Arthur Young.

The farmer's letters to the people of England; containing the sentiments of a practical husbandman, on various subjects of great importance; particularly, the exportation of corn. The balance of agriculture and manufactures. The present state of husbandry... The means of promoting the agriculture an online

. (page 8 of 16)
Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's letters to the people of England; containing the sentiments of a practical husbandman, on various subjects of great importance; particularly, the exportation of corn. The balance of agriculture and manufactures. The present state of husbandry... The means of promoting the agriculture an → online text (page 8 of 16)
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I have offered nothing ideal : the prices I
allow for every work that requires many
men in a fnort time, are exceffively high —
higher than any where known. In refpe6l
to the nature of the foil itfelf, I have very
fairly defcribed it. That it is highly im-
provable, is by all allowed, but fays one
let of men, the expences are too great. I
M 2 think.



[ i64 1

think, 1 have proved clearly, that this is a
miftalu* ; but fo material a point by no
means depends on my opinion alone : I
viewed in feveral parts of the north, im-
provements of the very worft fort of moors,
as was evident from only looking over the
walls that parted the inclofures from the
waftcsi and thegrafs of fuch improvement
let with the utmoU readinefs, from y s.6 d,
to i2s. an acre J notwithdanding the whole
management of them being fo prepofte-
roiis. A few gentlemen of particular fpirit,
have undertaken improvements, and all
with great fuccefs ; they have all advanced
the land from 12 s. to 151. an acre, even
the worfl". But here I muff remark, that
even thefe fev/ gentlemen, who are fo
marked by their fpirit, have formed im-
provements in a very languifhing manner,
compared to the plan w^hich I have recom-
mended. They all execute their works by
degrees : a horde is built this year in the
midfr of a wafic — a barn the next — fome
walling the third. 0?2e inclofure taken in
and cultivated the fourth ; and fo on :
thus, in twenty years, they gain a farm.
They allot a certain fum of money every
year out ef tiie favings of ' their income,

to



[ i65 ]

to perform, in^this cautious manner, what
ought to be done at once. Improvements
are made and profitably in this manner,
but it is abfolutely impoflible they fhould
he a tenth fo advantageous, as if a farm is
completed every year ; and for many rea-
fons : by being done i?2 large every part of
the work is proportioned : a team of 4
horfes is employed, and never to be idle >
this decides the quantity of walling, of par-
ing and burning, of liming, &c. But fup-
pofe a gsntleman fixes 4 horfes on a moor,
and he finds that the proportioning his
work in this manner will take too much
money, in fiich cafe but half the requifite
improvement will be done, all proportions
will at once be broke, the team will wait
for every on^, — the building will wait for
the walling — the walling for the paring,
and all \v\\{ at once languifn. To remedy
this, only two horfes will perhaps be fet
at work, then will a man be employed with
a paltry cart to fetch lime, at 40 per cent,
lofs, at Icaft, for vy^ant of a waggon and
2 horfes more. Workmen of all forts will
find only a little fpirit of employment
once a year, and confequently make you
y/iiit the motions of thofe, whofc bunnefs
M 3 is



[ ,66 ] -

IS more important. But when every work
is properly proportioned to each other; one
part aflifls the other, and every part con-
fequently gains : the exa^l feafon is always
taken— — ^— you have a command of men

of all forts your work is cheaper, and

at the fame time better done.

One material point in my propofition, is
an improved fiock of (liccp for folding; but
the grafs which 1 faw in various parts that
had been taken from the moors had nevex'
known a fold fmce the day it was created.

Upon the whole, the advantages of pro-
ceeding with a due fpirit in the affair of
improving moors, are clear and decilive ;
the profit m.ufl inevitably be vaflly greater,
than from an annual m,oderate expendi-
ture. Let a narrow-wheeled waggon and
4 horfes, and two men be fixed on as the
very firfc criterion of the extent of the im-
provement ; and all other things propor-
tioned to it. The improver will then find
(under the given circumiftances of the
moors now under confideration) that he
mufl take in a farm of not lefs than 8o
acres of land every year: and put 3147/.
in his pocket, the firfl: day of his under-
taking.

3 ^'^



[ »67 ]

In anfwer to this, I have been more
than once told, / cannot fpare the money ^
and this from men of large eflates : Who
the deuce fuppofes they can fpare three
thoufand pounds on demand ? But cannot
they borrow it ? Cannot they fpare 4 per
cent, for that fnm, while it brings them in
40 ? I have feen fo much of the languor of
thofe undertakings that depend on a fmall
annual fum, that I declare, if a nobleman
was on that plan, to offer me 20 per cent,
on an improvement propofed, for execut-
ing it ; and ^ per cent, on the fame advance;
but executed with the whole fum ready j
the latter is the offer I fliould prefer. It is
fomewhat paradoxical what objedfion the
mofl prudent landlord can have to bor-
rowing a fum of money for an improve-
ment in hufbandry. It is fo extremely

common for all other purpofes, that no
good reafon can be given for this particu-
lar exception. Flowever, the improvements
that are attempted with annual fums, un-
lefs they amount to an equality with the
fums Iketched above, can never turn out
half fo profitable. It is for thefe reafons,
that I value my new-improved grafs at 20 s.
an acre; the languid improvements rifmg
M 4 to



[ ,68 ]

to I5J-. would jullify my flating a much
higher rent, but I am defirous of being
moderate in fuch articles.

Objc6iions ought never to be raifed
againft a Ipirited condu6t in matters of this
fort, bccaufe uncommon: moors have not
been improved in fo fnort a time, therefore
fome v\'ill think they cannot, but there is no
reafon in fuch conclufions. No man has
attempted the imiprovement of moors, with
moderate funis of money, that has failed :
a general fuccefs has attended fuch under-
takings. And fume have made confide-
rable fortunes by them.

I fliall now proceed with the calcula-
tion, and fuppofe 120 acres to be taken in
every year 5 the fifth year, the eftate will
confift of the following fields. Plate V.
Fig. 6.



Buildings, walling, paring


/.


s.


d.


burning, draining, and








lime, as in the lafl year.


642


I


3


100 oxen ditto.


700








Labour ditto, wiili addition








of 20 acres of hav,


302


15


10


Seed ditto.


185


5





Sundries, ditto


214









y;. 2044 2 I



[ "69 ]

/. J. d.

Product of 1000 fheep, joo o o

100 oxen improved by 70
acres of turnips and cab-
bages ; 105 of hay and
i2oofftraw; to, 1067 10 o

840 qrs. of oats, at i2x. 504 o o



2071 10 o

Dilburfement, - 2044 2 i



Balance,



27 7 II



General account at the end of the fifth Tear,

Cafh in hand at the end of

the fourth year, - 2890 19 p

Expenditure of the fifth,.



2044 2 I



Balance in hand, - 846 16 11

Amount of a new farm of

120 acres, let at 120/. a

y^3r, - - 3000 o o

Produ6l of the fifth year, 2071 10 o



CaOi in hand at the end of
the fifth year; which is
clear profit, . /;. 5918 6 11



[ i;^ ]

Here you niufT: allow me to remark,
that as long as the improver continues his
works, it is at a profit of 3000-/. a year,
and all from the original fum of 3147/.
for he will every year, upon this plan, let a
farm of 120/. a year, which is a perpetual
fund for borrowing 3000/, a year: and
this, amazing as it may feem, is only a
different vi^ay of ftating the point : for the
annual acquifition of 120 /. a year incomey
is certainly 300c /. a year principal. But it
is even more, for if he fold the eftates as
fail as improved, they would raife even
larger fums j for inftance, at only 30 years
purchafe, 3600 /.

But being now arrived at near 6000 /.
in hand, clear, we muft fuppofe the im-
provement increafed : I fhall (late two
farms taken in every year, each of 120
acres : it would render it more profitable
to make but one of them, but as 1 20 may
be eafier let than 240, I fhall calculate
accordingly.

The fixth year's eftate will therefore be
the following : Plate VI. Fig. i.

And



V.



-^




-&-



-4



-s-



C a h /•



r\



[ ^71 ]








And the account this.










/.


s.


d.


Buildings, - - -


280








Walling and gates.


324


2


6


Paring and burning.


240








Draining,


80








Lime, ^ «


360









1284



Stock,

I.

200 Oxen, •>■ 1400

8 horfes, - - 128

1 broad -wheeled waggon, 70

2 narrow ditto, - 50
6 carts, - 60
Ploughs, harrows, rollers, ^c, 50
Harnefs, , - ^o

Labour,

A bailiff, - 80 o o

8 men, - 200 o o

Shepherd, - 20 o o

Hand hoeing 120 acres

turnips, 60 00

Planting 120 of cabbages,

at 5 J. 30 o o

Pland -hoeing ditto, at

35, - 18 o o

Sowing 360 acres, 3 00

Picto 120 grafs, 2 00



1788 o o



Carried over, 413 00 3072 o o



[ 1/2 ]

/. s, d, L s. d.

Carried over, 413 o o 3072 2 6
Mowing and harveftjng

120 acres oats, at 2 J. 24 00
Threlliing 840 quarters,

at IS, - 42 o o

Turning over, mixing,

fiK'no; and Ipreading

1000 ioiids compofl", II 13 4
Mowing, making, and

f^ackino- goacres hay,

at 7 :. bd. - 33 15 o

Sunury labour, 30 00



554



Seed.



120 Of turnips, 600

120 cabbages, 12 00

120 oats, - 56 5 o

1 20 grafs, 120 00



Swidnes.


Maintenance of 16




horfes,


160 00


Wear and tear,


80


Tytlv",

To anfvver unfpecified
demands.


50
100 00



194 5 o



490



Total difbiirfcment, - 4310 15 10

Produ6l of io.,o fheep, 500 o o
200 oxen improved by

jfjo acres of turnips ■

Carried forward, /jco o o 4310 15 lo





[ '


73


]














/.


s.


J.


/.


s.


d.


Brought forward,


5C0








4310


15


10


and cabbages


; 90 of














hay, and 120


ftraw;








i






to,




2105












840 qrs. oats,


at 12 J.


504








3109


/-v


^\



















Total expenc'e, 1201 15 10

General account at the end of the fixth yeat\

Cafh in hand at the end of the fifth

year, - - - 591S 6 11

Difburfement of the fixth,

Remains,
Amount of a new farm, of 120/.

a year, - _ _
Product of the fixth year,

Cafli in hand at the end of the

lixth year, ' - - - 7716 11 i



4310


^5


10


1607


II


I


3000








3109









In the preceding account, I have
charged many expences higher than or-
dinary, and inferred feme new ones ;
fuch as 80/. a year to a baihff, which,
in this extent of bufinefs, though not
abfolutely necefl'ary, may yet be allow-
ed. I have charged the expence of the
horfes the fame as ufual: thouc^h at the
fame time I have fuppoicd 90 acres cf

hay



t '74 1

hay mown infteadof 120. I have allowed
30/. for unrpecified labour, and loo/. to
anfwer incidental demands : I have like-
wife continued to charge 20 s. an acre for
paring and burning, though 16^. 6d,\s
the price. Thefe and other articles amount
together to a confiderable fum, and are
abundantly fufficient to anfwer minute ob-
je6lions.

The feventh year will be as follows :
Plate VI. Fig. 2.

And the account as under j

Buildings, walling, paring, draining

and lime as in the iaft year, 1284 26

200 oxen, - - 14CO o o

Labour,

Bailiff, men, and fhep-

hcrd, - 300 o o

Labour on turnips and

cabbages as laft year, 108 o o
Sowing, - 500

Mowing and harvefting

240 acres oats, 48 o o

Threfhing 1680 qrs.

at I J. - 8400

Turning over, mixing,

filling and fpreading

2000 loads compofl, 23 6 8
90 acres hay, - 33 ^ 5 o
Sundries, - 30 o o



6:;2



Carried over, 3316 4 2



I 174 1

I. s. d, J, s. d.
Brought over, - 3316 4 2
120 Turnips, - 600

120 cabbages, - 12 o o
240 oats, - 112 10 o

240 grafs, - 240 o o



370 10 o

Sundries, as in laft year, - 490 o o

—4

Total difburfement, - 4176 14 2

Produftof looofheep, 500 o o
200 oxen improved by

190 acres of turnips

and cabbages; 90 of

hay, and 240 of

ftraw ; to - 2105 o O

1680 qrs. of oats, at

12 5, - 1008 o o



3^13



Total expence, ;£. 563 14 2

General account at the end of the feventh year,
Calh in hand at the end of the

fixthyear, - - 7716 11 i

Difburfement of the feventh, - 4176 14 2

Remains - - • 3539 16 11
Raifed on a new farm of 120/.

a year the fifth that is let, 3000 o o

Product of the feventh year, 3613 o o

Cafh in hand at the end of the

feventh year, - £. lo^ic^i 16 11



[ 176 ]

It is here to be obferved, that the gen-
tleman might now take 5000/. from the
improving fund, and apply to whatever
ufes he thought proper : this would of
courfe depend on his neceffities, but I fliall
here fuppofe (for the fake of difcovering
what may be done from a fmall beginning,
which is an important objedl) him to in-
creafe his improvements as fafl as his im-
proving fund will allow; for this purpofe,
we poliefs the data that are requifite ; 'vtz,
16 horfes by 8 men, are fufficient for an-
nual improvement of 240 acres j and alfo
the proportion of 8 horfes and 4 men, for
120. I fiiall therefore fuppofe 360 acres
broke up the eighth year, to be formed in
the following inclofures. Plate VII.

The farms being in number three, the
buiklings will be the fame proportioned as
before.

The walling extends 7 miles ^ and i.,
confequcntlv comes to 567/. 45. 4^. The
paring and burning, and lime, will be in
the former proportion. Draining, I fliall
call 200 /. to the three farms ; which upon
moors in general dry, is an ample allow-
ance. .

7 , ^^^













' /'






a t


^ a A-


■.


-








m'f u


'■ 5L


..• .c- r



























/' /'


'


"7" d


^


[i^








■^


L?


j^

v"




-




>






-■




:









^









■.^




LI'


■.,


L^








^




.,






Vh






-h:


"*




n


ru-


^rii






L^








"1


J



r



[ ^77 ]
in the regular progreffive method of in-
creafing improvements here pointed out,
there can enfue no difficulty for want of
men ; a very great number may not always
be at once at command j but any perfon
who has conftant employment, that keeps
3 GO this year, may undoubtedly have 1 50

next year, 200 the next, and fo on : keep

them but regularly, and you may every
year increafe to any number; but make
a break of a (ingle year, and then much
difficulty will be found to regain half the
number.



The following is the


account of this


year :












/.


i. d.


Buildings ; three fets,


=


420





Walling, ^c.


-


S^l


4 4


Paring and burning,


-


360





Draining,


-


200


D


1080 chaldron lime, at 8j.




43*





500 ditto.




2CO







2179


4 4


Stock.








I.


;. a.






300 Oxen, at 7/. - 2100









Shorfes, - - i?.y










Carried forward, 2228 o o 2179 4 a.
Vol. II. N



[ '73 1

/. s. d. /. s. d.
Brought forward, 2228 o o 2179 4 4

1 broad-whreled waggon, 70 o o

2 narrow ditto, .50 o o
6 carts, - - 60 o o
PJoughs harrows, rollers,

harnefs, &c. 80 o o

2488 o o



Labour,




Bailiff,


80





12 men,


300





Shepherd,


20





Hand-hoeing, 180 acres






turnips,


90





Planting 180 ditto of cab-






bages.


4 50


a


Hoeing ditto, 3 s.


27





Sowing 42c acres.


5





Ditto 240 of grafs,


4





Mowing and harvefting






240 of oats, 2 J-.


48





Threfhing 1680 qrs. oats.






at I J.


84





Mixing,filling,and fpread-






ing 3000 loads com-






poti.


25





200 acres of hay, at 7 s.






6d.


75





Sundry labour, -


50






S63 o o
Seed,

Carritd forward, 27 o o 5530 4 4



180 turnips, 900

180 cabbages, - 1800



[ ^79 3

/. s, d. I s. d.

Brought forward, 27 00 5530 4 4

240 oats, - - 1 12 10 o

240 grafTes, - 24b o o



'Z1^ 10 o



Sundries.

Mamtenanceof24horres, 240 o o

Wear and tear, - 200 o o

Tythe, - 80 o o

To anfwer unfpecified

demands, ^ 150 o o



6'JO o o



Total dlfburfement, - ^379 14 4

Product 1000 fheep, 500 o o
300 oxen improved by

3 10 acres of turnips

and cabbages, 200 of

hay, and 240 of

ftraw, to, - 3330 o o

1680 qrs. oats, at 1 2 J. 1008 00

4S38 o o



Total expence, 1741 14 4



In this account, as before, I have in-
creafed many chaiges beyond the former
proportion, to anfwer incidental expences:
a method which obviates all objedions of
the inferior fort ; for they amonnt to feve-
ral hundred pounds. The excefs in p.^ring
N 2 and



[ j8o ]

and burning is continued ; the allowance
for draining is very great -, and alfo the
quantity of lime. Refpe6ling the imple-
ments, the number of waggons, &c, pur-
chafed, may to fome appear very great, but
it fliould be confidered, as an univerfal
rule in hufbandry of all forts, that the
teams are at any time ail to be fet to one
fort of work ; which is a matter of prodi-
gious importance when feafons are to be
catched. Thus, there muft always be one
broad-wheeled waggon to every 8 horfes,
with two narrow ditto, and 4 or five carts j
and a plough, and a pair of harrows to
every pair of horfes. Hence, all the teams
may be fet to lime cart, or all to plough-
ing, or all to harrowing , by which means
the farmer will always be able to make the
mofl of a feafon when he has it.

Gsneral State at the End of the Eighth Tear,

/. 5. d,

Cafli in hand at the end of

the feventh year, 10,152 16 11

Difburfements of the eighth, 6579 14 4

Remains, - - 3573 2 7



Il


n 1 /■


r I / t 1,


.1- ,. r ,■ 71 1 h


1





l^


I"


J


n


pj


,




ri


h


•^
















•'■ '■





n ,1


B




r^ 1


.f / .r


r /,





<


, \r


r








/■ I


/• J- t


d


ri


*
















1





r ,/


^ 1






s


r /






r



































h











£




*


h


t


-













m


3' r >i


t /i




Vf'





























LT


LT



[ i8i ]

/. s. d.

Brought forward, 3 573 2 7
Raifed on two new farms of

240 /. a year, the fixth let, 6000 o o

Produ6l of the 8th year, 4838 o o



Cafli in hand at the end of

the 8th year, - i4j4ii 2 7



Which fum of money will allow of
breaking up fix farms in the ninth year,
each, as before, of 120 acres. The eftate
that year, will lie as in Plate VIII.

And the account as under, /. s. d.

Buildings, _ , „ 8^0 o o

Walling, &c. - 11 34 8 8

Paring and burning, - 720 o o

Draining, - - 400 o o

3160 chaldron of lime, 1264 o o



435S 8 8



Stock.

600 Oxen, - 4200 o

J 6 horfes, - 25600

2 broad- wheeled vv^aggons, 140 o o



Carried forward, 4396 o o 4358 8 8

N 3



[ 1^2 ]

/. S. d.


/. s,d.


Brought forward, 4596
4 narrow, ditto, - 100
12 carts, - 120
Ploughs, £f?f. ^c, - 160 00


4358 8 g
4976





9334 8 8



Labour*



Bailiff,


100








20 men,


500








Shepherd,


20








Hand-hoeing 360 acres








turnips,


180








Planting 360 of cabbages


, 90








Ploeing ditto.


54








Sowing 720 acres.


10








Ditto 360 grafs.


8









Mowing and harvefling

300 oats, - 36 O o

Threfhing 252oqrs. oats,



at I J. -


126












6000 loads compoil,


- 70












200 acres hay.


75












Sundry labour,


200








1489


n c










\J V




Seed,










360 Turnips,


18












360 cabbages,


36












360 oats.


168


15









360 graiTes,


3^0
















-—





582


'5 «



Cariicd forward, 11405 3 8



[ '83 ]

Sundries,

L s. d, J. s. d.
Brought forward, - 11406 3 8
Maintenance of 40 horfes, 400 o o
Wear and tear, - 500 o o
Tythe, - 150 o o

To anfvver unfpecified de-
mands, - 300 o o

— — 1350 00



Total difburfement, 12756 3 8

Produfl of (heep, - 500 o o
600 oxen improved by
670 acres of turnips
and cabbages ; 200 of
hay and 360 ft raw,
to, - - 6510 o o

252oqrs. ofoats, at 12J. 1512 o o

8522 o o



Expence, - 4234 3 8

General State at the End of the Ninth Tear,

Calh in hand at the end of the

eighth year, - - 14,411 2 7

Difburfements of the ninth, 12,756 3 8

— - ■■■■ — wi - MM^MMtfl

Remains, - - 1,^54- 18 11
Raifed on two new farms each of

120/, a year, the fcventh let, 6,000 o o

Produ(5l of the ninth year, - ^,522 o o

Ca(h in hand at the end of the

ninth year, - 16,176 18 11

N 4 The



[ i84 ]

The tenth year I fliall finifli the increafe
of land, by mclofing only two farms each
of I20 acres; which, and running a plan-
tation around two fides of the cftate which
now forms a fquare of two miles each
fide, in the following manner. Plate IX.
Thefe two farms, I fliall, for winding up
the bufmefs the fooner, fuppofe them fown
after the paring and burning, on three
ploughings with the grafs feeds, omitting
the turnips and cabbages and oats : This is
a condu6l, which 1 by no means advife to
be praclifcd in common, becaufe it will
(notwithftanding the goodnefs of the grafs
in this management) be attended with lofs.
But it is proper, at the conclufion of an
improvement, that every thing may finini
together.

I Ihall fuppofe the plantation inclofed
like the reft, with a wall, and alfo pared,
burnt and limed in the fame manner, then
ploughed three times, and planted with firs
and pines, &c. three to every fquare perch,
which is very thick, but in bleak countries
you cannot plant too thick, on account of
warmth and flicker. The plantation to
be 20 perch v/ide ; and being 4 miles long,
will contain 160 acres; or 25,600 fquare
perches, confcquently, there will be want-



'-^-'-ij'^ ^^^ t^i-^^^t^^



N




^^a^i^M^




c^^



[ '85 ]

ing 76,800 trees, which, at 20 s~. a thou-
fand, will be yyl, but I fliall call it 100/.
and allow 50/. for planting and charges.

The accounts of this year as under :









/.


s.


d.


Buildings,






280








Walling, farms and planting,






550








Paring and burning 400 acres.






400








Draining,






100








Lime, 1200 chaldron, 8 s.






480








Planting,




-


150











i960





Labour',












Bailiff, - 100














15 men, - ^js














Shepherd, 20














Sowing 720 acres, 10














Ditto 960 with grafles, 20














Mowing and harvefting












720 oats, - 72














Threfliing, 5040 qrs. oats.












at I i. - 252














300 acres hay, - 112


10











Sundry labour, - 100















1061



10 o



Seed,



72P Oats,

960 graffe?,



3^7 10
960 o



1297 10 o



Carried forward, 4310 00



[ i86 ]

Sundries,

/. J. d, /. 5, d,

Brouglit forward, 4319 o o
Mainttnance of 40

horfes, - 400 o o
Wear and tear, 300 o o
Tythe, - 150 o o
To anfwer unfpecified de-
mands, - 200 o o

1050 o o



Total difburfemcnt, 5369 00
Produd I coo fheep, 500 o o
5040 qrs. oars, at 12 ^. 3024 o o
300 acres hay, - 450 o o

3974 o o



Expences, ^ "^Z^S o o



General State at the End of the T'enth Tear,

Ca(h in hand at the end of ninth

year, - - 16,1761811

Difburfements of the tenth, 5->3^9 o o

Remains, - - 10,807 18 11
Railed on three new farms each

of 120/. a year, tiie Sth kt, 9000 o o

Frodudt of the tenth year, 3974 o o

C.i^-i in hand, at the end of the

tenth year, - - 23,781 18 11
2 — —



[ i87 ]

All works of tillage ceafe with the tentl%
year. It is requifite to keep the two lad
improvements in hand one year long«r,
on account of mowing the grafs of them
once: but as the teams will for that work
be wanting, but at one feafon ; they muft
be kept in the grafs alone without corn,
and the labour of the hay executed by la-
bourers. The account of the eleventh
year as follows ;

/. s, d, /. s. ^»

Bailiff, - 100 o o

Shepherd, ^ - 20 o o

Mowing, making, cocking,

carting and {lacking 900

acres of hay, at 10 s, 450 o o



Tythe,

Unfpecified demands.


••


96

50










716





Produdl 1000 flieep,


-


500





900 acres hay.


^


1350





Expences, -


-


1850
7.6






Balance,


-


ii,j4






r j88 ]

General Account at the End of the Eleventh
Tear,

CaHi in hand at the end of the

tenth year, - 23^781 iS 11

Difburfements, the eleventh year, 716 o o

Remains, - - - 23>°^5 ^^ 11
Raifcd on eight new farms, each

120/. a y^'ar, - 24,000 o o

Produdl of the eleventh year, 1850 o o

48,915 iS u

Sale of Stock.

1000 Sheep, at 15 J. 750 o o
40 horfcs, at 5 /. 200 o o

All the implements,

coft 1262 /. as mod

of them are nearly

as good as new, as

well from the IKort "

time of ufe, as the

good repair they

have been kept in,

I fhall fuppoie, fold

for - - 500 o o



1450 o &



Cafh in hand, at the end of the

eleventh year, - 50,365 18 11

Raifed upon the farms at various

times, - - 585500 o o

The above total, - 5^^^^5 i^ ^^


1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's letters to the people of England; containing the sentiments of a practical husbandman, on various subjects of great importance; particularly, the exportation of corn. The balance of agriculture and manufactures. The present state of husbandry... The means of promoting the agriculture an → online text (page 8 of 16)