realised how deeply Germany has set her seal on
Russian life, nor how much the ordinary Russian
resents it, and wishes to emancipate himself from
it, nor how difficult it is for him to do so. Prussia
and Russia have been linked by many ties. The two
aristocracies spring largely from the same barren
countryside on the fringe of the Baltic, and have
been inspired by similar ideas. Since the partition
of Poland, they have had a common interest in re-
taining the stolen property. The Kaiser has been a
bitter foe of the Russian Duma, and has encouraged
every attempt to suppress it, realising that the
establishment of Constitutional Government in Rus-
sia would imperil his own position at Berlin. Rus-
sia has always resented these German influences
which have strangled her own attempts at self -ex-
pansion, but she has never been able to throw them
off. There can be no doubt that if, as a result of the
war, she succeeds in doing so, a great obstacle to
progress will have been removed.

The signs are propitious. Sickened by the
intrigues of pro-Germans in high places, whose
policy threatened to disgrace Russia and to drag
her into a dishonourable and feeble peace, the peo-
ple, with instincts nobler than their rulers, have in
these days taken the matter into their own hands.
What the outcome of the March revolution may be,
whether it will be guided throughout by the wisdom
which has marked its early stages, it is impossible to
say. We welcome its dawn, and our hearts respond
to this spontaneous outburst of a great nation's
indignation and hope. We know equally well that
the path to be travelled cannot be an easy one. Rus-



332 FINLAND AND THE FINNS

sia was not born for easy victories. The task of
readjustment is a gigantic one. It may be decades
before the great problems of home and of imperial
reform are worked out to a conclusion.

Meanwhile, as regards that particular portion of
the Russian Empire with which this book is con-
cerned, it is clear that if the principles for which the
Allies claim to be fighting are to be carried out, Fin-
land must receive other treatment than she was re-
ceiving before the war. It by no means follows,
however, as some Finns seem still to imagine, that
the clock can be put back 20 years, and all be as in
the days before the russianisation policy was ever
started. The Finnish problem must be considered
henceforward as part of the general Russian im-
perial problem. This problem, in its vastness and
complexity, is comparable only to the imperial prob-
lem which will confront the British Empire at the
close of the war, and cannot be discussed here. 1

It must suffice to say that the Finns will have to
abandon the too rigid nationalism into which they
drifted, partly through a little people's fear of
absorption, and partly through Russian aggressive-
ness, and learn to think of themselves as part of a
great whole. It would be folly to predict a golden
path for Finland, and the period of readjustment
cannot be viewed without anxiety. But the path of
exclusiveness will not be the path of safety. That
lies, rather in a closer understanding with the men
who stand for progress in Russia, and who have
over and over again had the courage to stand up
for Finland in the past.

1 Some reflections on this problem as it affects Finland may
be found in an article by the author published in the Political
Quarterly for April, 1915.



INDEX



ilberg, Ida, 176

5, 13, 16, 233, 300
Ackte, Aino, 176, 187
Act of Assurance, 276
Adlercreutz, 3
Agrarian Party, 213
Agricola, Michael, 24
Agricultural Experiments, Insti-
tute for, 95
Agricultural Report, 96

Labourers, 98-100, 243

Schools, 199
Agriculture, 92-96
Ahlqvist, Professor, 144
Aho, Juhani, 155-166
Aino, 124, 126, 136, 180
Aland, 3, 11, 321
Alexander I, 3, 16, 17, 57, 274,

286, 287, 291.

Alexander II, 18, 288, 291.
Alexander III, 19, 292,
Allies, Sympathy with, 326, 328
Annikki," 138
Army, Organization Bill, 289

Finnish, 292, 304
Arvidsson, 27

B

Baltic Provinces, 290

Bath, Finnish, 88, 89, 137, 138

Bear-hunting, 106

Bee-keeping, 94

Bernadotte, 4

Birds, 107

Birger Jarl, 13

Bjorneborg mausoleum, 179

Bobrikoff, General, 20, 242, 292-

306, 315

"Book of Our Land," 168
Borga, 40, 275
Buxhoevden, General, 2, 274



Canth, Minna, 249-252
Castren, M,, 9



Catherine, Empress, 273
Cattle- rearing, 94, 96
"Chips" (Spanor), 158
Church, 14, 113, 188

Festivals, 115
Churches, 113
Clubs, Young People's, 199
Collan, Karl, 185
Colleges, Training, 189, 190
Communes, 208
Constitution, Finnish, 17-21, 206-

7, 273-282, 287, 308
Constitutional Government, 331
Constitutional Party, 63, 306
Co-operation, 244
Copper mines, 233
Council of Ministers (Russian),

308-310
Court of Appeals, 14, 299, 314,

315

Cygnaeus, Fredrik, 39
Cygnaeus, Uno, 30



Dairy industry, 234

Danielson, Professor, 291

Diet, 17, 21, 57, 59, 206, 287, 288,

293, 309, 310, 311-313, 316
of Borga, 274-275
Divorce, 266-267
Dobeln, General von, 42, 177
Dostoyevsky, Fidor M., 76
Duma, 306, 312, 313, 330, 331



Edelfelt, Albert, 174-178
Education, 29-30, 188-228
Ehrstrom, E. G., 27
Elizabeth, Empress, 273
"Elk Hunters," 38
Enckell, 182
Engel, C. L., 66
"Ensign Stal's Tales," 41, 176
Eric, King, 12



334



INDEX



Faltin, Richard, 185

Farms, 80-5, 86-92

Faven, 182

Feminist movement, 253-264

Finch, 182

Finland and the War, 326-332

Finnish Literature Society. 30-

31, 54

Finnish Party, 212
Fisher, J. R. 62, 281
Fishing, 107
Folk-song, 168, 183
Franzen, 167
Fredrikshamn, Treaty of, 8, 275,

277,308
Friberg, Dr. Maikki, 258



Gallen, Axel, 177

Gamla Karleby, 47

General Strike, 21, 209, 242, 255

Gottlund, 31

Governor-General, 206, 217, 301-

2, 328

Gripenberg, Bertel, 172
Grot, Professor, 40
Gulf Stream, 8
Gustavus III, 18
Gustavus IV, 2

H

Hango, 5

Hangoudd, 2

"Hanna," 38

Helsingfors, 5, 7, 16, 65-82

Lyceum, 30

Helsingfors Tidningar, 168
Henry, Bishop, 12
Hermanson, Professor, 291
Hirn, Professor Yrjo, 205
Hjelt, Professor, 196
Hjelt Vera, 239



Ilmarinen, 125, 129, 136, 138
Imatra, 220

Imperial Rescript, 57, 58
Industrial legislation, 237-239
Industrial organisation, 330



Industries-
Bobbins, 227
Dairy, 234
Paper, 227-230
Stone, 231-232
Textiles, 233
Timber, 219-227

International Lawyers' Declara-
tion, 281-282, 319

Intrigues, German, 328, 331



Japan, War with, 306, 322
Jarnefelt, Armas, 185

Eero, 181
Joukahainen, 125, 126

K

Kaigorodoff, General, 299

Kaiser, 331

Kajana, 31

Kajanus, Robert, 185

"Kalevala," 31, 122-137, 178, 183

"Kanteletaar," - 35

Karelians, 10, 12, 32

"King Fialar," 41, 44

Kivi, Alexis, 39, 143-152

Kiyinebb, 317

Klingspor, 2

Knutsson, Torgils, 13-14

Kullervo, 125, 140, 178

Kulneff, 42

Kuopio, 50

Kuropatkin, General, 324



Ladoga, Lake, 8, 144, 283

Land, Cultivation of, 92, 93, 95
Tenure of, 96, 97

Landtdag, see Diet

Landtman, Dr. G., 110

Language struggle, 59, 60, 61 76

Ldran om Staten, 48

Legislation
Bakeries' Law, 238
Factory, 269

re Finnish citizenship, 313-314
re Illegitimate children, 267
Industrial, 237, 238, 239
Project for Imperial, 311



INDEX



335



Workmen's Compensation Act,

238
Lemminkainen, 125, 127, 130, 131,

136

Litteraturblad, 56
Local government, 207-208, 264
Lonnqvist, Charlotte, 143
Lonnrot, Elias, 31-36, 41, 123,

184

Louhi, 125
Lybeck, M., 172

M

Maamiehen Yst'dva, 50

Magnus Eriksen, 14

Maiden of Pohjola, 124

Manifesto of February, 1899, 20,

255, 293

Borga (1809), 277
Language, 292, 295, 300
Peace, 292

Marriage customs, 117-121

Martha Society, 270-272

Mechelin, Leo, 291, 306, 309

Midsummer Eve, 114

Miliutin, General 289

Music, 75, 183-187

Musical Society, 185

N

"Nadescha," 41

Nations, Rights of Smaller, 329

Napoleon, 1

New Era, 327

Newspapers, 211, 212, 247

Nicholas I, 285, 287

Nicholas II, 291

Nicholas, Grand Duke, 326

Novel, Finnish, 153-155

"Nuumisuutarit," 143

Nykyrka, 316

Nyland, 13

Nystad, Peace of, 25



Oihonna, 45, 46
Old Finns, 212
Oriyais, 3
Ossian, 45
"Outlawed," 161-165



"Paavo," 102
Pacius, Frederic, 185
Paivarinta, Pietari, 152
Palmgren, Selim, 185
Paper industry, 227-230
"Parson's Daughter, The" 156
Parties, Political, 206-218, 296-

298

Pellervo, 244
Per Brahe, 24
Perttunnen, Arhippa, 33
"Pioneers" 158
Plehve, von, 298
Poland, 17, 289, 331
Port Arthur, 322
Porthan, Henrik, 26
Post Office, Prussianization of,

291

Poultry, 94

Procope, Hjalmar, 172
Proportional Representation, 59,

215
Purishkevitch, 312



"Railway, The" 155
Railways, Finnish, 323, 326
Religion, 79

of Ancient Finns, 139
Rent, 68

Revolution, March, 1917, 331
Rights of Smaller Nations, 329
Riksdag, 16-17

Runeberg, J. L., 4, 30, 37-46,
102, 167-168

Fredrika, 28, 37
Russian liberalism, 329-331



Saima, 6, 225
Samoyedes, 9
Sampo, 125, 178
Saturday Club, 27-28, 47, 168
Saw-mills, 225-226
Schauman, Eugen, 305
Schools, Elementary, 189-190,
192

Mixed, 193-195, 254

Normal, 193



336



INDEX



People's High, 198, 202

Private, 193

Secondary, 192

Technical High, 200
"Scrap of paper," 327
Seal-hunting, 108
Senate, 18, 195, 206, 295-297,

308-309
"Seven Brothers, The," 39, 144-

152

Sibelius, Jean, 186
Snellman, J. V., 30, 41, 47-57,

168, 212
Socialism, 21, 210, 211, 241, 245-

248
Soderhjelm, Professor, 154, 166,

169

Song, Choral, 187
Speranski, 18
Sport, 203

Sprengporten, Governor, 274
"Squire Hellman," 156
Stead, W. T., 298
Steinheil, Count, 286
Stenback, 172
Stenvall, see Kivi
Stolypin, P., 306-308
Student Corporations, 196, 199
Suffrage, 209

Women's, 253-258

Women's, Opinions on, 259^264
Sveaborg Fortress of, 3, 76
Sven Hedin, Dr., 320



"Tales of a Surgeon," 170
Tar-burning, 109
Tavastland, 13
Tavasts, 10, 12
Tegner, 39
Tengstrom, Robert, 55

Fredrika, 37
Theatre, 75



Thirty Years' War, 25
Thome, 182
Timber trade, 219-227
"To Helsingfors," 157
Topelius, Zacharias, 167-172
Torpare, 98, 99
Trades Law, 310
Tuonela, 126

U

Uleaborg, 2, 3

University, 14, 24, 25, 27, 59, 65,
66, 195-198, 202, 203



Valio, 245

Viborg, 14, 16, 286, 314, 315

Vodka, Prohibition of, 330

W

Wainamoinen, 124, 128, 130, 136,

139

Wasenius, Walfred, 45
Wechsell, 172
Wegelius, Martin, 185
Westerholm, 182
Westermarck, Professor, 205
Whitford, V., 320-322
Wilhelm II, 331
Witte, Count, 307
Women, 21, 80-82, 197, 249-272

Property rights of, 265
Wrede, Matilda, 182

Y
Young Finns, 63, 213

Z

Zakrevsky, Count, 286
Zemstvos, 330
Zilliacus, Konni, 320



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