Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) online

. (page 4 of 24)
Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) → online text (page 4 of 24)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


—but its being an ameliorating crop like
peafe, the inferiority of price is abundantly
made up. They always fow wheat after
it; and on cold fpringy land fometimes
plough it in for that crop, by ufing a buih
faggot before the ploughs to level it : and
this management anfwers prodigioufly for
two crops ; better than dung. They never
fow buck-wheat till the beginning of 'June :
and they reckon that is more beneficial to the
land than any other crop. Wheat very fel-
dom fails of great crops after it.

In their manuring they are pretty atten-
tive* They fold all the year through, for
wheat or turnips. Marie they depend
much on ; the fort they ufe moft is a grey
marie, it is foft and foapy : they do not
lay above 1 2 large loads an acre, as much
as five horfes can draw, and this quantity
vrill laft 20 years ; after which they repeat
it. But then I fhould add, as, an explana-
tion of the fmallnefs of this quantity, that
they regularly cart out their farm-yard dung
^n to layers of marie, mix them up together, .
and then fpread them on their land ; this
is a regular addition to it, and they have;
long experienced the pradice to* be excel-



lent. They harrow their ftubbles by way
of chopping them, and cart them home to
the yard.

They apply their meadow and pafture
lands to keeping young ftock and cows ;
the former they bring into them for water,
but keep them on the uplands of nights :
2 acres will carry a cow through the fum-
mer : A good one will give 6 gallons of
milk a day : as to the produd:, they are

generally let at 3/. 10/. to 4/. a head. — «

To 20 cows they keep from 25 to 30 fhots;
that is, f and t grown hogs. A dairy^
maid will take care of 20 cows. The
winter food is ftraw or turnips ; no hay :
and a calf is w^orth 30J. in 7 or 8 weeks.
They keep them in winter in the yard.

They fatten their fwine to 28 ftone, but
the average is not above 16. They have
no regular flocks of fheep ; but they fold
thofe they keep. In Aiigvjl they buy old
crones, and alfo lambs of that year ; like-
wife fhearling wethers ; ail which forts they
lurn into their ftubbles at Cbrijlmas^ when
they put them to turnips, and after that ta
elover and ray-grafs. If they buy in at


loj. they will fell them fat in ^r?/ or M^
at i8 J-. ; whichy for the time, is great pronto
Sometimes they buy lean wethers, and
get them flefhy <^nough by C /jri/i mas ^to iput
to turnips, and will fell them fat froip. that
food — fhearling ewe lambs willcjip ^ or 3^

^I^, of wool. ..., : . , :

. In refpedl to the rot, they apprehend
^at it is owing in a great meafure to.
fpringy land in low meadowjS : thofe^ field?;
in which heavy .fogs are apt to hang are,
bad, but no land, whatever may be itp
quality, will rot if tlie flieep are -neyeiv
tjL^rned on it until the fun has ej^hal-cd ajj^
the dew. Floods they reckon not at alj|^
prejudicial. — Thefe ideas appear^tQ me not.
to be fo. clear as I pould will)* , ; , .... . . j

^ , }n their tillage, they reckoji' ; 5 horfes
^eceflary for 100 acres of plougli^d ground;
nfe,"^ in a plough, and dQ-2r,^Fes a day*
Thjs ploughman goes out atd iia the morn-,
ing, and docs an acre by iXl-cJ'olock ; he
then comes home and baits tilt ^j[ -and goes
out again tiU 7 >at night; in "vVhich tini6
h? does an acre more : all this is done, with
a pair of horfes, befides taking care of 5 in
all : . this is great work, and much exceed-



ing what is done in moft other countries.
But they aflert, that it can only be done
with wheel ploughs ; they have tried fwing
ones, but they do not equal the wheeled.
They ftir from 3 to 5 inches deep ; the
price 2s. 6d. an acre. — The annual expence
ofahorfethey reckon at 5/. 10 J". They

feed much with ftraw cut into chaff". ■

They do not break up their ftubbles for a
fallow till after Chrijlmas,

In the hiring and ftocking farms, they
reckon 700/. neceflary for 300 acres.

Tythes are compounded; they pay 3/,
in the pound.

• Poor rates is, in the pound; they have
rifen a fourth in 20 years. — The employ-
ment of the women and children fpinning :
all drink tea.

Many leafes are granted, but not fo
many as formerly.

The farmers carry their corn from 6 to
10 miles,


In harveft, 361. and board for the harveft.
In hay-time, i j-. id, and beer.
In winter, i s, and beer.

F 4 Reap-


Reaping, ^s.

Mowing fpring corn, i s. to is, id.

grafs, I s.

Hoeing turnips, /^s. and 2 J.

filling marie cart, 2 id. a. load ; and is. an

acre fpreading.
Thrafhing wheat, 2 j. a quarter.

barley and oats, I s,

peafe, i j*. 4^.

Firft man's wages, 7/. ys. and 8/,

Second ditto, 6/, and 5/. 5/,

Lad's, 3/.

Dairy-maid, 3/. ioj.

Other ditto, 2 /. i o j. to 2 /. 1 5 J.

Women per day, in harveft, 6 d. and board.

' . in hay-time, ditto.

'. — — : in winter, 6 d.

The rife of labour a fourth in 20 years.



- lid.






- 6i


- 3^






- 3i

Bacon, r

- 6i



Labourer's houfe-rent, 40 s.

1 firing, from the commons.

The particulars of a farm as follow.

300 Acres inalj 12 Horfes

250 Arabic

50 Grafs

;/r.2oo Rent

42 Acres of Tur-
60 Barley
24 Wheat
84 Clover
42 Peafe

20 Cows
20 Fatting beafts
30 Young cattle
100 Sheep
2 Men

1 Boy

2 Maids

4 Labourers,



TH E city of Norwich is one of the
moil: confiderable in England after
London 'j it ftands on more ground than
any other : But in number of inhabitants,
fome others affert an equality. By an ac-
curate account taken a few years ago, the
number reckoned by the houfes amounted
to 40000 ; but by the bills of mortality
only to 36000 ; the average therefore of
thefe (38000) may be taken as more proba-
ble than either.

The ftaple manufactures are crapes and
camblets ; befides which they make in
great abundance damafks, fattins, alopeens,
&c. &c. &c. They work up the Leicejier-
JJnre and Lincohijhire wool chiefly, which
is brought here for combing and fpinning,
while the Norfolk wool goes to Torkjhire
for carding and cloths. And what is a
remarkable circumftance, not difcovered
many years, is, that the Norfolk fheep
yield a wool about their necks equal to the



beft from Spain ; and is in price to the reft
as 20 to 7.

The earnings of the manufacturers are
various, but in general high.

Men on an average do not exceed 5 J. a
week ; but then many women earn a§
much: and boys of 15 or 16 likewife the

Draw-boys, from 10 to 13, is, 6d. a week*
Pipe-boys and girls, from 5 to 9 years old.

Combers, on an average, ']s.
Dy^r$, xjj^.

Hot-prefTers, 13/.

Women by doubling yarn, is.

Ditto filk, 8 J.

Ditto by fpinning, 2J". 6^. to 3J-.

The weaving man and his boy, who
now earn in general 'js. a week, could
earn with eafe 1 1 J. if induftrious. — But it
is remarkable, that thofe men and their
families who earn but 6^". a week, are much
happier and better off than thofe who earn
IS. or 3/. extraordinary; for fuch extra
earnings are moftly fpent at the alehoufe,
or in idlenefs, which prejudice their follow-
ing work. This is precifely the fame



efFe<3; as they have found when the prices
of provifions have been very cheap; it
Fcfults from the fame caufe. And this
city has been very often peftered with mobs
and infurredtions under the pretence of an
high price of provifions, merely becaufe
fuch dearnefs would not allow the men that
portion of idlenefs and other indulgence
which low rates throw them into. - ■ ''"" - •
♦ In the management of the poor, there
was once a circumftance that deferves no-
ting. Prcvioue to the year 1 72 7, the rates
throughout the city were immoderately
burthened with weekly allowances to the
poor, of IS. 6 J, 2S.2 s. 6d. or 3 /. a family,
\n which manner 1200/. a year was given.
A rcfolution was taken in that year to ftrike
them all off : it was accordingly done ; and
liOthing enfued but m^rrnuring ; no ill con-*
fequencc at all.^—

7 or 80c fouls are kept in the work-
houfe of this city for' 7 or 8000/. a year in
all €x.pences.

In refpc<ft to the prefent ftate of the ma-
nufa(^ure, it is neither brifk, nor very dull.
They could execute more orders than they
|iav€ j and fome among them complain be*
' ' caule


caiife they have not fo great a trade as
during the war ; for then they could not
anfwer the demand, it was fo uncommonly-
great (from 1743 to 1763 was their famous
aera). This was however owing in fome
pieafure to many manufad:urers exporting
fo largely on fpeculation, that the markets
have been overftocked ever fince; — and
have occafioned that falling off which has
been perceived fince. — Indeed the unfor-
tunate difference fubfifting between Great
Britain and the colonies is a great injury
to them.

They now do not fend any thing to
North America ; but much to the Wejl^
Indies. Their foreign export is, to







All Flanders



AW the Baltic ex-


cept Swederiy


where they are



In 70 years laft pad, the manufadure is
increafed as from 4 to 1 2 .

During the laft war, Norwich fupplied
'^ ' - 4- the


the army and navy with 4000 recruits *,
but her manufadures did not fufFer in the
leafl: : for they carried on more trade than
ever. — The truly induftrious do not enlift ;
and as to the idle, the greateft favour to be
done to any place is to fvveep them all away*
They are in this city curious in. building
with flint ; they cut it in regular fquares,
and form as neat joints as with the beft
bricks. The Bridewell is thus built, and
fo well executed, that it is worth a traveller 'i

The general amount of the Norwich
manufacture may be calculated thus.
A regular export to Rotterdam
by fhipping, every 6 weeks,
of goods to the amount of
per ajinumy - - j(^. 480,000

26 tons of goods fent by broad-
wheeled waggons weekly to
luondon^ at 500/. a ton on an
average, 13000 tons per mi^
7211771 : Value, - - 676,000

By occafional fhips and waggons
to various places ; calcu-
lated at, - - - 200,000



Upon a reconfideration of this table, it
was thought that the 676,000 /. by waggons,
was rather too high : fuppofe therefore only
10,000 tons, it is then 520,000/.; and the
total 1,200,000 /.

• Another method taken to calculate the
amount was, by adding up the total fum>
fuppofed to be returned annually by every
houfe in Norwich ; and this method made
it 1,150,000/. This fum coming fo near
the other, is a ftrong confirmation of it.

A third method taken, was by various
ways to calculate the number of looms :
thefe were made 12,000 ; and it is a com-
mon idea in Norwich to fuppofe each with
all its attendants works 1 00 /. per ann. : —
this alfo makes the total 1,200,000 /.; which
fum, upon the whole, appears to be very
near the real truth.

Refpe£ting the proportion between the
-original material, and the labour employed
upon it, they have a very fure and eafy
method of difcovering it. The average
value of a piece of ftuff is 50/. : it weighs
6 lb, at 10 d. 2l lb. which is 5 f. ; fo the
material is a tenth of the total manufadture.


Total, - - - ^.1,200,006

A tenth, - « » 120,000

Amount of labour .- 1,080,000

In which is included the profit of the maf-
ter minufadurer.*— There is no occafion to
feparatc that from the grofs fum^ as it is in
fad: labouf as much as the manual part.
All the people maintained and employed
by a manufacture are the fame in a publick
view, whether they earn 10,000/* a year,
or but 10/.

The material point remaining is to dif-
cover how many people are employed to
earn the publick one million per annum \
and for this calculation I have one datuni
which is to the purpofe. They generally
imagine in Norwich^ that each loom em-
ploys 6 perfons in the whole ; and as the
number is 12,000, there are confequently
72,000 people employed by this manufac-
ture. And this is a frefh confirmation of
the preceding accounts j for I was in gene-
ral told that more hands worked out of ^
Not^wich, for many miles around, than iii
it. 1,200,000/. divided by 72^000, gives
16/. each for the earnings of every perfon*



This, I muft confefs, appears to me a
very large fum ; for I have no conception
of all the perlbns employed earning i6A
a year, which is ij". a day ; if therefore any
miftake is in the preceding account, it muft
be in the number of looms.^ — The total amount
of the manufacture is taken from clear fads
(not fuppofitions) there muft confequently
be looms fufficient to work to that amount,
1 6/. a year may not be much above the
truth, though probably yJ/??^M/;7|f ; for we
iliould confider that women and boys of
15 or 16, earn as much as moft of the
men : whereas in various other manufac-
tures with which I am acquainted, they do
not nearly equal them : and we fhould fur*
ther corifider, that we include in this 16/,
a year, the whole profit of the mafter ma-
nufadurer. — The deviation therefore from
fad, cannot be very confiderable. For if
the mafter manufadurer*s profit is calculated
at 14 per cent, and deduced accordingly,
this 1 6 /. a year is thereby reduced to about
ji I /. II J", a year.—
It may therefore be taken as no contempti-
>le fad, that 70 or 80 thoufand people
imployed in a manufadure, whatever it
Vol, II. G may


may be, will earn 1,000,000/. a year. I
fay whatever it may be ; becaufe I conceive
that the variations of earnings in the gene-t
ral number not to be very great. — ^Provi-s
fions are pretty much on a par ; and few
pf them more than work to live.




TH E hufDandry near Norwich is ge-
nerally good. About Karlham
farms rife from 50/. to 200/. a year; the
foil a loamy fand with both marie and chalk
under it. Lets from 14J. to 20 j". an acre j
average 1 6 j.

The rent from Norwich to Tarmouth is
about ij\s.

The courfe of crops,

1 . Turnips only 8 lb. and |

2. Barley or oats a peck ray-grafs

3 . Clover, 9 or I o lb, 4. Wheat
of feed ; but if 5, Barley,
with ray-grafs,

This latter crop of barley is unworthy a
Norfolk man. Another courfe is,

1. Turnips 4. Peafe

2. Barley 5. Wheat.

3. Clover

They plough once for wheat, fow 3 bufliels,
and reap 2 quarters. For barley they
plough thrice, fow 3 bufliels, and reckon
tb.e average crop at 3 { quarters. For oat^
G 2 after


after turnips they flir as often as for barley,
but if they fow them after wheat only once,
which is a diftindtion I do not comprehend i
why the kind, when it is fo run, fhould not
be favoured as w^ell as when clover is to be
fown. They fow 4 bufhels ; the crop 4
(quarters. For peafe they give but one
earth ; of the w^hite fort they fow 4 bulliels,
but of the grey only 2 — never hoe them 5
the crop 3 quarters.

They give 4 earths for turnips, hand-
hoe twice. They have a particular method
of ufmg them, they draw the lands alter-
nately ; draw one and cart the turnips on
to a clover lay, then leave one, then draw
another ; and fo on. Thofe they carry off
they give to beafts for fatting, or to milch
cows, with a crib of ftraw^ in the field j
and the remainder of the crop they feed on
the land w^th fheep, and fometimes with
beafts. — The crops are in value, from 21 j.
to 4/. 10 s. ; average about 40 j". fed off*.

They mow the firft and fecond growths
of clover for hay ; which they do not only
on account of the hay, but under the ex-
perimental certainty of the wheat that fuc-
cecds being much better than after feeding:

I repeated


I repeated my enquiries on this head, to
knuw if it was only a private opinion, or a
'general obfervatioa and pradice; and I
was anfwercd the latter.

Buck-wheat they plough twice fori
and always mow it for feed ; then they
dung the ftubble, and fow wheat on one
earth, in which method they never fail of
good crops of that grain.

Carrots are not an uncommon crop here.
They plough up the ftubble del^.gned for
them in autumn, and on that ploughing
manure with long yard dung, lo loads an
acre; w^hich they turn in by a trench
ploughing, with two ploughs, one a pair
of horfes, and the other follow^ing in the
fame furrovv^ with 4. In February the feed
is harrowed in. It is generally 2 months
before the carrots come to the hoe ; they
have three hoflings given, at the expence
of a guinea an acre. They take up the
I crop with a three pronged fork, as it is
wanted, never flowing them for fecurity in
a houfe. I could find no clear idea of the
quantity produced on an acre, nor of any
other value than that of i /. 2 d. per buncli
of 120, as large as a man's wrift ; which
G 3 is


is the price of Norwich market. Barley i$
always Town after them.

The bell farmers chop their ftubbles for
manure ; but it is not general. All ftack
their hay at home.

They have good marie all over the coun-
try, but not much ufed. But Mr. Henry
Raven of Brammerton^ has introduced
claying; he lays 70 loads an acre with
great fuccefs. — The only ufe made here of
marie is however a very good one; they
form compofts of it with earth, farm-yard
dung, &c. and mixing them well together,
fpread it for turnips, and find very great
benefit from the practice.

Afhes they ufe fometimes on llrong wet

They do not fold their fheep.

Soot they lay on grafs lands, and alfo on
wheat in the fpring ; 30 bulhels an acre, at
6d.: It does great fervice for one crop, and
is fometimes of benefit to the fucceeding one.

Malt-duft they ufe in the fame manner ;
40 bufhels an acre, at 4 d.

Norwich manure of all forts they have
for I Si 2L four horfe cart load ; they ufe
much of it, and find it anfwers greatly.



Grafs land lets from 40 j. to 3/. an acre;
but about Brammerton at only 10 s, An
acre will, about Norwich^ carry a cow
through the fummer ; but at Brammerton
it takes i |. Dairies let at 3/. 5/. to 3/.
10/. a cow. At Brammerton they keep
about a hog to every cow.

A dairy-maid will take care of 20 cows ;
fome will undertake 30. The winter food
of cows turnips, and ftraw in the yard

Swine fatten to 1 6 ftone.

Flocks of fheep at Earlha??t are from
.300 to 600 ; but few at Brammerton,

The profit,

Lamb, - - ^,076

Wool, - - -.010


The winter food turnips.

In their tillage, they reckon 6 horfes
iieceflary for 1 00 acres of arable land ; ufe
2 in a plough, and do 2 acres a day, 5
inches deep. The price is. td. an acre.
They cut much ftraw into chafF.

The time of ploughing ftubbles for a fal-
low, autumn.

G 4 They


They reckon, on hiring farms, that
three rents will ftock.

Freehold eflates fell at 27 years purchafe ;
copyhold 22.

Tythes are generally compounded^

Poor rates at Brammerton 2 s. in the
pound. At Earlham \s. 9 ^. They are
in both places doubled in twenty years.

Particulars of a farm at Brammerton,

ioo Acres in all

36 Barley

90 Arable

18 Turnips

ID Grafs

18 Clover

^.65 Rent

I Man

j; Horfes

I Boy

8 Cows

I Maid

i8 Acres Wheat

I Labourer.


For the harveft, 2 /. z s. and board.

In hay-time, i s. 6d. and beer.

In winter, i j-. and beer at Brammerton ; i j,

zd, at Earlham.
Mowing grafs, is,6d. an acre and beef*
Hoeing turnips, 4/. and 2J-.
Filling cart, 25 s. per 120 loads.
Firft man's wages, 10/. ioj".
Second ditto, 6 /. 6 s.



Lad's, 3/.

Dairy-maid's, 4/. 4/.

Other ditto, 3 /.

Rife of labour in zc years a fixth.


Bread, - - J \ d. per lb*

Cheefc, - - 11

Butter, - - 7

Beef, - - 3i

Mutton, - - 3 i

Veal, - - 3

Bacon, - - 6

Milk, - - \ d. per pint.

Potatoes, - - 6 per peck*

Candles, "• - 7 per lb,

Houfe-rent, 4/. out oi Norwich »

-— In ditto, 2/. IOJ-*

Firing in ditto, 40 j,
in the country, zos.

Nockold Thompfon^ Efq; of Norwich^ has
executed fome experiments at Earlham^
which will prove fufEciently how capable
the country is of improvement.

When this gentleman began farming,

his land yielded very poor crops, being all

in extreme bad order. None of the fields

, produced



produced more than 2 or 2 f quarters of
barley ; no wheat was grown, only rye^
and that indifferent : nor did the clover ot
turnips amount in weight to half what he
now gains. The following is the regiflei*
of his fields.

No. I. Five acres,
Manured, 1 2 loads an acre, with a com^
pofl made of Norwich dung, marie, and
earth, in equal quantities, and fown with
barley ; the crop very good.
This year it yielded colefeed ; was hand-
boed like turnips, and weeded ; the pro-
duce 4 f quarters per acre ; fold for 10 L
This pradtice of hand-hoeing colefeed can-
not be too much commended ; it is no where

Manuring for wheat.

No. II. Nme acres.

Yielded barley after wheat, 3 f quarters!

per acre.


Manured with compofl as above : Town

3 ' with


with turnips ; carted half off, and the
other half fed on the land : the crop would
have fold, from the great fcarcity, for from

I 5/. to 7/. an acre.



No. m. Nine acres,
Manured with the compoft for turnips ;
half fed off as above; the value 2/, 10 s^
Some of them came to 14/!^. weiglit.
Barley, 3 quarters an acre.

Qover mown ; 3 loads of hay an acre at
! one cutting, 46 j-. a load.

No. IV. EIcDen acres,
Manured as above with compoft ; and
fown with barley : the produce 2 | quarters
an acre.

Again manured with ditto.— Qover,
mown for hay, a load an acre,
Wheat ; will be 3 I; quarters.


No. V. Twelve acres,
Manured as above with the compoft for
wheat, on a clover lay. The produce 4
quarters an acre*

Barley, 2 f quarters an acre.

Manured again with the compoft, and
fown with turnips ; the crop very fine*

No. VI. Eleven acresi.
Barley after clover, the crop 3 | quarters*

Manured with the compoft, and fown
with turnips ; the crop very good*
Oats ; at leaft 5 quarters.

No. VII. Eleven acreSi
A corky foil ; manured wuth the compcfl:
for clover.

Peafe, 2 quarters.



Manured for carrots and turnips ; fine.


No. VIII. Nine acres,

1 A clover lay in 1767, manured with the
-.ompoft for wheat ; the produce 4 quarters
vr acre,


Barley, 2 I quarters,
Manured w^ith compofl for cabbages and
urnlps ; the crops extremely fine.

No. IX. Seven acres and an half,
Manured with the compoft for turnips j
ihe value 3 /. an acre.

i: 1769-

t Barley, 2 \ quarters.

I 1770-

I Clover, 3 loads an acre.

!j No. X. Eleven acres,

\ 1768.

j An old meadow broken up in 1766 for

')ats, and oats again in 1767 ; clover with

hem ; marled the clover lay, 70 loads an

icre ; fed the crop with horfes, cows and



Manured with the compoft for wheat |
the crop 4 f quarters per acre.
Barley j a good crop*

No. XI. T^hree acres and a7i half ,

Manured with compofl: for turnips ; the
crop very fine.

Lucerne In drills.

pitto, manured with compoft.

No. XII. Seventeen acres^
Barley, 3 | quarters.

Clover ; manured with the compoft j
the ci;op a load and half of hay.


Wheat ; proraifes fair for 4 quarters.

No. XIII. Seven acres and an half,

Barley, 3 \ quarters.


Clover, I I load. Manured with com-^


I Charlton peafe, and white ditto — the
latter the beft.

No. XIV. Seven acres,
Turnips, manured with compoft j worth
3/. an acre.

Barley, 3 quarters.

Clover, 3 loads hay.

No. XV. Eleven acres,
Peafe ; white and grey : the white 3 \
j . quarters : the grey, i f .

! 1769-

Manured with compoft for turnips ; the

crop a fine one.

Oats, very good.

Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 2) → online text (page 4 of 24)