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ENCYCLOPEDIA

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FORMS & PRECEDENTS

BV SOME OF

The most Eminent Conveyancing and Commercial Counsel.

UNDER THE GENERAL EDITORSHIP OF

ARTHUR UNDERHILL, M.A., LL.D.,

ONE OF THE CONVEYANCISG COUNSEL TO THE CODRT,

Author of ''The Law of 7'nixta." avil "A Treatisp on the Settled Land Acli," etc.
JUditnr o/" Fisher on Mortgayc."

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THE



PRINCIPLES OF THE INTERPRETATION



WILLS AND SETTLEMENTS.



y



THE



}3nnciplc5 of the Entcrpvctation



WILLS AND SETTLEMENTS.



AKTHUR UNDERBILL, M.A., LL.D.,

OF Lincoln's inn, barrister-at-law.

0)ie of the Conreyaiiciii'i CoutisH to Vie Hifih Court of Justice ; Author of " ,1 Treatise

on the Law of Prirate Tnist.'i" ; " Priiicipks of the Law of Partnership," etc.,

aiut Editor of the Fifth Edition of ^^ Fisher on Mortgage," and of

the '■'■ Encydop<edia of Forms uiid Precedents."



J. ANDREW STRAHAN, M.A., LL.B.,

OF THK MIDDLE TEMPLE, BARRISTEK-AT-LAW.

Reader of Equitg in tht Inns of Court ; Author itf '• .1 (ieneral View of the Law of

ProjHrty" : ".I Concise Introduction to Con reyancinij," etc, ami Joint

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PEEFACE.



A LATE Lord Chief Justice once observed,
in the Court of Appeal, in the hearing of
one of us, that he did not believe there were
any rules for the interpretation of Wills or
Settlements. In a sense this obiter dictum was
right ; for where a Will or Deed is unambiguous,
then, so far as the interpretation is concerned
— the arriving at the testator's or settlor's
expressed intention — the only rule is unimagina-
tive common sense and sound judgment. As
Lord LiNDLEY once said: "When I see an
intention clearly expressed in a Will, and lind
no rule of law opposed to giving effect to it,
I disregard previous cases" {(i). To the same
effect is a dictum of Lord Halsbuky, in luder-
wich v. Tachell, [1903] A. C, at p. 122 : " I
confess I approach the interpretation of jl Will
with the greatest possible hesitation as to
adopting any supposed rule for its construction.
If I fan read the laiigua;^(' of the iiistruiiKMit
in its (jrdinary and natural sense, 1 do not want
any rule of construction ; and if 1 cannot, why
then I tliink one unist read the whole instru-
ment as well as on<' e;in, imd conclude what

(n) /."' Sli,n>, Jiabrw S/i>„< , | IH'.).')) -J ( 'li. l!Mi. at p. -'(Mt.
a 4



viii Preface.

really its effect is intended to be by looking at
the instrument as a whole." See also the
same learned Lord in Hcah' v. ]ia?rlins, [1892]
A. C, at p. 343.

But, unfortunately, a large proportion of such
documents (at all events of ^^'ills) are not in this
happy state of lucidity, even when looked at as
a whole. They are ambiguous or equivocal, or
even contradictory ; and in such cases the prin-
ciples which former Judges have enunciated for
arriving at a conclusion as to the intention are
undoubtedly of great value. Not that they must
be used slavishly. The true way is, doubtless, to
form an opinion apart from cases, and then to see
whether these cases necessitate a modihcation of
that opinion (h). To " construe one man's non-
sense by another's" is mere pedantry; but to
apply the same rules of sound judgment (and
rules of interpretation are rather rules of judg-
ment than of law) to the interpretation of
documents is but common sense. Moreover (as
Lord Halsbuky said in Ki)i(/.shur/j v. Walter,
[1901] A. C, at p. 187), ''rightly or wrongly,
certain canons of construction have been acted
upon for so long that I think it would be
impossible now to disregard them, partly upon
the ground that it is to be assumed — whether
the assumption is well founded or not I do not
stop to enquire — that lawyers draw instruments
with reference to the known state of the law,

{h) See Be Blanton, Lov:h v. Cooke, W. N. (1891) 54.



Preface. " ix

and the known state of the law is supposed to be
those canons of construction which from time
to time have been adopted by the courts in the
construction of ^yills." Examples of this are
afforded by the rules as to vesting and divesting
the intermediate income of contingent gifts, the
period at which classes are to be ascertained,
and the persons to be included in such classes,
the meaning of issue as a word of limitation,
and the like.

We have, therefore, endeavoured to extract
from the decisions some broad general principles
which will assist the practitioner in the inter-
pretation of ambiguous Wills and Settlements,
and to show the reasons which have led to the
adoption of these principles ; for without these
reasons the soundness of the principles is not
always immediately apparent.

We are, of course, well aware that, with
regard to Wills, Mr. Yaughax Hawkins has,
niany years ago, forestalled us, and we are
conscious how ditiicult it is to follow adequately
his lead. We think, however, that no writer has,
so far, treated of the interpretation of Wills and
Settlements together (c), although the general
principles applicable to both arc much the same.

We have endeavoured to prove and illustrate
(jur rules by the most modern cases, partly



(r) Wf lu^vo in»i loHt Kjglit of Mr. Hkai.'s W<iik, Wiit tlmt (K-uIh with
iiiU'qirftatidii giMivrully, iiicliiding HtatulcH, duetlM in guiicriil, and
agrevinuntM.



X ■ I'UKl ACE.

bectause these rules of interpretation (like most
rules of Courts of E(]uity) are refined and im-
proved from time to time, and partly because by
referring the reader to the most modern autho-
rity, he will there find (juoted all, or most of the
previous cases. The present Edition has been
enlarged by 120 pages, and it is hoped that this
will render it more useful to practitioners. The
current authorities have been noted down to the
June numbers of the Law Eeports.

Lastly, we desire to point out that this Book
is not intended to be a compendium of case
law on the subject. The works of the late
Mr. Jarman, Mr. Theobald, K.C, and Mr.
NoETON, K.C, leave no room for such a work.
All that we have sought to do is to extract from
the mass of authorities a set of broad general
principles, and to illustrate these principles by a
selection of cases. Where no general principle
can be gathered (as in the construction of par-
ticular words) we have not endeavoured to trace
an imaginary road through ''the wilderness of
single instances," believing that too often such
labours are the result of intellectual mirage. In
these cases we have, therefore, contented our-
selves with giving in the glossary a reference to

the more modern decisions.

A. U.

J. A. S.

Lincoln's Ixn.

J)mL\ 1906.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Preface

Table of Contents
Table of Cases Cited ...
Table of Statutes Cited



page

vii

xi

xvii

Iv



PART I.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

ART.

1. Words presumed to have their ordinary meaning ...

2. Ciicumstance-s which will rebut the presumption ...

3. Direct extrinsic evidence of intention, when admissible

4. Presumption in favour of <,'rantee or beneficiary ...

5. Repugnant clauses

6. Express and implied provision.s
7 Rules as to "/'(/.s«f (/if//(o?/.s-^ra/i«"

8. Failure for uncertainty and charities

9. Expre-ssed intentions assumed to be actual intentions



1

8
42
48
53
54
56
58
63



P .\ K T T T.

DESCRIPTION OF DONEES.

t HAriKu i.- 1 Nm\ ii)t .\i,>.



10. Impersonal description

11. Person "born " or " living" ...



73



CllArrhll II. KKI.ATln.NSIMl'.

12. KelHtif»ii.«liip UH-ans primarily blcjod relationship ... ... 76

13. KelationHliip meanh primarily legitimate blood nlationsliiji 7H
11. Whtrn " i.s.sue " iH to lie read "children " ... ... ... H!)



TaI'.LK ok ( 'ONIKNTS.



Chapter III.— Classes.

ART.

15. Description of a class ...

16. Gilt subject to a power of. SL'li'ctii 111 ...

17. Gift to wronj^ly ennmeriited class ...

18. Period of ilistribution aiiiong class ...

19. Ascertainment of clas.s when gift specific

20. AscertainiiR'iit of class wlu-n </ift Lrciieia]



pa(;e

1)2

!).")

99

102

104

105



P A E T III.
DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY.

Chapter I. — Times fru.m which Will.s and Deeds speak.

21. Condition of things in reference to wliicli descriptions of

proi^erty are construed ... ... 116

Chapter II. — Desckiptions of Property generally.

22. Descriptions of property include accessories of propeity... 124

23. Descriptions of the benefits accruing from property equiva-

lent to a description of the property itself ... ... 130



Chapter III. — General Dicsckiption of Property.

24. What is included under a general description

25. What is not included under a general description ..



138

144



Chapter IV. — Special Rules as to Wills.

26. General devises and bequests execute general powers of

appointment ... ... ... ... ... ... 147

27. Residuary gifts include all propei'ty not otherwise effec-

tively disposed (jf l>y the will ... 151

28. When estate will include b(jth real and jier-sonal estate ... 161

29. " Land " includes freeholds, cojiyliulds and leaseholds ... 164



Table of Coxtents.



xiu



PART IV.



INTERESTS TRANSFERRED.



Chaiteu I.— Gift.s Generally.

ART.

30. Absolute gifts

31. Express gifts and sifts by implication

32. Le^'acies to executors ...

33. Gifts of income of resiiluaiy peisiiiialty

34. Sub.stituted and cumulative legacies
3"). Priority of legacies



PAGE

169
179
189
191
193
196



Chapter II.— Gifts without Words of Limitation.

36. Gifts of f'/yn/.-; without words of limitation

37. Be(|uest3 of annuities without words of limitation



197

204



Chapter III. — Gift.s with Words of Limitation.

3S. Where the rule in Sliellei/H Case does not apply

39. Where the ry-j^rex doctrine applies ...

40. Limitation of heritable interest in personalty passes

ab.solute interest

41. Rule in Jri-W^- C'»*^

42. Meaning of " heirs male " in deeds and wills

43. Ettect of gifts over on failure of issue



210
216

218
222
225
226



Chai>ter IV. — Gifts in Joint Tenancy and Tenancy
in Common.

44. Gifts to .several donet-s without more create a joint tenancy 231
4'). (iifts to two classes or to an individual and a cla-s in

tenancy in commou ... ... ... 236



Chapter V.— E.state.s taken nv Tkl'bteeh.

40. CiLses in which the trustee takes any estate

47. The i|Uanlitv ofe-tale taken by the trustee of lands



2i''9
213



xiv Tai'.i.k of ( *()NTKNTS.



PART V.

CONDITIONAL INTERESTS UNDER WILLS OR
SETTLEMENTS.

Chapter I. — Phinciples ok Law hklatinc; to Absolute

AND CONDITIOXAI. I NTKlfKSTS.
ART. PAGE

48. All beneficial interests in property are either indefeasibly

vested, contingent, or vested subject to be divested ... 251

Chapter II. — Puincipijcs for Determininc; wmethkh
AN Interest is Vested or CoxTixciENT where
Enjoyment is postponed.

49. Vesting of personal estate, including the proceeds of real

estate directed to be .sold ... ... ... ... ... 258

60. Vesting of real estate ... ... ... ... ... ... 271

51. Vesting of legacies and portions charged on real estate ... 277
62. Vesting of legacies and portions charged on mixed, real,

and i^ersonal estate ... ... 280

Chapter TIL — Principles relating to the Divesting
OF Vested Interests.

53. Formalities essential to the legality of divesting provisions 281

54. General princijdes for interpreting divesting provisions ... 283

55. Absolute interests subsequently directed to be held in

settlement 293

56. Divesting provisions not extended to accrued .fhares ... 298

Chapter IV.— Secondary Rules relating to Con-
ditional Gifts over to. Gifts to Survivors,
Alternative Gift.s, Gifts over on Death spoken
OP AS a Contingency, and Conditions imposed
ON Erroneous Assumptions.

57. Gifts to survivors ... ... ... ... ... ... 301

58. Gifts to take effect on death spoken of as a contingency ... 308

59. Alternative gifts, original and substitutional ... ... 310

60. Conditions imposed on erroneous assumi^tions ... ... 321



Table of Contents. xv



Chapter V. — The Intermediate Income of Conditional
Gifts.

ART. PAGE

61. Whether contingent gift comprises intermediate income... 323

62. Income of a fund given to a contingent class after one has

attained a vested interest 329



PART VI.
CHARGES OF DEBTS, LEGACIES AND ANNUITIES.

63. Charges of debts, legacies, and annuities on real estate ... 331

64. Whether annuities charged on corpus or only on income ... 339



P A E T VII.

EXECUTORY SETTLEMENTS.

Chapter I. — Executory Settlements, generally.

G!^. Executory settlements defined 347

66. Construction of executory settlements in wills and marriage

articles ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 348

Chapter II. — Covenants to Settle other or after-
acquired Property.

67. Huw far the wife is bound by such covenants ... ... 362

6fi. Property which is primd facie excluded from a covenant

to settle other or after-acfjuired jirDperty ... ... 36!)

69. What is comprised in a general covenant to settle property

to which a wife is presently entitled ... 373

7'». What is comprised in a covenant to settle after-ac<juired

projferty of the wife, or of the husliand in her ri^hl ... 374

71. Covenants to .>iett]e a definite interest in prnjierty ... 3S0

72. CVjvenants to settle property exceeding a certain value ... 3H2

fiLohSAUV ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3Hr>

INDK.X.



TABLE OF CASES CITED,

With Eeferences to all the Contemporaneous
Eeports.



[Note. — W'/tfti the Law Times, Law Journal, or Jurist Eeports are
gicen, the reference is to the Xeio Series, unless the. contranj is
stated.]



A.

PAGE
Abbott /•. Middleton. 7 H. L. Cas. 68 ; 2S L. J. Ch. 110 ; 5 Jur. 717: 32. -tit
Abrev r. Newman, IG Beav. 4:U ; 17 Jur. 153 ; 22 L. J. Ch. 627 ;

i W. K. 1.-56 237

Acherley r. Vernon. 10 Mod. 'ilS ... .. ... ... ... HI

Adams and Kensington Vestry. Be, 27 Ch. D. 394 : 51 L. T. 382 ;

54 L. J. Ch. 87: 32 W. K. 883 170

Adams and Tcrrvs Contract. Be, [189'J] 1 Ch. 554 ; 68 L. J. Ch.

259 : 80 L. f. 149 : 47 \V. H. .326 247, 249

Adams, Be, Adams c. Adams. [1893] 1 Ch. 329; 68 L. T. 376 :

62 L. J. Ch. 266 ; 41 W. K. 329 ; 3 R. 222 324, 329

Adamson r. Armitage, 19 Ves. 416 ; G. Coop. 283 131,136

Adnam r. Cole, 6 Beav. 353 ... ... ... ... ... ... 194

Agar r. George, 2 Ch. ]). 706 ; 34 L. T. 487 : 24 W. R. 696 ... 374

Aird's Estate, Be. Aird r. (^uiok, 12 Ch. D. 291 ; 41 L. T. 180;

27 W. R. 8H2; 48 L. J.Ch. 631 14,322

Airey r. Bower, 12 App. Cas. 263 ; 56 L. T. 409 ; 56 L. J. Ch. 742 ;

35 W. R. 657 151

Akerf.vds Settlement. ///■, R.jberts r. Akeroyd, [1893] 3 Ch. 363 ;

69 L. T. 474 : 63 L. J. Ch. 32 ; 7 R. 405 182,271

Alcock '•. Sparlmwk. 2 Vt-rn. 22H 335

Allan. Be. Dow r. Cussiigne. [\'M)?)] 1 Ch. 276 : 72 I.. J. Ch. 159 :

HH L. T. 246 : 51 \V. R. 403 15".», 1S(;

Allen. Be, Hurgreuve- /•. Tav!..r. [1905] 2 Ch. 4oo ; 74 L. .1. Ch.

593 : 54 W. R. 91 ; I'l T. L. ]{. 662 60, 3S6

, Be, Wilson r. Att<r. 4 J L. T. 240 ; 29 W. 1{. 4so 94

r. .luekw.n. 1 Ch. 1). 399 ; 45 L. J. Ch. 310 ; 33 L. T. 713 ;

24 \V. R. 306 257

Allin r. Cruw.huv, 9 Ha. 3S2 ; 21 L. .1. Ch. 873 ls-_>

Alli-t'.n /■. Clmppli, 2 L. T. llo; 6 Jur. 2H« Ml

Amyot r. Dwarris, ' 1904 i A. C. 26M ; 73 L. J. ]'. C. 40 ; 53 W. R.

16 ; 90 L. T, 102 : 20 T. L. R. 26H 70

Anranter r. Mayer, I Bro. (,'. C 454 ... ... ... ... ... 337

AnderHon r. Ander»on. [IH'.I5] 1 y. B. 7»9 ; 72 L. T. 313 ; 61 I,. .1.

Ch. 457; 43 \V. R. 322; 14 R. 367 23—25



xviii Table of Cases.

PAGK
Anderson »•. Berkley, [1902] 1 Ch. 936; 71 L. J. CIi. 444 ; 50 W. K.

684 ; SO L. T. 443 ; 18 T. L. K. 531 58

Andrew r. Andrew, 1 Ch. 1). 410 ; 34 L. T. S2 ; 45 L. J. Ch. 232 ;

24 W. H. 34!t 273,274

Aii.lrews /•. I'artin^'ton. 3 Hro. C. C. 401 luO, 110

Andrew's P^state, Jit', Creasey c Graves, 50 W. H. 471 31(4

Andrew's Will. Be; 27 Hniv. CdS; 211 L. J. Ch. 2H1 ; C ,Inr. (N.s.)

114 : 1 L. T. 319 221

Andros, In ri\ Andros r. Andros, 24 Ch. 1). 637; 49 L. T. 163 :

52 L. J. Ch. 796 ; 32 W. H. 30 81

Aplin V. Stone, [1904] 1 Ch. 543 ; 73 L. J. Ch. 456 ; 90 L. T. 284 :

316. 326
Appleton, lie, Barber v. Tebbit. 29 Ch. D. 893 ; 54 L. J. Ch. 954 ;

.52 L. T. 906 ; 49 J. P. 708 190

V. Rowley, L. H. 8 Eq. 139 ; 20 L. T. 600 ; 38 L. J. Ch.

689 ... .". 390

Archer r. Kellv, 1 Dr. .V: Sm. 30(i ; 29 L. .1. Ch. 911 ; 6 .lur. S14 ;

s W. K. (;S4 379

Archer's Case, 1 Kep. 66 b ; Cro. Eliz. 453 ; 2 And. 37 ...212. 213. 215

Armitage r. Ashton. 20 L. T. 102 Iii9

Armvtage i: Wilkinson, 3 Apj). Cas. 355 ; 38 L. T. 185 ; 4 7 L. J.

P. C. 31 ; 26 W. K. 559 263

Arnold. Ji<\ 33 Beav. 163 ; 9 Jur. 1186 ; 9 L. T. 530 : 12 W. H. 4... 261

Arnott r. Arnott, [1906] 1 I. K. 127 60

Ashler r. Ashlev, 6 Sim. 358 : 3 L. J. Ch. 61 185

Ashton. In n- Goods of, [1892] P. 83 : 67 L. T. 325 ; 61 L. J. P. 85... 48
Asten t: Asten, [1894] 3 Ch. 260; 63 L. J. Ch. 834; 8 H. 496 ;

71 L. T. 228 46. 47. .59

Athill, //(. re Athill c. Athill, 16 Ch. 1). 211 ; 43 L. T. 581;

.50L. J. Ch. 123; 29 W. K. .309 8

Atkinson. In re. Wilson r. Atkinson, [1892] 3 Ch. 52 ; 66 L. T. 717 :

61 L. J. Ch. 504 ; 40 W. K. 666 234

c. L'i:strange. 15 L. K. Ir. 340 220

Atkyn.s r. Atkvns. 3 Bro. P. C. 408 ; Cowp, 808 141

Att.-Gen. r. Brasenosc College, 2 CI. k. F. 295 : 8 Bli. (N.s.) 377 ;

1 L. J. (X.S.) Ch. 66 ; 37 K. P. 107 28

r. Drummond, 1 Dr. & War. 353 ; 58 }i. K. 292 27

r. Ironmongers' Co.. Cr. & Ph. 208 ; 10 L. J. Ch. 201 ;

5 Jur. (o.s.) 3.56 62

*•. Price. 17 Vcs. 371 ; 11 R. R. 107 395

r. Sidney Sussex College, L. R. 4 Ch. 722 : 38 L. J. Ch. 656 : 29

V. Skinners' Co.. 2 Russ. 407 ; 26 U. R. 126 134

r. AVilkin!=^on, L. R. 2 Eq. 816 ; 14 L. T. 725 ; 12 Jur. 593;

14 W. R. 910 149

Audsley v. Horn, 26 Beav. 195 ; 28 L. J. Ch. 293 ; 4 Jur. 1267 ... 223
r. . 1 D. F. & J. 226 ; 29 L. J. Ch. 201 ; 8 W. R. 150 ;

6 Jur. 205 224

Averill, Be, Salsbury r. Buckle, [1898] 1 Ch. 523 : 78 L. T. 320 ;

67 L. J. Ch. 233 ; 46 W. R. 460 325.330



B.

Backhouse r. Middleton. 1 Cas. Ch. 173 132

Bacon's Will. Be. Camp r. Coe, 31 Ch. D. 460 ; 55 L. J. Ch. 368 ;

.54 L. T. 150 : 34 W. R. 319 40,41

Bagley v. Mollard. 1 Paiss. & My. 581 ; 8 L. J. (O-S.) Ch. 145 ;

32 R. R. 281 81

Bagot, ii-i-. Paton r. Ormerod, [1893] 3 Ch. 348; 69 L. T. .399;

69 L. J. Ch. 1006 14, 33, 152—154



Table of Cases. xix

PAGE

Bailev r. Icke. tU L. T. 781) 130

Baker. i?<. Baker /•. Baker. [1904] 1 Ch. lo7; 78 L. J. Ch. 172;

52 W. U. 213 ; Sii L. T. 742 290

r. Baker. (5 H. L. Cas. 616 ; 27 L. J. Ch. 417 : 4 Jur. 4<ll ;

••■ W. K. 410 344,345

r. White. L. K. 20 Eq. 166 ; 33 L. T. 347 ; 44 L. J. Ch. 651 ;

23 W. K. 670 240,242

Baldwin /•. Rogers. 3 1). M. A: G. 649 ; 22 L. J. Ch. 665 ; 17 Jur. 267 : 106
Ball. lie, Slatterv r. Ball. 40 Ch. 1). 11 ; 58 L. J. Ch. 232 ; 59 L. T.

800: 37 \V."K. 37 288,319

Bank of Enirland Ciise. 3 1). F. & J. 645 ; 30 L. J. Bk. 25 236

Bank of Now Zealand r. Simpson. [1900] A. C. 182 : tiO L. J. l\ C.

22 : 4.S \V. K. 591 ; 82 L. T. 102 : 16 T. L. K. 211 45

Bankes. /?-'. Hevnolds r. Ellis. [1902] 2 Ch. 333 : 71 L. J. Ch. 7u8 ;

.50 W. K. 663 : 87 L. T. 432 371

Banks, Br. Banks r. Busbridge. [1905] 1 Ch. 547 ; 74 L. J. Ch. 336 :

92 L. T. 225 337

Barden r. Barden. 16 Ir. Ch. U. 421 1^6

c. Meagher. Ir. K. 1 Eq. 246 208

Bartield. 7/r, Goodman c. Child, 84 L. T. 28 396

Barker r. Greenwood, 4 M. \- W. 421 ; 8 L. J. E.\. 5 : 51 U. K. 666... 240

r. Lea. T. .t H. 413 : 24 R. U. 85 186

Barker's Trusts, In rr, 52 L. J. Ch. 565 ; 48 L. T. 573 220

Barksdale /■. Moriran, 4 Mod. 185 20,21

Barh.w r. ()rde,^L. H. 3 P. C. 164: 6 Moo. T. C. (N.s.) 437;

18 \V. R. 737 81

r. Salter. 17 Ves. 479 228

Barnes r. Jennings, L. R. 2 Eq. 448 ; 35 L. J. Ch. 675 ; 14 W. R.

831 271

V. Patch. 8 Ves. 6U4 ; 7 R. R. 127 236, 3S9

Bamet r. Bamet, 29 Beav. 239 188,262

Barretto r. Young, [1900] 2 Ch. 339 ; 69 L. J. Ch. 605 ; 83 L. T.

154 149

Barrington '•. Tristram, 6 Ves. 344 : 5 R. R. 322 113

Bartholomew. Jfc, 1 M. & G. 354 ; 1 II. i: T\v. 5(15 : 19 L. J. Cli.

237 : 14 Jur. isl l)C.5

Barton r. Fitzgerald. 15 East. 530 ; 13 R. R. 519 10

Bassett's Estate. /.V, Perkins r. Fladgate, L. R. 14 Eq. 54 ; 41 L. ,1.

Ch. 6K1 ; 20 W. R. 589 :u

Bastard r. Proby. 2 C<tx. 6 ... ... ... ... 360

Bates r. Bates, \V. X. 1884, 129 l'9U

Bathurst /•. Errington. 37 L. T. 338 ; 2 App. Cas. ()98 ; 46 L. J. Ch.

74« ; 25 \V. R. 908 16,51,71,72

Battersby'sTrustc, ///■. [1896] 1 I. R. 600 319,389

Beales r. Crisford, 13 Sim. 592 ; 13 L. J. Ch. 2ii ; 7 .lur. (n.s.) 1076 : 386
Beard. Jtr, Butlin r. Harris. rpjOl] 1 Ch. 270; 6S J. p. 141 ;

73 L. J. Ch. 176 ; 90 L.T. 274 ; 52 W. R. 312 ; 2 L. G. R.320 ;

20T. L. R. 163 ... 395

B«-auf..rt /•. Swan-eu (Mayor of), 3 Ex. 413 ; 77 R. R. 677 28

Beamnont r. Salisbury (.VlarquiH of), 19 Beav. 198 ; 21 L. .1. Ch. 94 ;

1 Jur. 45H ; 3 E.|. R. .369 245

Bcjiven. /^. 53 L. T. 241 396



Online LibraryArthur UnderhillThe principles of the interpretation of wills and settlements → online text (page 1 of 42)