Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) online

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ow of a waving hill, fcattered witli trees. It
mmands a fine view of rich inclofures ; vari*
is from the inequalities of the country.
In the vale, which winds at the bottom of the
il, Mr. Barclay has cut a large river, that en-
:hes his profped greatly, and gives the whole
:ne a livelinefs which (however pleafing) it
uld not otherwife poffefs;

Vol. II; R



I



24i THE FARMER*s TOUR

I cftDfTed from Hertfordjhire into Sut
pafTing through Clapha?n f in the wayl
PctcTJham^ where I had the pleafure
viewing the farm of Mr. Ducket^ wh6f
mechanical abiUtj^s are fo well known bik
the invention of two moft excellent ploiigl

All his fields are fand, of two forts ; oi
very light and rather poor ; the other i|
moifl, black, and good. Moft of his ai

bll



•f At this place Mr. Thornton has an ornP'^
mented paddock, laid out in an agreeable mal
ner •, in fome particulars, different from t|
common method of iketching them. It conf
of a varied lawn well fcattered with fingle tr
and fome clumps, and fo inclofed with wood
to be perfe6lly rural, though fo near London.
gravel v/alk runs around the whole, and encOlj
pafies fevcral meadows, to the extent of m(
than two miles. It is in moft places fliac'
thickly /with wood ; and on one fide very
broken with fome old oaks,. &:c. that grow
of it. Almofl in front of the houfe it leads tc
Gothich^x\z\\ that is light and pleafmg.
each end it concludes in afhrubbery, which joij
the houfe, and is in feveral inflanccs very beaui
full a fmali river winds through it, ge
bounded by rifing hillocks, and fmooth g^
flopes, very well varied, and fpotted with fhi
ancl trees in a judicious manner. The bendsl
the water are natural, and the union with

u



THROUGH ENGLAND,. 2,^;^

le crops are cultivated in the dv'iU method :
lis turnips, barley, 0"^^^> ^nd wheat, are
liefly in rows : the turnips 12 inches to
feet aiunder ; the wheat and oats from 9
1 12 inches, equally diftant. He hand-
les all thefe crops fuffic.iently to keep thern.
can ; qnd finds, from repeated experience,
■ the crops are better than in the broad-
:il mode, at the fame time that the land ia
R 2 kept



wn and wood well imagined. To the right it



tms loft in the retiring grove. Thefe circum-

inces are all executed with real tafte ; and if a

\v others were a little altered, the whole place

juld (in its llile) be complete. Among others,

e looking from the lawn on to a bridge, which

1 crofTing, you find, has no connedion with

iC water, the end of the river appearing full

view ; — this is not quite the thing. — The

dvaux de frize pales,, with part of the lawn

Tm the paddock, are too near the water, they

,ft cut, a (lip of mown grals along the bank*;,

.lich is A ^lere ^dging ; befides the pales them-

ves are le^n^' and that dole appeawnce of art^

d boundnry:^ hurts the effedl of the river.r — r-

ihaps alio, the benches in the walk are tod

quent. As to the rock \/ork grotto, it is'

le lanthorn excepted) extremely well executed;

it in too wild a Itile for a gentle Itream, and a

'Oth fhaven lawn fpotted with fhrubs; — it

,uii-es a. romantic fituation on the banks of a

! id ilreain tumbling over broken fragments.



I



-44 THE FARMER'S TOUR

kept much cleaner. — And one appllcatior
of this mode is particularly ufeful : — hi
fows clover feed ever his wheat or fprin^
corn, juft heforc the lall hand-hoeing
which operation covers the feed in th
compleateft manner. I viewed the crops i
and found the clover as regular as pcfliblt
Mr. Diickef% hedges are remarkabl
neat — they are of white-thorn only, ver
well plailied to fecure them at bottom, ani
afterwards kept regularly clipped. TK
management of his borders, alfo, do hie
credit ; he found them wide and quite over
fitn with buihes and rubbifh ; all this h
has grt^bbed up, fo' tliat the plough goe
quite to the hedge — the fields are the neatei
at the fame time that much land is gained:

All the tillage of his land is performs
with ploughs of his own .invention : fi
with a treiid^tng one with two Hiares,
that work one below another, paring o
tlic turf or furface of the land, and turnin;
it over ; the lower one follows in the fam
furrow, and raifmg a'eili earth buries the firf
In this manner it cuts 12 inches deep Wit
4 horres, and docs an acre a day. O:

ver



THROUGH ENGLAND. 245

ery important iife of this plough, is the
jrying twitch in fand land. Mr. Duckci\
i^thod, when his land is run much to
itch, is to hury it fo deep as to admit the
xccding tillage above it ; a large quantity
* twitch buried, turns to excellent ma-
^re ; hut if not fown with hoeing crops,
will not be deflroyed ; hand-hoeing with
is management will totally dellroy its
owth ; but while it is rotting, it holds
land together and is of great fervice.
jiis method I\Ir. Ducket finds to be far
leferable to ploughing fliallow, and truft-
y to the harrows for tearing out the twitch.
,ie other is a trebble plough on one bent
am. It turns three furrows at once;
jrks with 4 horfes, and does from 3 to
icres a day.

I fhould give drawings of thefe moft'ex-
knt implements, but the Reglfler of the
^ciety at London^ is about to publilh a
►rk which will include them.
They anfwer the purpofe extremely well;
d not only on fand, but alfo on ftiff foils,
I have been for fome time a witnefs, in
\ fields of a gentleman whole hufbandry
fliall prefently come to. — The trench
R 3 plough



-46 THE FARMER'S TOUR

plough cofts 8/. 8 J-.] and the trebble oH^|
9/. 9/.

The method in which he drills his cr(^d
of whatever fort, is the following,
.land, when ready for the feed, is harrow«|
flat ; then the drills are ilruck with a ploug;
made on purpofe.

SeePbte Vlil. Fi-. i.



From a to b.
d — c.

2i C.

f— h.

c — o.

R. —



4 feet.



.••>



8 inches.

o



4

2 4

z 6

fcrew holes to vary n
di (lances of the fhares. The bottoms
the fhares in the fhape of a boat, and fKi
with a narrov>' firip of iron; they are
•inches ihick^ and 1 2 high fromi the groii
For the farrows to be ftraight, the ou|
ward {hare goes in the lafl furrow of t1
preceding fet. When tlicy are made, t
corn, &c. are fown broad-caft, and t
land harrowed ; nine tenths of it rife in tj
rows, and very regularlv. — The price

its/-



FlaleVmyol ll.pa.'Z \ij.




THROUGH ENGLANt). 247

Mr. Ducketh beft meadow on the banks
of the Thmnes (an excellent one for cows)
confifts at leaft half the herbage of burnet :
the reft vernal, white clover — cow grafs—
wild trefoile — and narrow leaved plantane.*
As to the common hufbandry about
Richmond and Peterjham^ it is difficult to

p-ivc



* Richmond Gardens have been lately altered :
tlie terrafs and the grounds about it, are now
converted into a waving lawn that hangs to the
river in a mofl beautiful manner : the old avenue
is broken, and the whole clumped in fome places
with groves ; in others with knots of trees, and
a very judicious ufe made of fingle ones : no
traces of the avenue are to be fcen, though many
of the trees remain. The lawn waves in a very
agreeable manner, and the wood is fo well ma-
naged, that the views of the river vary every
moment. A gravel walk winds through it,
which commands the moft pleafmg fcenes. The
river, noble as it is, is not the only object that
feafts the eye ; on the other fide of the walk the
grounds are thrown into fuch various forms, that
they no where fatigue the eye ; in one place the
lawn fpreads over a moft beautiful vale, and
breaks among the woods, in a ftile that muft
command attention ; in fome fpots retiring into
the groves, and contrafting its lively green with
the darker {hades of wood \ — in others it fwells
into gentle hillocks fcattered with fingle trees,
and riles into a hill that complcats the inequality
R 4 of



Ik."-;



248 THE Fx^RMERVs TOUR

give an account of it ; the greateft part of
the country is occupied by the feats, gar-
dens, and lawns of the nobiUty and gentry,
^he few farms here, rife from 40/. to 2Co/.
a year; in general about 60/. 80/. or 100/,,
ii year. The foil of two forts, either ftii

loamSi



of the fpot : a flock of fheep fcattered about tl
flopes, add uncommonly to the beauty of thej
fcene. It is, on the whole, a mild agreeablp]
landfcape, which feems created by the hand ot
\inpreluming Tafte. ^

After this, the walk retires into thicker' plan,i
tations, and winds through them with as mucf
variety as the ground affords ; the wild flirubb^
land is well managed, and contrafcs tlie more
drelTed parts of the garden.

At Ktiu are many very fine exotic plantsvl
T^vith a great variety of trees not common.

The view from Richmond hill would figure
in the fined parts of the north oi England, whertl
a bolder inequality of country prefents fua|
amazing fcenes. The noble bend of the river ill
the foot of the hill, which prefents fo fine a fheeU
of water, is well contrafted by thick woodsj
and the illands give a ftriking variety to the lccne|
The furrounding country is rich, and cut int
innumerable inciofures ; nor are there mo!
houfes than fufficient to throw a chearfulnef
over the whole ; a fortunate circumftance fo nea
London. But the point of viev/ being quite
tov/n is very unhappy.



I



THROUGH ENGLAND. 249

loams, tending pretty much to clay, or
mere fands ; Ibmc of the latter do not let
at more than ioj". or I2J-. an acre; the
meadows let at 40 J". — -the average of the
neighbourhood, from 20 j". to 25 j. — ^As to
the courfes of crops, they are as various
as the private opinion of every flirmcr ; but
in general, they croud In crop upon crop
as faft as poflible. Wheat and rye produce
3 quarters ; Barley 4 ; Oats from 2 f to i o ;
tlic average 5 ; Tick beans, on their ftrong
land, 4 quarters. They hoe their turnips
but once ; and reckon the value 40.f. to 3/.
They mow much of their clover for foiling}
jt yields in hay, at two cuttings, 3 I loads*

LABOUR.

la harvcft, 2J". 6 J. a day and board.

In hay-time, 2 s. and beer.

In winter, i j^. 6^^. to i s. 8f/»

Reaping, js. to 16/.

Mowing barley, i j-. 6d. to 4J-.

Mowing, making, carrying, and flacking

hay, IOJ-. 6ii.'y but the farmer finds a

loader.
Hoeing turnips, 6/.

Men's



250 THE FARMER^s TOUR

Men's wages, S/.Ss. {^

Lad's, 2 /. I o J, to 4 /.

• PROVISIONS.



Bread,


I id. per pound.


Checfe,


4i


Butter, -^ •*.


9


Beef,


i\ d, coarfe joints.


Mutton,


4i


Veal,


5


Pork,


41


Bacon,


8


Milk,


I d, per pint.


floufe-rent, 5/.





THROUGH ENGLAND. 251



LETTER XVIIL

I Proceed to the regifter of the experl^
ments of "John ArbutJmot^ Efq; of Ra -
venjbury^ with the ratisfadion of knowing
that I Ihall hiy before the pubHc, as iifeful
knowledge as was ever yet received in the
walk of hufbandry. Their genuine merit
renders any further introduction unneceflary.
The moft familiar method of arrano-injr
them will be under the following heads.

L LAYING LAND TO GRASS.

JI. THE CULTURE OF LU-
CERNE.

IIL THE CULTURE OF MAD-
DER.

IV. EXPERIMENTS ON THE
^ DRILL CULTURE OF SEVE-
RAL CROPS.

V. EXPERIMENTS TO ASCER-
TAIN- THE BEST COURSE OF

CROPS.



7S2 THE FARMER'S TOUR

VI. MISCELLANEOUS EXPERT
MENTS.

VIL IMPLEMENTS.

L LAYING LAND TO GRASS,
l^xperiment^ No. i.

In 1 756, feventeen acres were laid down
with oats, fucceeding a fummer fallow;
the feeds ufed were,

2 Sacks London hay feeds ;

10 lb, of white clover.
The two hrft years the product:, was very
good, amounting to 2 loads an acre of hay ;
but it declined much afterwards. The
graffes that appeared, eonfiftcd chiefly of
meadow poa — red robbin — fome daSiiliiSy
or orchard grafs — ^and a fmall proportion of
ray-grafs. The white clover difappeared
quite, owing to the wetncfs of the land
preventing its trailing branches ftriking
root. Four of thefe atcres were hollow
drained in 1766, which has gradually im-
proved the herbage, infomuch that tholp
parts in which the white clover died Jjway^
are now thickly covered \yith it.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 25^

Experiment^ No. 2.
Mf. Arbtithnot has laid, at different

tiriies, 70 acres, in various methods :

fiHl, 31 acres, \Vith oats, on a fummer
^Uow ; the feeds,

2.0 lb. of white clover;
\olh. of lucerne;
And I bufhel of ray-grafs.
This field, for two years after the fiffl
kying, produced 2 loads of hay per acre ;
but fince that time (ten years ago) it has
gradually diminifhed. The white clover
has difappeared, except in dry patches,
which has been owing to the wetnefs of
Ae foil. After the firft year, the lucerne:
kas never made any appearance ; but the
fcty-grafs has kept its ground.
- The goodncfs of the crops the two firfi
y&irs, Mr. Arbiitlmot attributes to the
ftuple of the ground being then pervious
fo the rain, and confequcntly draining
itfelf; but when the land fubfided, the
water was retained on the furface, to the
deftrudion of the tender grades. The
I ttrhite clover is a plant that trails on the
ground, but does not frrike root except in
%ots dry enough to admit it ; which was
I the



k



254 THE farmer's TOUR

the occarion of the above-mentioned partial
failure* Thefe 31 acres have fmce been
drained by under-ground cuts, which has
brought the white clover in much greater
abundance.

In 1766, it was manured at the rate of
30 loads an acre with river mud, in which
were many fmall fhells. No benefit was
feen the firft year ; which he attributes to
the fervant having injudicioufly rolled it
with an heavy roller in the fpring when
too "vVet : this manuring was before the
draining ; the mud took no effedt till after
that operation.

In the wetteft parts of the field there ap-
peared a very pernicious grafs called red
robbin ; in arable land, the Surry farmers
call it water-grafs : it is there very difficult
to extirpate ; for though only fibrous rooted,
yet burying will not deftroy it j it muft be
extradied like couch : in grafs land it comes
rery late, and yields nothing.

Expe?-mcf2fy No. 3.

Ten other acres were llkewifc fown with
oats on a fallow ; the feeds,

2 Sacks



THROUGH ENGLAND, 2.s^

2 Sacks of hay feeds from the Horfe
Guards, chiefly confifting of crefted
dog's tail — narrow leaved plantane^—
barley grafs — and innumerable daifies.
20//?. \Vhite clover.

This field has continued a good paflure*
without declining like the preceding ones ;
but it has not produced a good burthen of
hay. The reafon of its not falling off after
the fecond year like the reft, is the foil
being a black loam, which does not fubfide
into fo retentive a mafs as the other wetter
an ds. The produd of the hay being but
hnall, arofe from moft of the above men-
tioned graftcs running chiefly to bents,
inftcad of thickening on the ground like
many other ibrts.

Experiment^ No. 4.

, Seven acres more were fown with tares ;
|tiie Hubble ploughed up and hollow drained;
oats thrown in at fpring, and with them 2
facks an acre of Stiff blk hay feeds, and 20/^,
white clover. The whole was manured
after the oats were off. This has proved
a good pafture ever fince, and has yielded
I large crops of hay, but the grafs has confifted

chiefly



!



256 THE FARMER'S TOUR

ehiefly of the holchiis^ believed to be a
very bad fort — fome daSiihis-^?, finall
quantity of meadow fcfcue — and a little
meadow fox tail, and great poa; — and it is
remarkable that no vernal has appeared. —
This field has remained quite dry ever
fince, even in the depth of winter — though
the fame foil undralned has been too wet
for cattle to ftir on.

Objer'vation*

Mr. Arbitthnot remarking that ray-grafi
generally run to feed before the white clovei
made any bottom In the fpring, and efpe-
cially on land undralned ; he has ufualh
fed the pallure until the end of May^ anc
then laid it by for hay. This condudt ha:
given the white clover time to bottom, f
that he has often mown a load of hay ai;
ifcre on land, Vv'hich, In other management,
would not near equal the produce. A hint
that may prove very ufeful to many culti-
vators ; — for feeding ray-grafs late In the
fpring wlthoiit damaging the crop of hay
is a very great acquifition in Iheep feed.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 257

II. LUCERNE.

'Experiment^ No. 5*

In the year 1759, twelve acres of a
black, deep, fandy loam were fown with
barley, after turnips, and with it \olb,
fer acre of lucerne broad-caft. The corn
was mown and carried ; but nothing done
to the lucerne.

1760.
This year it was mown for foiling horfes,
Sec. but the produce weak ; not confider-
jible enough for a particular valuation.

1761.

This year the crop came to perfection.

£arly in the fpring it was crofs ploughed

vith a round (hare, and harrowed. Mowed

t thrice, each time for hay ; the produ£l: of

he three, four tons per acre of the beft

lay ever ufed. The team men would not

t firft ufe it ; but they were at laft fo pre-

jdiced in its favour, that when done, they

imented the lofs. After the mowings,

lere was an aftermath, which yielded

ome food for cows and fheep. Between

ach cutting it was harrowed ; and likewife

Vol. n. S in



:258 THE FARMER'S TOUR:

in autumn. The average price of common
hay is 45 s. a load ; but Mr. Arbuthmt
valued this of lucerne at 55 J".-; in which
valuation his men agreed.

: - 1762.

This year the culture was the fame as
the preceding, and alfo the crop; it was
2tgain mov/n thrice.

1763.
The fame culture and produ£l : a latter
growth the end of September was cut off in
one night by a flight froft : hardy as the,
plant in 'general is, yet the fhoots are ex-
tremely tender ; they will bear no froft.
The natural grafs made fo formidable
appearance, that the autumnal harrowi
was omitted, from an idea that it would
ineffectual.

1764.

In the fpring of this year, one acre
ploughed up and planted with madder ; th
remaining eleven were mown twice, b
had no harrowing ; the product 44 tons
dry hay ; but more than half was in th
firft crop, and much of it natural grafs.



THUOtJGH ENGLAND. 259

1765-

In this fpring, ploughed It up for mad-

^r; the lucerne declined, owing, as ap-

rehended, to a want of more regular and

vere harrowing, as it has been found

' at the fever eft operation of that fort will

^ damage the plants. Rocqueh harrow

IS ufed.

In refpe£t to making it into hay; the
J:erne is fo ftalky that it does not fettle
l)a; it was therefore itacked very green
-the heat that refults from fap (not wet) is
Ineficial. It was always cut as foon as
t:re appeared a general fcattered bloom.



Expences and Produce,








100, Rent, - - ^


*i








Tythe and town charges,





6





Three ploughings





13


6


Seed and fowing, -


b


12





4[ Three harrowings,





4


6


W Mowing, &c. *





5





f^'


3


I


:0


By green food.


i








P Lofs, - -


2


I






S 2



26o THE FARMER'S TOUR

1 76 1. Rent, &c. - jf . I 6

Ploughing, - -04
Four harrowings, -06
Mowings ; firft, - 03
fecond, - ^ I
third, -01
taking, raking, cartiqg,

and flacking thrice, i o



By 4 loads of hay, at
After-grafs,

Expences,
Clear profit,

1762. The fame as in 1761 :
Produa,

Expences,

Profit,

1763. Rent, &c.
Three harrowings,
Mowing,
Making, &c.



3


2


II








5


n


5


3


2


8




II


5


3


2




764.



76i.
762.

763.
764-

760.

!


THROUGH EN

By 4 loads of hay,
Expences,

Clear profit.

Rent, &c.
Mowing twice.
Making, &c.

By 4 loads of hay,
Expences,

Clear profit,

Profit,
Ditto,
Ditto,
Ditto,

Lofs,

Profit in 5 years.


GLAND. 2
2 16


6i


6


- 8 3


6


1 6
4
15

2 5



6


6


- II

2 5



6


- 8 14

8 2
8 2
8 3
8 14


6

6
6
6
6


33 3
21






- 31 2






■c



'Which \s per aicre per an?2. 644
And an the 1 2 acres, 74^2 o



I



Wheat, to equal this profit, mufl yield

quarters an acre, and that ever^ year. If

S 3 this



i62 THE FARMER'S TOUR

fhis does riot prove (he vafl; profit of lucerne ;
Nothing can. Nor fhoiild we condemn foi
fafling no longer a grafs that will continue
four years in fuch full perfedion. In othe
methods of culture it has remained mud
longer— ^ut that is not the leaft reafon fo
rejecting a fhorter duration. Such a cul
ture may poffibly be found more beneficia
than the more lafting, and at the fame tim
more expenfive modes j — for fuch a term o
five years, iq a courfe of feveral crops, wil
be found uncommonly profitable.

Mr. Arbuthnot^ from thd experience
this crop, as well as more general obfery;
tion, recommends the broad-ciaft culture
lucerne intended for hay, becaufe it is n
ceflary that the ground lliould be quite o
vered with plants, to prevent the dirt
duft flicking to the hay. But if it is
figned for foiling^ then he recommem
frills equally diftant, i8 inches afund
It is abfolutely neceflary to harrow it cr
arid crofs in both fpring and autumn j
ihould be done till the land has the abfolu
appearance of a fallow, and alfo be manure
every autumn, before the harrowing, wit
fine rotten compofl. The fpring harrowid

4






THROUGH ENGLAND. 263

as early as the feafon will admit; if the
young fhoots fpring before you can get on,
\do not therefore defift from harrowing ;
you had better deftroy them totally than
omit that operation, which is eflential to
the goodnefs of the crop.

Expe?'imenty No. 6.

In order to determine in what degree
lucerne will bear very rough treatment^
^his gentleman wounded many plants in a
fevere manner, quite to mangling them— -
others he cut off 3 inches below the ground ;
the refult was, that the latter plants were
i^bfolutely killed, but the former not in the
^eaft hurt : the fad is, that the bulb may
ig wounded in any degree ; if the leaft bit
lemains it fprouts prefently ; but cut it
quite off, and you deflroy the plant.

■m. THE CULTURE OF MAD-
DER, &c.

Mr. Arbuthnot^ on his applying to huf-

)andry, formed a general idea of the means

of rendering it profitable. It appeared to

rifctm that common crops managed in a com-

:|wion manner, could not to a gentleman

S 4 yield



264 THE FARMER'S TOUR

yield the fame advantage as to men who
attend to the loweft minutise of the bufmefs,
and live as much by frugality as agricul-
ture. In fuch a ftile of hufbandry he
thought it not defirable to emulate them,
but rather to apply to the culture of fuch
rich vegetables, as would yield a profit
confiderable enough to pay for an accurate
expenfive culture, which would not only
be more beneficial, but at the fame time
require much lefs trouble and fatigue— and
not be liable to the numerous cafualties and
impofitions to which common crops are fo
univerfally open.

Among other plants, Madder attracted
his attention, as an article of culture that
has as fev/ objections to it as mofl others^-,
it remains feveral years in the ground, co
fequently is lefs complex in its managemen'
than fuch annual ones as hops — it is lia
to few accidents—^and pays excellently for
perfedl culture : large quantities being coa
ftantly imported from Holland to anfwei
our own demand, and the Dutch growin
moft of it themfelves, and having by mo-
nopoly raifed it to a moft extravagant pricieJ
he deternjined with the fpirit which reai

prudence



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THROUGH ENGLAND. 265

.prudence didates, to take a journey into
f landers to examine the foil there preferred
or madder, and their management of the
crop. Afterwards, in a journey through
Holland^ lie aUb made enquiries into the
X)ndud; of the crops, and the method of
nanufad:uring it ; having obtained admif-
lon into their ftoves, where he found a ma-
lagement more expenfive, but no ways
^referable to what is pradtifed by many in
'zjngland\ this he did that he might enter upon
he culture himfelf, witli that knowledge of
he bufmefs which was requifite for avoiding
^reat errors. Ill fuccefs in fuch purfuits, is
,nore often owing to hafly, premature
ittempts, than to really natural obftrudions
—It is oftener the moral, than the phyfical
apability that is wanting.

During his ftay in Holland^ he examined
heir madder grounds with the minutcft
Lttention ; made every requifite enquiry for
gaining as complete a knowledge of the
:ulcure as poflible — and from thence was
convinced of the propriety of attempting it
It home. He took the opportunity of be-
ng in that country, to make himfelf further
icquainted with hufbandry in general. He
ravelled through all the provinces, and like-



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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) → online text (page 11 of 24)