Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) online

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2


6




Earthing up.





5





J768.


Four hand-hoeings.


m 2,










Shim thrice.





n







Double mould-board










plough thrice.


C


n



6




Ditto ftriking furrows,





2


6


'769.


The fame as 1768,


2


8





770.


- Hand- hoeing twice,


I










Twice earthing.





10





fT'


Taking up,


4








'•*


Four years rent, (at i


/.)






f


ty the and town charg


es, 5


4





\




19


9







Produce,











5 C. wt. at 4/.

Jx)rs,


8








II


9







Us









I



294 THE FAR?>4ER's TOUR

V^hizh. 1% per Tizvt pei' an72. {^.z 17 3

On the {^ix acres, - 68 14 o

Ohfervations,

It has been already remarked, that draw-
ing plants injures a crop fo greatly, tha!
whenever Mr. Arbutbnot often repeats th(
drawing from the fame plantation, he gives
up the expedlation of a crop ; knowin
that it muft be thereby ruined. The loi
upon this account therefore, is no qbjedior
to the madder culture ; it is the price a
which all the plants drawn from fix acre
are purchafed. What principally demand
attention on this experiment, is the grea
expence at which plants are procured whei
they are drawn from a crop in the fpring
Therefore, though it v\rould not be prope
to leave the whole crop to be taken up i.
the fpring for the fake of obtaining plant
yet it is advifeable to leave fuch a proportioi
of it as will fupply thp required quantit;
of plants ; on an average one may reckor
if the crop is good, that each ftool will pre
duce in the different drawings from '^o t
40 plants, but it is not advifeable to truft t

tci



THROUGH ENGLAND. 295

^0 many drawings, as that may carry you
)0 far in the fpring, and endanger the new
'Jantation from the drought.

'Experiment^ No. 14.

n 1767, fallowed 10 acres of a ftrong
y foil ; ploughed it 4 times, 1 3 inches
p. In autumn manured \^-stx\. acres of
with farm-yard dung, at the rate of 20
,ds an acre ; covered the dung by ridging
e field into 3 f feet lands ; manured the
her three acres with trotters, 6 quarters
r acre : and left the whole well waters
furrowed for winter.

1768.

In Aprils planted one row on a land,

Yf drawing a furrow with a Suffolk plough

tfi the middle of the ridges, about 6 inches

leep ; fpring plants were laid in the fur-

ows by women and childven, and earth

tawn on them by men with broad hoes ;

nd the furrows then ftruck with the double

Hould-board plough. The rovYS were

riand-weeded twice ; and the intervals

ihrice ploughed v;ith fhim and double

jnould-bQard plough ; and in autumn the

\ U 4 furrows*



296 THE FARMER'S TOUR

furrows ftruck with the fame implement,
The field was then water-furrowed.

1769.

This year the plantation was hand-hoe4|
thrice, and the intervals ploughed fouc
times with the fliim and double mouldil
board. In autumn the furrows ftruck deepy

1770.
Hand-hoed the beds twice; fhimmetj
the furrows twice, and each time followe4
it by the double mould-board plough.

Account of the feven acres,
Expences^

^767. Ploughing four times, ^,2 12

Manuring,

Ridging up.

Water-furrowing,
3768. Planting,

Hand-weeding twice,

Shim thrice.

Double mould-board ditto, o

Striking furrows, - o

Water-furrowing, - o
J 769. Three hand- hoeings, i



6
o
o
o
o
o



o-

7
I

18

12

2

3

2

I

10



6[

Qi

f _

0! ^



Carry over.



\2 IQ %



THROUGH ENGLAND. 297

Brought over, jT. 12 10 o
Shim four times, - 028
Double mould-board ditto, 048
Striking furrows, -026
Water-furrowing, - 010
yyo. Two hand-hoeings, 100

Shim twice, - 014

Double mould-board

plough ditto, - 024

Taking up, - 400

Drying, at 3/. - 250

pour years rent, (16/.)

tythe, &c. - 480





24 17


6


produce,

%^ Cwf. 2it ^L
£xpences.


60
24 17



6


Clear profit,



Which is per acre per
annum,

Aftd on the 7 acres,


35 2

8 15
61 9


6

7
I



$98 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Account of the three acres.

Expences.

Every article the fame as the

preceding, except manuring

and drying, - - £- 5 ^^ 6[

6 Quarters an acre trotters, 3 12

Drying, at 3J". - - • i 16





•oduce.


II ^


Pr


V


10 C. wf. at 4/.


-


40 c


Expences,


xcper ann.


II t


Clear profit,


=8 19 ,


Which is per ac


7 A i


And on the 3 acres,


21 14 J


Profit by dunging,


-


8 15 <


trotters,




7 4 i^
I 10 i



Weight /^r acre from dung, 15 o
" from trotters, 10 o



o



o -> -»


6


o


33


6


7


8


6


7



THROUGH ENGLAND. 299

Produd of the ten acres, £. 540 o o
Expences ditto, - 206 14 o

Profit ditto,

Which is per acre

And per acre per aim,

Obfervations,

' The great importance of applying the
proper fort of dung is here apparent.
Farm-yard compoft, it is plain, much ex-
seeds trotters : Top drefTmgs of all forts
ire too fmall in quantity, however rich, to
Iflft with effect three years ; they want,
efpecially on ftiff land, the power of keep-
ing it open, and aiding in pulverization,
Jhe profit of thefe crops are confiderable,
id prove how important this culture cer-

linly is.

'Experiment^ No. 15.

Three acres of the fame foil as No. 14.
were treated exad:lv in the fame manner
w the feven acres of that trial. Crop the
(iilne.



300 THE FARMER'S TOUR

"Expences.
Sundries a$ before, • ;^. 24 1 7 6



Produce,

X^Cwf. Sit 4I.
Expences,


6a
24 17



6


Clear profit, «•


35 2


6


Or per acre per ann^
And on the three, *


8 15
36 6


7 .a.
9



Experiment y No. id.

Seven acres of land planted before with
madder, and regiftered in Experiment, No
8. were again planted in 1769: It laid al:
winter in very high arched up ridges, aftei
taking up the preceding crop. In March
it was dunged with 25 great loads an acr<
of farm-yard dung, remarkably black, rich
and rotten. It was then ploughed intc
lands ; fome 3 feet wide, and fome 4 feet '
^he latter were planted with two rows or
each, 14 inches afunder, and 10 inche
from plant to plant : on the 3 feet lands
fnigle rows at i foot from fet to itt, Th'

metho<!



I



THROUGH ENGLAND. 301

jncthod followed in planting, was drawing
furrows with a little plough; laying in

, the plants by women and children, and
covering them with hand-hoes. They
were hand-hoed thrice during the fummer -
horfe-hoed with the fhim four times, and
with the double mould-board plough as

, often. As foon as the haulm fpread over
the beds, the two rows were thrown into
one by the double mould-board plough,
the wings much extended, in the way that
peafe are earthed ; and on the narrow lands
the earth thrown up to them by the fame
plough. Thus the beds were left till au-
tumn ; when the furrows were ftruck deep
with the double mould-board, and the earth
drawn by hoes in upon the haulm.

1770.
In the winter great quantities of chick-
eed appeared on the beds ; owing, as be-
lieved, to the thickneffe of the dunging.
This was all extracted by hand in the
fpring. After which it was hand-hoed
once more ; fhimmed twice ; and ploughed
with double mould-board as often-— — in
P«»fhich manner it is left for autumn work*
It conies ia courie to be taken up in au-
tumn



302 THE FARMER'S TOUR

tumn 1 77 1. It promifes to be far fupericT
to any yet planted. Expences hitherto in-
curred are j

1769. Manuring, - ^^.lo
Ploughing, with Rother-

ham ploughs, - 050
Planting, - - o 18

Three hand-hoelngs, i i o 6

Shim four times, - 028,
Double mould-board

plough ditto, - o

Ditto ftruck the furrows W

twice, -

Earthing, -

1770. Firft weeding.
Second ditto,
Shim twice.
Double mould-board ditto, o



'Experiment, No. 17.

Nine other acres of the fame foil were
alfo planted at the fame time : this is the
fecond crop of madder : the firft is regiftred
in Experiment, No. 9. — The rows, culturej
expences, the fame a§ No. 16.






5 %


0'


^ 1


I


10 il





10 1





I i


,0


2 1


15


14 6



I



THROUGH ENGLAND. 303

't*^* Experiment^ No. 18.

Two other acres were alfo planted at the
fame time as No. 16. they yielded peafe in
1768 only podded; the land very clean;
:, iihe tillage and planting the fame : one half
Df it was manured like them, with 25 loads
5f rich yard dung ; and the other half with
20 loads of fheep dung taken from the
Sleep pen.

It is on this crop very obfervable, that
^though the manuring, planting, &c. are
[he fame with the above-mentioned 7 acres*
fet is not the appearance of the crop near
h good ; this Mr. Arbuthnot can attribute
only to the land not having received that
isxtraordinary good and deep tillage, which
(the other had done by taking up the pre-
ceding crop : a ftriking proof of the expe-
diency of planting land with fuccefTive
:rops of madder.

'Experiment^ No. 19.

Six acres of a rich, deep, black loam,
were fown wnth rye at Michaelmas 1768 ;
ibut the crop failed. In April 1769, it was
Iploughed up ; harrov/ed once ; and planted
by drawing furrov/s; double row^s at 14

inches?



304 THE FARMER'S TOUR

inches, with intervals of 2 feet i o inches
The following fummer hand-hoed the row
thrice : and horfe-hoed the intervals wit]
fhim and double mould-board thrice; co
vering by the laft operation 15 facks ai
acre of rabbits dung : after which the fur
rows were ftruck deep.
1770.
This year two hand-hoeings were giver
and one weeding ; and the intervals twic
ploughed with fhim and double moulc



Doara.
The appearance of this crop very gr^


The expences as follow.




1769. Ploughing, • £,0


7


Harrowingj -





Planting, - - i





Three hand-hoeings, i


10


Shim thrice, -


2


Double mould-board ditto,


3


15 Sacks rabbit dung,




I J. 4^. - - I





Striking furrows, -


2 .


1770. Two hand-hoeings, i


0,


One weeding, -


7.


Shim twice, -


I .


Double mould-board ditto,


2


I 5


16



THROUGH ENGLAND. 30^

Experiment^ No. 20.

The nine acres reglftered in Experiment,
No. 10. were again planted.

The land remained, after taking up,
under a winter fallow. In ploughing up
the crop a^ quickfand was cut into, from
i^hich the water arofe : this induced Mn
Arbutbnot to drain it very deep with
tovered drains : he carried ten through the
leld, 4 feet deep ; the length was 600 rods;
nd the expence 30/.

It was dunged in the fprlng with 25
3ads an acre of rotten yard dung, which
,'ere ploughed in, and afterwards the land
rols ploughed : it was then flit down flat ;
Dlled with the fpiky roller ; and with the
rge common one to break the fmall clods
ft by the other. As the land was drained^
was planted flat; double rows at 14
^Piches, and 9 inches in the rows, with
tervals of 2 feet 4 inches : executed by
awing furrows as before, laying the
ants in them, and covering them with hoes,
hey were twice hand-hoed : fliimmed
ice; and the furrows twice ploughed
th the double mould-board. The ex-
.nces as follow,
[Vol. II. X



3c6 THE FARMER'S TOUR

1770. Draining, - ^.3 6 8

Manuring, - 7 10 o
Ploughing three times

with RotherhajUy - 0150

Rolling with fpiky roller, o 2 oj
Ditto with large common

ditto, - - 016

Planting, - - i o c

Two hand-hoeings, - i o c

Shim twice, - o i ^

Double mould-board ditto, o 2 >

Filling vacancies, - o 15 <

14 13 I



Expe?'imc?if^ No. 21.

four acres planted with madder in 1 76
(See Experiment, No. 1 1 ,) and deftroyc
by the fod worm, were again planted. Tl
turnips were fed on the ground by flie('
in the Ipring ; hut finding it much bake,
Mr. ArbutJmot ordered it to be brak<i
up with a plough with 2 coulters, t
was then worked with fpiky roller, aii
Town with barley ; the ilubble of whici,
wa.5- manured with 25 larg^ loads an a(iff
ofpurchafed dung; fo rotten, that it aj-



THROUGH ENGLAND. 307

peared like black butter ; it was ploughed

in 12 inches deep, laying it at the fame

time in large round lands. In which man-

ler it remained the winter.

1770.

In the fpring, ploughed it in the gather-

ng way, beginning^n the middle, and end-

ng in the old furrows, which deepened

hem for the purpofe of draining : a point

[f confequence as the foil is fpringy. It

[trned up whole furrow ; it was there-

[irc worked with a fpiky roller ; and after

ifliower of rain harrowed, and rolled with

►dimon roller ; after which it was har-

cd again : upon which operation it was

[lanted, by drawing furrows as before.

has been horfe-hoed twice with the fliim,

id as often with double mould-board.

Expences.

69. Manuring, - ^.10 10 o

Ploughing, - o 17 o

Ditto a common earth *, o 4 6

Spiky roller, * 020



1^



Carry over, - 1 1 1 3 6

r N. B,f Three Rotherhafn plous;bs did 4. acres ia

X 2



3o8



THE FARMER'S TOUR


Brought ovei;,


£■


II 13


Common harrowing,


-





Ditto rolling,







Planting,




I


Shim twice,




I


Double mould-board






plough ditto,




2




12 17



Experiment, No. 22.

Two acres of land were cropped in 17^,
one with potatoes, and the other with ti-
nips ; the latter was very much poached f
drawing and carting them off. Both te
turnips and potatoes were manured for, it
the rate of 15 loads of good dung per ac.
—The potatoe ridges were flit down, rd
fown with 2 loads of rabbit dung.

The turnip land ploughed up while
furrow ; it was left till dry, and then :fn
over with fpiky roller and manured ; Iflf
the acre with 50 bufhels of lime, and|ie
other half with 5 loads of fifted coal afli's.
The whole two acres planted flat. It
been twice hand-hoed ; and been hofl
hoed with fhim and double mould-b(W

plo^I



THROUGH ENGLAND. 309

plough once. The piece has carried aa
indifferent appearance; but the potatoe
half the beft.— The expences of the Pota-
toe acre,

1770. Ploughing, - ^.o 5 o

2 Loads rabbit dung, 700

Ploughing, - 050

Planting, - - 100

Two hand-hoeings, -100
Shim once, - 008

Pouble mould-board ditto, 012



':•■





9


II


10


Of the Turnip acre.








Ploughing,





7


6


Spiky roller.





2





50 Bufhels lime, at 9^.


I


17


6


5 Loads coal afhes,


3








Ploughing,





5





Planting,


I








Hand and horfe-hoeing.


I


I


10




7


13


10



: Experiments No. 23.

i

I One acre of good mellow loam was plough-

d up in autumn 1 769, being part of a mad-
i-rrv X 3 ^^^



3IO THE FARMER'S TOUR

der crop. The lands 8 feet broad, and a
feet higher in the center than in the furrows j
in which manner it was left till fpring.
1770,

In Mayy two fmall furrows were turned
from the beds, and the land then manured
with 2 loads of rabbit dung harrow^ed in
It was then planted in double rows, at li^
inches, in the old furrows of the 8 feet beds
This was done with an intention to manun
the large intervals, and plough them gra-
dually to the rows ; but the intervals wer«
fo high, and the weather wet, that the cart
could not go on, which pre\'ented the in
tended earthing of the rows ; but they wen
twice hand-hoed ; and the whole intervj
fhimmed once. The appearance of tl
crop very dwindling, owing, as believed
to it& being planted too late,

The expences,
1770. Manuring, - ^,70

Harrowing, - 00

Planting, - - o 10

Hand-hoeing, - . o 15

Shim once, • -01

Upoj






THROUGH KNGLAKD. 311

Upon this experiment it fhould be ob-
ferved, that our very ingenious cultivator
having difcovered a peculiarity in the
growth of madder, formed this trial to af-
certain the fadl in large : He obfervedi
from an experiment made on a plant in
the garden, that by earthing up the rows,
the ftalk was converted to the richeft part
of the root : this uncommon circumftance
gave him the hint of planting in the fur-
rows, inftead of on the tops of the ridges,
with intention of forming the ridge into
a rich compoft, and turn it gradually to
the rows, until the furrows came to be fitu-
ated in the center of the old ridges, and the
rows growing out of new ones — in a word,
to plant and cultivate madder in the com-
mon method of managing celery. The
thought is a beautiful one ; how far it will
anfwer in pradtice, experience can alone
determine : the only objed:ion that appears
at firft view is, the doubt whether the rows
will fpread fufficiently to fill fuch large
fpaces : but this concerns only wide inter-
vals ; it may be found proper to adopt this
new method in furrov/s of two or three feet
lands, as well as thofe of 8 feet ones. It
X 4 muft



312 THE FARMER^s TOUR

muft depend greatly on the fertility of the
foil ploughed down to the rows ; for as the
whole depends on a vaft luxuriant ftrength
of Ihoots, it muft be abfolutely neceffary to
force them as much as pofTible. If madder
was planted, literally fpeaking, in a dung-
hill, this method appears to be the moft eli-
gible ; and it w^ill probably be found com^
paratively fuccefsful, in exadt proportion
to the richnefs of the land.

'Experiment^ No. 24.

Four acres of light fandy loam were
cropped with barley in 1769 ; and the flub-
ble being ploughed up diredly after harveft.
cabbages were planted on it ; which were
fed on the land, in the fpring, by Iheep
it was then ploughed into broad lands witl
deep furrows for draining it ; this plough-
ing was not more than eight inches deep
the earth for the cabbages being at leaft i:
deep. It was then fpiky rolled and planted

One acre was folded, and the reft ma-
nured with rabbit dung, about 70 facks ai
acre, harrowed in. The planting was per-
formed as before, by drawing furrows
They have been twice hand-hoed ; an(

horfe



THROUGH ENGLAND. 313

borfe-hoed once more with flilm and double
nould-board plough.
P 'The appearance of the plants very good,
except in the lower part of the field, which
s wet.

Experices,

J.770. Ploughing, - jT.o y 6

Spiky rolling, - 020

Rabbits dung, - 440

Planting, - - 100

Hand-hoeing twice, -100



Shim, - • o o o

Double mould-board, 012

6 15 4

Expervnenf, No. 25.

Seven acres of a dark rich mould on brick
Sarth, were manured with 25 loads an acre
'jf purchafed dung, that had laid three
fears without turning ; quite black butter.
k was ploughed in 14 inches deep in broad
lands with great wheel plough ; the furrows
teft deep. Mr. ArbutJmot remarked that
khe worms worked the dung quite through
ill the furrov:s ; from whence he juftly

concludes



314 THE FARMER^s TOUR

concludes that there is no danger of bury-
ing dung ; an idea common among the
farmers.

On differing many of the tubes made
by the worms, he found them from top tc
bottom full of folid dung ; from whence i'
IS evident, that they mix the dung morr
immediately with the foil than could b(^
performed by any tool.
1770.

In the fpring of this year the lands wei
arched up by a gathering earth, and h
rowed and rolled; alfo ox-harrowi
Planted in double rows, 14 inches afund
on 4 feet lands. They have been ham
weeded twice; and ploughed with fhii
and double mould-board plough twice.

The appearance of the crop is remarkabl
great.

The expences.

1769. Manuring, -• jT. 10 10
Ploughing, - o 14

1770. Gathering, - o 5
Harrowing twice, * o i
Rolling, - - o o <
Harrowing, - o i <

Carry ovcr^ - 1 1 1 1 <



THROUGH ENGLAND. 315

,^ Brought over, /^. 1 1 1 1 6

i Planting, - - I o o

I Hand-hocing, - 100

|., Shim, - - 014

Double mould-board
; plough, - - 024

Iv ^^ ^^ ^

ExpermerJy No. 26.

Five acres of a deep, black, rich, loamy

hi\ were cropped with turnips in 1769,

^e crop eaten on the land by fheep;

•)loughed early in the fpring : It was then

■ nanured with 8 loads an acre of night foil
:Vom London, which were ploughed in, and

■ :he land harrowed fiat ; upon this harrow-
ng the fets were planted as in the preceding
rials. The crop has been once hand-hoed ;
)nce weeded ; and horfe-hoed twice with
louble mould-board plough, which earths
ip the plants, and once with the fliim,
Jhc appearance of the crop very great.

Expences.

(770, Firft ploughing, - ^.o 5 o
8 Loads, at 1 1 J. -^ 480

Carry over, - 4130



I



3i6 THE FARMER'S


TOUR




Brought over.


>C-4 13





£ Second earth,


5





Harrowing,


I





Planting,


I





Hand-hoeing,


10





Weeding,


6





Shim,





8


Double mould-board,


2


4



6 18 o

Experiment^ No. 27.

In 1766, Mr. Arbuthnot fet one plant
of madder in his garden. A hole was dug
of 3 feet diameter, and filled with the rot-
ten mould of a melon bed; as It grew it wi
regularly earthed up with the fame mouId||
the vines of the plant being fpread, an(
the earth laid on them, leaving out tl
points ; continued this earthing during th^
year, and in autumn covered the whol
with the melon mould. The two followii
years the fame management was obferved
in every refpedl. In autumn 1768, dug ij
up ; the plants and roots were wafh<
clean and drained from water ; the weigj
green, \zlb.\ dryed ready for grinding,

weighec



THROUGH ENGLAND. 317

weighed 7 \lb,\ the dry weight, there-
fore, is rather better than a fixth of that
green.

He has alfo another plant, now growing,
which was itx. the fame day, and treated in
the fame manner on a black foil near the
furface of water, to determine how far
it will prejudice the root.

Ol>fervations»

A fingle plant of madder coming in three
years to 7|/^. is a moft extraordinary
growth. But it is obfervable that this plant

I did not diminifh above 6-7ths, whereas

'the general run of plants diminiili 7-8ths.

'This muft be attributed to the folidity of
the plant from its extraordinary fize. This
evidently Ihews that ground cannot be
made too rich. And though the treatment
was not fuch as could be imitated in a field,
yet it fhould be confidcred as a leffon to

' madder planters, never to fear exceffive
richnefs of foil or manure : it is evident
that no manuring is too much for this
vegetable; and in all probability this fad:
will be found fo extenfively true, that it
may anfwer to contradt the attention and

' - cxpcnce



3i8 THE FARMER'S TOUR

cxpence of ten acres to a fingle one. Sup-
pole an acre planted in the fame manner as
in the above experiment, there would be
4840 plants, which at 7 ilk. amount to 15
tons 13 C wt. and at 4/. ioj. per C. wf. to
1408/, If you cover an acre a yard deep
with dung or rotten compoft, it will take
4840 loads, of 30 bufhels each, which
may be called 3500 farmers loads, and at
8x. come to 1400/. It is clear the experi-l
ment on an acre of land would be a lofmg
one ; but it is at the fame time aftonifhingj
to think how near the firft crop would com(
towards paying fuch an immenfe expence
But fuppofe the land, in the taking up fuel
a crop, to be dug 4 feet deep from the furl
face, I foot of the old mould would then ht
mixed with the new addition of 3 feet, am
on this a new plantation of madder for thrc
years more ; the probability of a vaft profit
would then be great — and the land would
for ever bear the richeil crops.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The culture of this valuable plant has
been fo great a novelty in England^ that not
one farmer in five hundred knows that fuch

a vege^



THROUGH ENGLAND. 319

I vegetable exifts ; even the endeavours,
pirlted as they have been, of a very patrio-
ic Ibciety, have not done much in extending
he culture through this kingdom : a pre-
niumof ^/. per acre on all planted, was a
neafure that Teemed to infure fuccefs, and
promife us the lafting benefit of raifing
IS much of this dye as our manufadures
equire. But this appearance has been
bmewhat deceitful : very many claimants
or the premium have difcontinued the
uiture from its proving difadvantageous ;
nd the general idea has been, that we
annot rival the Dutch in this branch of
igriculture. The failures that have hap-
pened, probably have arifen from a want
)f knowledge in the nature of the plant,
ind the proper method of treating it — and
ioubtlefs much mifchief was done by an
.'laborate publication under a celebrated
lame, which interdidled the ufe of dung,
3ut to whatever caufe it has been owing,
lertain it is that this branch of cultivation
las made no progrefs ; the Society's pre-
■niums raifed a temporary purfuit, which
las, of late fubfided, and left this important
irticle in a fair way to as total a ncglait as

ever



I



320 THE FARMER'S TOUR

ever It was in through the firfl half of the
prefeiit century.

In this lituation there was little hope oj
reviving the attention of the public to mad-
der, unlefs fome very fpirlted experiments
were made, which Ihould prove how fai


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) → online text (page 13 of 24)