Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) online

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at 3/. or 3 J", bd. an acre expence. They
hand-hoe them thrice, fo as to keep them
as clean as a garden ; the expence is 3 j". the I
firft hoeing ; is. 6d. the fecond, and 2/,
the third. The average produce 4 quarters;
fometimes they get 5 or 6. They likewife
plough but once for beans ; dibble them inJ
in rows 9 inches afunder ; 2 bufhels ofj
feed per acre ; and always give the fame)
hoeing as to pcafe, and at the fame ex-j
pence. The crops are never fmall, gene^l
rally from 5 to 10 quarters an acre; ave-|



rage 6 or 7. Ufe both the horfe and tick


Colefced they fow both for food and the

feed ; they feed It in April with flieep and

fwine, after the turnips are gone, and

then plough it up for a crop of turnips.

Much of their clover is fed by fheep,

hogs, and horfes ; when they mow for

hay, they get great crops ; 2 loads an acre

at a cutting, and fomctimes 3 ; and reckon

that an acre in food and hay, pays 4/. 4^.

on an average, A good deal of chalk is

ufed about Colchejler^ and all the tvay to

Maningtree \ and likewife yet more towards

and about Maldon : It comes all from Kenf.

The farmers give y to 8, and 9/. a waggon

load for it ; and many of them fetch it

feveral miles ; even from 6 to 10, They

lay 7 loads an acre, and all agree that it

lads lopgeft, and at the fame time does beft

on ftiff lands : the fandy and gravelly loams

are not fo profitable to chalk as the clayey

ones, and ftiff clays : on the latter it lafts

from 30 to 40 years ; but on the former it

holds good for 15 years. I have, with

them, called it chalk ; but I found from

trial that it is a very rich marie.

P 4 Great


Great quantities of dungs of all forts arc
brought from Colchejler ; the price 5 s. or
6 J. a waggon load, and they lay 7 or 8 on
an acre.

All chop their ftubbles ; and ftack their hay
at home. But no folding fheep is pradtifed.

Much foot is bought at 6^. a bufhel ;
they fow it on their paftures.

Malt duft they fow on the barley tilth.

In their tillage they reckon 4 horfes ne-
ceiTary for 100 acres of ploughed ground;
ufe 2 in a wheel plough, and do from i to
2 acres a day. They flir 5 or 6 inches
deep ; the price 4>f. an acre : the ftubbles
are all broken up before Chrijhnas.

In the hiring a farm of 300/. a year,
they reckon 2000/. neceffary to flock it, if
the land is at all out of condition.

Land fells at 30 years purchafe, Tythes
are 3/. td. in the pound. Poor rates ^s. \
in Colchejler 6 s. or ys. In fome parifhes
in that town they rife to 16 s. or lys.

Agriculture is here carried on in general
■with very great fpirit ; for the farms are
chiefly large, and the farmers rich : fome
of them are worth from 30,000/. to
40,000/. ; many above 20,000/,



The following are the particulars of a


400 Acres in all 8 Cows

360 Arabic 90 Acres Wheat

40 Grafs 90 Barley

^.330 Rent 90 Clover

12 Horfes 90 Turnips.

From Witha?n towards Chelmsford^ about
Borehaniy &c. the foil is heavier than at
Colchejier ; being a mixed clayey loam ;
lets from 10 J", to 12 j". Farms are from
jog/, to 150/. a year.

The courfe,

1. Turnips 3. Clover

2. Barley 4. Wheat.
Here the good farmers Hop j but bad ones

il add,

5. Oats.
The products :

Wheat, 3 quarters.
Barley, 5 ditto.
Oats, 6 ditto.
Peafe, 3 ditto.
Beans, 5 ditto.
Both peafe and beans are all hand-hoed,
^lany turnips cultivated on clayey foils too



heavy to feed off, but they draw them for
iheep, cows, and beafts.

A great fpirit of manuring is found
throughout all this country. They bring
fome chalk from Maldon\ give 8j^. to igj-.
a waggon load for it, and lay from 6 to %
loads an acre : 6 or 7 miles carriage makes
this fo great an expence, that they have of
late years tried to fubftitute their own clay
for it : they lay 60 loads an acre ; and from
the obfervation they have made, think it
will laft a leafe of 2 1 years.

Lime they alfo ufe ; lay a bufhel to a
fquare perch ; it lafts 7 years ; but more, if
mixed with dung and earth.



BEFORE I proceed in my journey, I
fhall here make a paufe, to obferve
in general, that part of the country through
which I have lately paffed, is as remarkable
for excellent hufbandry, I apprehend, as
any in the kingdom. The uncommon ex-
ertions of fpirited culture on the fands near
Woodbridge^ I have already remarked : The
great fertility of the foil, and the incompa-
rable ufe they make of it, I have obferved
above ; particularly their courfe of crops
being fo well adapted to keeping the land
free from weeds : the culture of carrots ;
the drill and hoeing management of peafe
and beans ; the fmgular ufe of crag as a
manure ; their noble breed of horfes, with
feveral other particulars, that ftamp an ex-
cellence feldom found among common far-

After this country, comes the tra£t of

I land in the neighbourhood of Ipfwich^

V'hich is cultivated in a very complete



manner, and a fpirited ufe made of va-
rious manures. Moft of Sandford hun-
dred boalls a hufbandry of a fuperior kind;
marie is much ufed ; great things are don^
"with the affiftance of fea ouze; at the fami
time that all other manures are perfedlly
well underllood. From Mamngtree to CoA 1
chejiery and thence to Wifbam^ the farmer*
are perfedly enlightened ; throughout this^j
trad as well as the laft, all the peafe ancf '
beans are kept as clean by hand-hoeing,
as turnips in other places, but at a muctf
greater expence ; wheat alfo receives the
fame operation, which I think is a certain
mark of the farmers having extreme juft
Ideas of hufbandry ; for without fuch, they
would never arrive at fo unufual a practice*
Marie, called chalk here, they ufe, I be*"
lieve, at a much greater expence than any
people in the kingdom ; for many of them
go from 6 to 10 miles, and give from 8a'J
to ID J. a waggon load for it : this is a^Sting
with a fpirit that cannot be exceeded.
Town manures at Colchejler fell at 5/. a
load: foot, &c. &c. are ufed in large
quantities ; and thefe noble exertions are
I no(;j



At effetfl of low rents, as fome fondly

n ;ine they mud every where be; on the

iry, this whole country is let at good

; tliat is, from 12s, to 2^ s. an acre :

arious places, in which all theie cir-

ances unite, pay 16^. or i8j-. an acre

i ; and fome 20 s. Such a rent by no

;i< ns frightens thefe fenfible men ; they

xciiJ great fums of money in the pur-

()f manures, and fpare no expence in

:;, notwithftanding that of rent.

is the confequence of this ? Their

Tjils fo thoroughly manured, produce

.- jrops without damage from weeds, for

1 ■ perpetual hoeing totally deilroys them.

'i effed is anfwerable — from 4 to 5

crs an acre of wheat ; from 5 to 10 of

. ; fr^m 6 to 10 of oats ; 5 or 6 of

^ ; and all other crops proportioned —

larmers worth from ten to forty thou-

pounds. Thefe fhew fufficiently that

1 above fpirited practices form wh^t

ht emphatically be called Trul Hus-

) !i Y. Thofe who exalt the agriculture

'.arJers fo high on comparifon w'th

oL. II. P 7 that


that of Britain^ have not, I imag ,
viewed with attention the country ini
queftion. It is difficult to imagine c i-
inon crops cultivated in greater perfedn'





m 1





FROM Chehiisjord to Tiunmow the
foil is various, but chiefly heavy ;
near the former place it is all turnip land^
but afterwards clay, at \is, an acre.

From Dunmow to Hockerill it is all clay,
at 1 5 J. an acre: the whole country quite
flat, and all hollow drained. I obferved a
large portion of the land was fummer fal-
low, and ridged up in 3 feet lands ready for
wheat, lying in a mofl: neat and clean man-
ner ; but no turnips in the country. The
borders of the arable fields are all dug away
from a foot to 1 8 inches deep, and carried
on to the land, which drains the fields at
the fame time that much manure is raifed.

The crops here amount nearly to the
following produds ; Wheat, 3 f quarters
per acre; Barley, on fummer fallow, 5
quarters ; Oats, 6 quarters ; Peafe, 3 quar-
ters ; Beans, 4.

From Dunmoiv to Brahitree the foil is
chiefly clay ; and lets at 15^.

3 From


From Dumnow to Thaxfead^ and from
thence to ClcirCy the fame ; with fome fpots
of turnip land.

From HockerUl to Ware^ near the former
place, the farmers are very neat ; but they
have fome pradlces by no means defenfible,
though followed from an idea of good huf-
bandry. They often fow barley after tur^
nips, and then fummer fallow for wheat ;
which is as extraordinary a courfe as ever I
met with. I enquired particularly into the
reafon of ever omitting clover in fuch a cafe ;
and was anfwered, that clover fouls and
fpoils the land : however feveral of them
have better ideas', and pradlife the excellent
hufbandry of, i. Turnips: 2. Barley: 3.
Clover : 4. Wheat ; and they find it to
anfwer extremely well. Land here lets at
1 5 J. an acre: their crops are, Wheat, 3 f
to 5 quarters ; Barley, 5 to 7 ; Beans, 3
or 4.

About Toiingsberry^ the feat of 'David
Barclay^ within 3 miles of Ware^ the huf-
bandry is various. Farms rife from L
to 300/. a year, but on an average are 100/.
to 150/. The foil may be diitinguiihed
moll properly into heavy and light ; that



,i^, turnip land, and fuch as will not bear
ithat root. The rent at an average 12 s, an
Their courfes,

1. Fallow ^ 3. Peafe.

2. Wheat
I. Fallow

I 2. Wheat

1 ^-^Ifi,

3. Beans and oatd

1 . Fallow

2. Barley

3. Peafe*
3. Peafd.

1. Turnips

2. Barley
hey plough three times for wheat ; fow ±

)ufhels and a peck, and gain 20 in return.

They plough, in fummer fallowing, thrice

br barley ; turnip land but once ; fow 4
: mfhels an acre in March ^ and gain 30

)u{hels on an average. For oats they give

)ut one earth ; fow 4 bufhels, and reckon

,he mean crop at 4 quarters.
P For peafe they ftir only once; fow 4

lulhcls, never hoe them ; the produce at
medium 16 bufhels ; 60 bufliels were

'nee produced by an acre, after turnip land

Vol. IL Q^ Their

226 THE farmer's TOUR

Their culture of beans is, I think, a
bad as in any part of England 'y they alway
mix them with oats. Firft, they fow :
bufhels an acre of beans, and fome tim.
afterwards they harrow in i f of blacl
oat J- ; the crop of both, about 20 bufhels

The oats conftantly fhell, and are hal
loft before the beans are ready to cut ; an
to remedy this in part, they are induced t
cut the beans too foon, and then as furel
find them a thin and hollow fample : the
own thefe difadvantages, and yet perfift i
fuch a flovenly method. I fhould alfo adc
that this cuftom quite excludes the mo
profitable one of hand-hoeing. It muc
behoves the good hufbandmen of this cour
try to difcountenance fo execrable a prad:ic>

They plough thrice for turnips ; banc
hoe them once, and eat the crops off wit
fheep : the average price, 35^'. an acre.

They generally mow one growth of the
clover crops, and feed one ; the produ(
of the firft I I load of hay an acre : man
keep it 2 years on the ground, but it
reckoned beft to have it only one. Son-
mow twice for hay; get i load at tl



tecond cutting ; and others leave it for feed :
Wheat they reckon belt after feeding.

In their manuring, they depend pretty
nuch on folding fheep, but do not pradtife
t in winter, except on very dry land.
They fold once in a place : 230 fheep will
io an acre in a week. They fold all forts,
)ut reckon a wether fold much the beft. —
They chop their ftubbles for littering the
lirm-yards ; and ftack all their hay at
lome ; not much for fale. Chalk they
pread on their lands, about 20 loads an
Lcre ; it does beft on heavy foils ; lafts 6
)r 7 years.

Afhes they fow on light land, chiefly
on clover, 20 bufhels an acre, and find the
mprovement great.

Malt-duft they ufe at the price of 7 s. or
D /. a quarter ; ufe from 3 to 4 per acre. Pid-
^eon's dung they fpread on barley land, 20
Dufhels an acre ; and find that it beats all
i)ther manures.

Under ground drains are common ; they
find the improvement remarkable. They
:plafh their hedges, but have fcarcely any
ditches, even in the clay land.

Good meadow land lets at 30^. an acre;
0^2 they


they mow It all, and get i l load of hay
an acre ; two acres will keep a cow throue;h
the fummer. A good cow will give 3 gal-
lons o£ milk a dav during half the feafon ;
and 5/i^. of butter a week : the total annual
produce 5/. They keep about 15 hogs to
10 cows. A dairy-maid will take care oi
ID. The winter food chiefly grafs, b
hay at calving; they keep all in the yard e
cept at calving. In fatting cattle, they b
in beafts in Augifji^ that are forward ijQ|
flelh ; they put them to the eddiihes, aa
from thence to turnips, upon which they ari
kept four months ; but they are drawn a
thrown on grafs land; a beaftof 100 ftoni
(8 /A) will be fattened by an acre and ha

Hogs fattened to 40 ilone ; but 26 t

Flocks of fheep rife from 100 to 400J
The profit they reckon at,

Lamb, - - 080

, Wool, - - 030




The management of fheep is various

They buy in wethers, 2 years old, in Oc-

tober^ or November^ at 1 4/. ; keep them

one year; firft they are put to ftubbles

3 and


and then to fome turnips ; after that they

have ibme clover, from v/hich they are fold

t : they are folded all fummer through.

The average fleece 6/^.

In refpe<9: to the rot, they hold tliat the

lilemper is by no means owing to a quick

ixuriance of growth, diftindly taken, but

^. overflowings of grafs land ; no ret knov-rn

-it from the latter caufe.

In their tillage, they reckon 4 horfes

leceflaiy to 100 acres of arable land : they

fe 4 in a plough, with a driver; do an

icre a day, from 4 to 5 inches deep ; the

rice 6 s. or yi". an acre. The annual ex-

ceofahorfe they reckon at 10/. loj.

e weekly allowance of oats, is 10 bufhels

^4 horfes. They do notlireak their fliib-

e till after Cbrijlmds, Both wheel and

ing ploughs ufed. The hire of a cart,

4 horfes, and a driver, lox. a day.

In the hiring and Hocking farms, they

reckon 1200I. neceffary for 2ca /. a year.

Land fells at 30 years purchafc.

Poor rates 3^". in the pound; 20 years

go were not u. 6^. ; only ix. in JV^rey

becaufc they have a poor workhoufe*

wherein hemp is fpun for ropes, and

0^3 thread


thread for netting and facking. Tythe
are chiefly compounded; Wheat 4 J. or 5^
an acre; Barley the fame; Oats 2s. to 2j
6 £i. ; Turnips i j. to 2 j. ; Clover i s.

The employment of the poor womerj
&c. fpinning, at which they earn 4^,
day. All drink tea twice a day.

Moil of the farmers have leafes.


In harveft, 36/. to 40 j. and board.

In hay-time, is. 6d. a. day.

In winter, is. 2d.

Reaping, 4.S. to ^s.

Mowing barley and oats, i J. to i j. 6 ^,

grafs, 2 J.

Hoeing turnips, 4^". to 5 J".
PlaflTiing a hedge, 4^. a rod.
Thrafhing wheat, 3^. a bulhel,

. barley, 2<^,

Oats 1 1 d.

, — , peafe and beans, u. for 5 bufhel

Head-man's wages, 8 /. 'ui

Next ditto, 7 /.
Lad's, 3/.
Dairy-maid, 5/.
Other ditto, 4/.



^^i iWomcn per day, in harveft, i s. and board.

ju; , in hay time, 8^.

■Ms ; winter, 6d,

■^' Value of a man's board, wafhing and

'Ml ] lodging, 5 J. a week.

ni \ There is no rife of labour by the day ; but
the good labourers will only work by
the piece, which was not the cafe formerly.


Bread, - - i I ^. fer- lb,

Cheefe, - - 4

Butter, - - 8 f

Beef, - - 3 1
kL Mutton, - - 4

Veal, ^ - 5

Pork, - - 31

Bacon, - - 6

Milk, - - ^d.ferpinu

Potatoes, - - 3 p^r peck.

Candles, - - 7 i P^^ ^^'
or I Soap, - - 6 ditto.

Labourer's houfe-rent, 40J-.

' — fii'ing, breaking hedges and cut-
ting trees.
The following are the particulars of a

farm here.



300 Acres in all

30 Grafs

20 Oats
20 Peafc
10 Clover
20 Turnips
100 Fallow

3 Men
2 Boys
2 Maids

4 Labourers.

270 Arable
^.180 Rent
8 Horfes
8 Cows
200 Sheep
20 Young cattle
40 Acres Wheat
40 Barley

David Barclay of Toungsberry has ex&
cuted feme experiments in agriculture that
jire of confequence. I am much indebte
to him for the follqwing particulars, as we|
as the preceding account of the commc
Jiufbandry around him.

Experiment, No. i.

Upon a ftrong mixed foil, not fo hea^
that it would not do for turnips, ten acrt
were fown with winter tares, after barlc]
on one ploughing, 2 f bufhels per acrd
The Ifecond week in May they were beguij
for foiling horfes : they lafted 25 horfes
weeks, which, at 2 j". 6 ^. a horfe per weetj
cpmQ to 2/. 1 6 J. an acre. No nianur|



was ufed, and the tares were off time
enough for turnips.


'Experiment^ No. 2.

A field of turnip land gravel was manured
for wheat, with trotters from London^ rab-
bits dung, and the Ihecp fold. Six quar-r-
ters an acre of the trotters coft,

at 7 J-. a quarter, ^.2 2 o

. Carriage, is, 6d. - - 090

Per acre,


Habbit dung 10 quarters, at 2/. i o o
Carriage, is. - ^ 0100

Per acre, - - i i o o

The other folded ; 40 herdles, i o of each
fide, 8 feet each, for 230 fheep.

The efFed was ; the trotters produced
25 bufhels per acre ; the fold, 20 bufhels ;
and the rabbit dung 1 5 bufhels.


Trotters, - - 25

Fold, - - - 20

Superiority, - - ^

Which at 5 J. is i/. 5 J".



Trotters, • - 25

Rabbits dung, - - 15



At 5/. is 2/. 10/.
It appears clearly from hence, that tl
trotters are vaftly fuperior to the rabbi
dung, and fomething better than the fold
indeed the rabbit dung is fo fmall a produce,
that one can hardly fuppofe it did any beni
fit at alL

Experiment i No. 3.

Coal afhes fifted fine, were compare«
with dang as manure for grafs-land. ii
bufhcls per acre were fpread, at 3 |^. A
bufhel, all expences included. On the
other part, 1 6 loads an acre of dung, quit
black and rotten, that had been turnec
over and well mixed together. The refullj
was, that the afh'd part produced a loa«
and three quarters of hay per acre ; th(
dunged i of a load ; much white clovei
with the former, but none among the lat
ter. Before the manuring, the producT
were not more than f a load an acre,
viewed the after-grafs of the trial, ai



could trace exactly, by the thicknefs of the
grafs and the verdure, where the afhes
were laid.

Experiment, No. 4.

Rape oil cake duft was tried on barley,
fowed with the feed and harrowed in ; 2 quar-
ters per acre, at 1 5 j. a quarter. The effect
remarkably great ; the crop 5 quarters per
acre, which is much more confiderable
than ever feen on the land.

Experiment^ No. 5.

y Malt-duft Mr. Barclay has tried for bar-
ley ; 4 quarters per acre, at y/. ; and from
the appearance of the crop, has great rea-
fon to think that it anfwered well.


Experiment, No. 6.

Above fifty acres of wet, heavy, loamy
day, and clayey foil, were drained in one
winter by covered drains. The leading
drains were cut 28 inches deep ; and the
branches 22 inches ; 3 or 4 inches wide at
bottom, and 9 at top. The digging and
I jBlling the 28 inch ones, 3 ^. a rod ; and




the 22 inch, 2 ^. They were filled with
black-thorn bufhes- at g s. a load, of Bo
large faggots — 3 loads did the drains of iin
acre of land> cat within a rod of each other.
The improvement of thefe drains is ftronglyi
\ifiblc, thoun;h done only laft winter.


Experiment^ No, 7.

Three acres of ftrong clay land were]
fummer fallowed laft year, and the beginningl
of this. The feed of the great Scotch cab-)
bage, &c. was fown in Aprily and the
plants fet on 3 feet ridges, 2 feet from eac
other, the 24th of "June. They we
horfe-hoed twice with a fhim, which ait$
the land without turning a ridge : the rows
hand-hoed twice ; and after that the fu
rows ftruck with a common plough, earth|
ing up the plants.

The iliim with one horfe did 3 acres 3'
day. Befides the great Scotch^ fome browa
cole, and turnip cabbages were planted, all
of which are in a very thriving condition,
and to the honour of the cultivator," as cleau
as a garden.


E^cperimenty No. 8.

By a comparifon between the cutting
a ditch with fpades in the common manner,
and ploughing it, it appeared that a ditch
30 rod long, cut by the fpade,

coft - - - /;. 3 o o

By ploughing, 6 horfes and 20 men
did 30 rods in one day.
20 Men, - - - 134

; 6 Horfes, - - - 0120

I 15 4


[I The fpade, - - >C- 3 ^ ^

The plough, - - i 15 4

Superiority of the latter, i 4 3

In the labour of the 20 men, is included
their paring down and finifliing the fides of
the ditch, and the bank. This is certainly
a very confiderable improvement, and de-

Ijjervcs the attention of all who cut new

1 4itches.



Experiment^ No. 9,

In 1769, ten oxen were bought and put
to lint-feed cake.

They coft, - - ^. 60 o

Commiffion, - - o 15

Driving, &c. - - 08c

December 30. — 6250 cakes, - 33 o c
Carriage of 4 waggon loads, at

lis. - - - 44

November 6. to April 10. Four

months hay, 6/^. each per

diem, at 40 j". a load, - 10 14
Labour, - - - 70

Two of them 3 weeks at grafs,

at 6 J-. - - 018

Four had an acre of turnips, -20

118 19 i


By 10 oxen received,
J£xpences, - - .

120 d
118 19 c

Profit, - - -

I I c



The beafls were well littered with ftraw,
land raifed a vaft quantity of dung ; they
'were flailed, and never let out; water was
given in palls thrice a day. A thoufand
cakes, which come to 5 /. 5 j-., weigh i
ton 7 C. wt, 3 quarters.

I muft obferve on this account, that the
clear profit in money is by no means the
objed: ; — the dung is the great advantage.
Thofe who can command ftraw, ftubble,
fern, or other litter, and can convert it
into the richeft dung without lofs on the
ox account, will make a very great profit
in the high improvement of their land.
No manure exceeds the dung of oil-cake
;fed hearts ; it is the moft fertile of all. Had
Mr. Barclay bought the ftraw, and mea-
fured the dung, the truth of this obferva-
tion would be fufficicntly clear. But I
muft further remark, that the charge of 7 /.
for attendance feems very high. In a con-
venient ox-houfe that expence might be
much reduced ; witnefs the pradtice of Mr.
Moody of Retford.



Experiment, No. lo.

In fencing, Mr. Barclay has made a trial
of tranfplanting old quick ftubbs to form a
new hedge. He was very doubtful of their
fuccefs, but none could thrive better : this
reminds me of the fame pradlifed to a large
extent by the Rev. Mr. Hall in TorkJlAre, ';


This Implement (procured of "John Ar
buthnot Efq; of Mitcham) has been ufed oi
fome very ftrong cloddy land in fummf
fallowing with very great fuccefs ; it re-
duced fome very rough land, at twice!
going over, to a fine tilth, at a feafoi>|
when a plough could not have been of tl
leaft fervice. The expence of the operatic
as follows :

5 Horfes, - ^. o lO o

I Man, - - o I 6

on 6

It rolls I \ acre, twice in a place, per day ;


lie expence confequently is 7/, 8^. aa

x:re *.

From the adivity and judgment with

^hich David Barclay begins his hufbandry,

(ife public has no flight reafon to expe(3:

biit it will be of general utility : his

eadinefs in trying, and his accuracy in

elating, will render his experiments very


At FJcnden^ In the way from Ware to

latficldy Sir William Baker has built a

atn, which is the moft coftly one I have

Iren. It is 84 yards long, 15 bread; the

v'hole raifed on capt ftones, fo that a moufe

mnot get into it : The whole floor is equally

)r thralhing. The fides, &c. are boarded

id painted blue, and the roof is flated,

I I crofled

* YouNGSBERRvis af)lain neat edifice, built by
[r. Paine j the fituation very beautiful, on the

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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) → online text (page 10 of 24)