Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) online

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The Regifter of a Journey through various Counties

of this Kingdom, to enquire into the State

of Agriculture, &c.


I. The particular Methods of
cultivating the Soil.

II. The Conduct of live Stock,
and the modern Syftem of

III. The State of Population, the
Poor, Labour, Provifions, &c.

IV. The Rental and Value of

the Soil, and its Divifion int»
Farms, with various Circum-
ftances attending their Size
and State.
V. The Minutes of above five
hundred original Experiments,
communicated by feveral of
the Nobility, Gentry, &c.


Other Subjects that tend to explain the prefent State of
English Husbandry.

By the Author of the Farmer's Letters, and the
Tours through the North and South of England.

v a l. in.


Printed for W. Strahan; W. Nicoll, No. 51, St.

Paul's Church-Yard; B. Collins, at Salifbury ;

and J. Balfour, at Edinburgh.






TJUSBANDRT from Morden u

^ St. Mary's Cray, Page i to 17. ,


Hujbandry from St. Mary's Cray to Can-
terbury. — Mr. Hilton'j Trials. — Mr,
JacobV in Planting. — Mr. Crowe\f on
Madder, - - 1 8 to 42.


The Hujbandry of Eaft Kent and the Ifle of
Thanet. — Sir Thomas Hales'j Experi-
ments on Hops. — Mr. TaylorV. — Mr,
Reynolds';-. — Mr. HarrifonV. — Ifle of
Thanet. — Obfervations on the Husbandry
£^Eaft Kent and the Ifle of Thanet,

43*0 no,
Husbandry from Sandwich to Rye,

no to 117.



Husbandry through the County ^Suflex.-—
Mr. Pooled Experiments. — -Mr. Hol-
royd'-c — Mr. VernonY Lucerne. — Mr,
Nalli'j- Experiment. •— Mr. Turner'/. —
Mr. Bui IV," - Page 1 17 to 177.


The Iflc of Wight, - 178 to 202,

Husbandry^ Wrough Part -rf Hampshire. —
Mr. Rodney-' j- Experiments^ Mr. Mit-
- ford' s on Planting. — New Foreft,

202 to 244,


Mr. Sturt'j Experiments^ — Critchill. —

Brownfca Ijland^ \ ' 245/2270.


From Critchill to Dorch cfter.— :Mr. Framp-

ton'i Experiments. — Mr. MawdeV. —

' Dr. LloydV Lucerne^- 271 to 325.

5rfo Sheep Husbandry of Dorfetfhire. — Mr'
Damcr\r Experiments. — Mr. PleydellV.
"Lord MiltonV. — Obfervations on theDor-
fetfhire Husbandry, '326 to 412*

Vale of Taunton. — Mr. AnderdonV Expe-
riments, ,- - 412 to 483,






THE following is the flate of the
common hufbandry about Mordon—
in which parifh Mr. Arbuthnofs farm is

Farms from 50 acres to 500 ; in general
about 1 40. The foil either clay, or a good
ftrong loam on clay ; lets on an average at
12 s. Tythe 3^. and poor rates is. more.
The courfes of crops ;

1 . Fallow, dunged 2. Wheat
for 3. Beans,

Vol. III. B



1. Fallow 4. Clover ,dunged for

2. Wheat 5. Wheat

3. Cats 6. Oats.


1. Turnips 4. Wheat

2. Barley 5. Winter tares.

3. Clover.

Wheat produces on an average 3 quar-
ters per acre ; barley 4 quarters, and oats 5.

They have two ways of cultivating beans,
one to low them, and not to hoe ; the pro-
duce 3 quarters. The other is to fet them
in rows 12 inches afunder and to hoe them,
in which method they get 4 quarters : an
argument in favour of hoeing that ought
to extirpate the common method. — Of peafe
they do not get more than 2 quarters on a
medium. Clover they mow twice for hay ;
and get at the two cuttings three loads
an acre. The quantity of turnips fown
is but trifiing, nor do they value them
at more than 30^. an acre. The winter
tares are ail ufed for foiling horfes. — They
bring from London much horfe dung and
fame top dreffirigs. Their yard dung is
not made in large quantities, as their wheat

nr aw


ftraw is all fold — and they do not cut the

They bring chalk from Sutton, 2 \ miles
off ; mix it with dung and earth : if they
lay it on alone, they fpread 12 loads an
acre, at \d. a load, and 3 J - . §d. carriage;
4 J", a load in all : it lafts 6 or 7 years.

In their tillage they ufe 4 or 5 horfes in
a plough, and all at length ; do I acre a
day from 4 to 6 inches deep ; the price 10;.
They keep their horfes from Oflober to
May, both inclufive, on hay and corn,
allowing 2 bufhels of oats per horfe per
week ; but while at tares, in fummer, only
1 bufhel. They keep them in the ftable
till they have done the tares, and then turn
them out to after-grafs.

As to fheep, they breed fome on the
commons ; the profit lamb and wool ; fome
wether lambs they fat, and fell fome old ewes
lean or fat every year — they fold them
only in the fummer.

An ewe pays,

In lamb, - - £.0 7 o

— wool, - - 016


B 2 Molt


Moft of their cows are fuckled ; reckon
them not to pay more than 4/. ; but they
are kept pretty much on the commons. — A
farm :

120 Acres in all 130 Sheep

10 Grafs 10 Swine

1 10 Arable 28 Acres Wheat

£.70 Rent 20 Oats

9 Horfes 20 Beans

6 Cows 4 Peafe

5 Young cattle 28 Fallow

About Cbeam are fome variations; the
foil is chiefly a chalky loam at 10s. an acre ;
but half the country common fields.
Their courfes :

1. Rye for fheep and 3. Clover
then turnips 4. Wheat.

2. Barley


1. Fallow 3. Clover fed

2. Wheat 4. Beans or oats.
Wheat yields on an average 3 quarters ;

Barley 4 ; Oats 5 ; Beans 3 ; Peafe 3 on
the lighter foils ; Turnips they reckon at
1/. 15/.; feed all on land; and Clover at
one cutting 1 f load ; worth 30J. a load on
the fpot.



Rye, for fpring feed, they begin to feed
early, but in general from March to May-
day ; if it was inclofed they would begin at
Chrijlmas, but in the open fields are forced
to be later. One acre inclofed, they reckon,
will keep 5 couple 2 months well. Winter
tares they fow for foiling horfes ; begin the
middle of Aprils and laft a month ; then
fummer tares come in, and laft till Michael-
mas. They keep fowing tares every week
from Michaelmas to the end of "Jimc. They
fucceed the winter fown ones with turnips.
One acre will keep 5 horfes a month.

They have fome fainfoine on their
chalks ; fow it with barley or oats : They
find that it will laft on poor land 12 years,
but not more than 7 on good foils. They
generally mow it for hay ; on good land
get 2 loads ; and half as much on bad :
they reckon it worth 30J. a load at home.

They are attentive to the purchafe of
manures. They bring much dung from
London, which coils 2;. a load, as much
as 4 horfes can draw ; the carriage ioj.
more ; of this they fpread 8 loads per acre.

Alfo trotters at 8 s. a quarter : thefe they

do not think fo good as the fame value in

B 3 dung*


dang. They fow 3 quarters an acre oil
light land, with wheat feed. They alfo life
chalk; lay 12 loads an acre; reckon it
does beft on flrong land. It mellows
and makes it kindlier ; lafts 6 or 7 years.

Soot they ftrow on fainfoine and clover,
20 bufhels an acre, at 6d.

Alfo peat afhes, 16 bufhels, at 6d. ; bring
it 1 2 miles : This they reckon better than

Flocks of fheep rife to 300 ; they do
not fold them in winter ; 300 will fold 2
acres in 3 weeks. In eating turnips they
pen them in corners and head-lands littered
with ftraw, and fo cart the dung and earth
away. Their general management is to buy
Wiltshire lambs and wethers in the fpring
at 16 j. to zos. and at that time twelvemonth
fell them fat from turnips and hay ; they
can have them kept on turnips at 3^/. a
week. An acre, they reckon, will laft 1 00
fheep from 1 to 2 weeks, but they muft
have fome clover hay with it. If they buy
at20j. they fell at 28J. or 30^. and get 3-r.
6 d. more by the wool ; profit in all 1 2 s %
6d. befides the fold.

Ewes of the fame breed they buy at

Michaelma s


Michaelmas at 18/. or 20*. ; thefe they
turn into the ftubbles till Chrijlmas, when
they put them to turnips, on which they
are kept till May-day ; then the rye comes
in for them ; clovers follow that ; and in
'July they fell the lambs fat at 20 s. ; after
which they fat the ewes, and fell them in
March at 2 6 j - . or 2js- t the wool is. 6d.
This appears to be a very profitable fyftenv





, 1



Prime coft,


l 9






Moft of the farmers fuckle their cows,
and get 5 /. a head by it.

In their tillage they reckon 5 horfes ne-
ceffary for 1 00 acres arable ; life 4 or 5 in a
plough, and do an acre a day : cut about 5
inches deep ; the price in ftrong land 10s. ;
in light 7 J.

They allow their horfes all the year 2

bufhels of oats and beans mixed, worth 2 s

6 a 1 . a bufhel, and 3 trufs of hay per horfe

per week. — Tares are inftead of hay, not

B 4 corn.


corn. Shoeing 15 J", a horfe. Farrier and
decline of value, 4/. — Their teams are im-
menfely expenfive in corn.

Tythes are generally gathered : rates 2 x.
6 d. in the pound.

Mr. William Neat of this place, to whom
I am indebted for this account, tried 5
acres of white hotfpur peafe in the drill way.
The foil a hazel loam on chalk. The rows
equally diftant, 10 inches : and 3 acres ad-
joining were fown broad-caft at the fame
time ; each 2 f bufhels of feed. Both were
hand-hoed once. The crop 2 quarters
5 bufhels per acre on the broad-caft, and 3
quarters on the drill. The price 8 s. a
bufliel ; 24^. an acre fuperiority is fufficient
to decide the benefit of drilling.

There are alfo fome variations at CW-
dington, a neighbouring parifh. The foil
is either clay — or a hazel loam on chalk ;
lets from 14^. to 20 .r. an acre the inclofed.
The courfe of crops ;

1. Turnips 3. Clover

2. Barley 4. Wheat,
This on the lighter foils.

1. Fallow 3. Beans*

2. Wheat



For heavy land ; the cart before the horfe.

Wheat yields 3 quarters an acre ; Barley
4 quarters ; Oats 5 ; Beans 2 § ; Peafe 2 ;
Turnips 1 /. 1 5 x. ; and Clover at two mow-
ings 3 loads an acre; worth 40 s. a load on
the fpot : 5 ox. to 3/. 10s. at London.

They do not fow fainfoine, becaufe they
reckon the loam too deep for it. It is 18
inches before you come to the chalk. By
the way, this depth cf loam on chalk is
the fineft foil in the world. It is all non-
fenfe to fuppoie that fainfoine will not thrive
on it.

They fuckle all their cows : 5 /. the pro-
duct. They feed them in fummer on the
meadows and clover ; one acre of grafs at
20 s. will fummer feed a cow. In winter
they are fed on ftraw when dry, at other
times on hay, grains, malt-duft, &c. A
cow will eat a bufhel a day of grains, at
1 s. a quarter befides carriage, and a peck of
malt-duft, 6d. a buihel befides carriage.
This food makes the cows give a great
quantity of thin milk, but it does well for

Suckling ewes they reckon the moft pro-
fitable management of fheep ; if they are

2 not


not kept, wethers are beft. They buy in
Wiltjbire wethers at Michaelmas, half fat,
at 25 J". ; thefe they put immediately to tur-
nips, and fell them in March and April at
32 j - . Six acres of good turnips will fat
50 fhecp, but they will eat 2 loads of
clover hay befides.

In their manuring they depend chiefly
on London ; they lay 10 loads an acre of
common dung, which colls them ys. car-
riage included. — Soot they fpread on clover;
and malt-duft on clover and green wheat in
fpring. Trotters 8 quarters an acre, at 6/.
lafls 2 crops. They lay 20 loads of chalk
an acre — not as an enricher, but to make
the clay work more mellow,

Their tillage the fame as the preceding.

In the hiring farms they reckon 2000/.
neceflary for one of 300 /. a year.

Particulars of a farm here.

350 Acres in all 200 Sheep

50 Grafs 60 Swine

300 Arable 6 Men

£.300 Rent 4 Boys

15 Horfes 1 Maid

20 Cows 9 Labourers

30 Young cattle 80 Acres wheat


50 Barley 30 Turnips

50 Oats 40 Fallow

20 Beans 50 Clover.
5 Peafe

Labour, provlfions, &c, in thefe places
are as follow —


In harveft and hay-time, 2 s. and board.
In winter, is. 6d. a day.
Reaping, js. to ioj-.
Mowing corn, 1 s. j^d. to 2 s.

grafs, is. to 4-r.

Mow, make, and cock, gs. to ioj-. 6d.
Hedging and ditching, 6 d. to 8 d. a rod.
Hoeing turnips, 51. to yj. the firft; 4J.
6</. to 5 J", the fecond.

beans, 5 J", to 7/.

Head-man's wages, 10/. ioj*.

Next ditto, 8 /. to 9 /.

Lad's, 6/.

Women in harveft, is. zd. to is. 6d.

- « hay time, ij". 2 d.

winter, gd.

Maid's, 2/. to 4/.

12 THE





1 § d. per pound.



7 to \od.








v - i,











i to I £ <?. jter pint.



7 peck.

Labourer's rent, 3/. to 4/.

■ — firing, 40 s.

tools, 5 s.

A waggon, 16/.
A broad wheel cart, 20/.
A plough, 1 /. ioj-.
An ox harrow, 6 /.
Horfe ditto, 3 /.
Roller, 2/. 10 j.
Laying a fhare, 8*/.

— coulter, \d.

Shoeing, is.

Bricks, per 1000, 16s. to 24^.
Oak timber, 1 s. 2 d. to 1 s. 8 </.



Afla, is. id.

Elm, is.

Soft wood, 6d. to io</.

Carpenter, per day, 2 s. 6d.

Mafon, 34-.

Thatcher, 3 s.

From this part of Surry, I turned to-
wards Kent by Carfialton, in which
neighbourhood farms are in general final 1,
though one or two rife fo high as from
200/. to 600/. a year: the foil, in general,
a light hazel mould on chalk, from fix
inches to two feet deep : the average rent
\os. : the open fields 3/. to ys. 6d. and the
inclofures 20s. Their courfes ;

1. Turnips

5. Wheat

2. Wheat

6. Barley

3. Barley

7. Oats.

4. Clover

As vile a one

as I have mot with this

many a day.

1. Turnips

4. Wheat

2. Barley

5. Barley or oats.

3. Clover


1. Turnips

4. Peafe

2. Barley

5. Wheat.

3. Clover


This is a very peculiar courfe, and a
very bad one : good clover always enfures
good wheat, if fown directly on it ; but
introducing peafe, which are an uncertain
crop, between, the cafe is altered at once :
you are as likely to have a bad as a good
crop of wheat : the peafe mould follow
the wheat. Their crops are,

Of wheat, three quarters.

Of barley, four quarters.

Of oats, from three to five quarters.

Of peafe, two and a half ; but they never

Of beans, three and a half; never hoe.

They hand-hoe their turnips once or
twice, and feed them all on the land with
fiieep : reckon the value 40 s. an acre.
Their clover they mow twice for hay, of
which they get three loads at the two
cuttings ; but, when they feed it, they
reckon the wheat that follows is beft. On
the hills, they mix ray-grafs with it for
fheep : they have a notion here, that
turning fheep in the fpring, frefh into ray-
grafs, kills them often with the white
fcower : to what particularly this is owing
I could not difcover ; but I never heard it



mentioned as common in thofe countries
where ray-grafs is ufcd in vail quantities.

They low both winter and fummer tares
for feeding iheep, which do as well on
them as on any other food ; but Mr.
Mundey^ of this place, thinks it better to
mow and carry them on to a lay for the
{heep : they uie fome for foiling horfes.
One acre will keep four a month.

Sainfoine they fow on the hills, four
bufhels of feed an acre : it lafts from ten
to twenty years : they mow it conftantly
for hay, of which they get a load and a
half per acre, worth 40 s. a load on the
fpot, and the after-grafs worth ioj, Some
buck-wheat is alfo fown ; five pecks of
feed ; the crop two and a half or three
quarters : they give it to horfes, and
reckon that four bufhels are as good as
fix of oats. They fold their fheep all th e
year through : 2000 will fold an acre
at a time ; and once in a place will be as
good as ten loads of dung ; and they ob-
ferve to change the manure from fold to
yard dung. It is afferted, that Ewe/ fair
is kept on an arable field, which is folded
till the furface is quite a dunghill, and
4 yet


yet the crops are poor, which is owing to
a want of change ; but I will venture to
remark, that a change of crops would turn
out very differently. Lime has been burnt
here, and tried on all the poor foils ; but
never did the leaft fervice.

They never chop their ftubbles.

Chalk is drawn out of pits ; 30 loads
an acre, at 20s. but the farmer finds one
horfe and two fmall carts. It will laft 40
years. It is a hard chalk, that makes the
land mellow, and cleans it from weeds,
Mr. Mundey thinks, the foils that bear
wild forril want chalk.

Good grafs land lets at 20s. an acre ;
they mow it for hay, and get two loads an
acre. An acre will keep a cow through
the fummer. Their flocks rife to 2000.
The profit of Wiltjlrire ewes, worth 22 s.
each, will be ;

Lamb, - - - £.0 13 o



Ditto of the lamb,



15 6

A flock,


A flock, confifting of 1000 ewes, and
500 tegs, will yield annually,
600 lambs, at 1 5 J".
200 ditto, at 12 s.
200 ditto, at ioj-*
In folding, Mr. Mundey reckons, that
100 ewes will dung more land than 140

In their tillage, they reckon five horfea
neceffary for 100 acres arable: they ufe
three or four in a plough, and do one
acre a day : the price ys. an acre.

The particulars of a farm here :
2000 Acres in all 200 Acres wheat
1600 Arable 200 Barley

400 Grafs 100 Oats

2000 Sheep 10 Beans

34 Horfes 60 Peafe

60 Cows 450 Clover

25 Young cattle 140 Turnips
100 Swine 200 Fallow

1 Man 80 Sainfoine

20 Labourers 160 Ray-grafs.

As I (hall enter Kent, before I take
any other minutes* it will be proper here
to conclude this letter.

I am, &c
Vol. III. C



ABOUT St. Marfs-Cray, land lets
from ioj-. to 2oj. an acre; the
average 14 /. The courfe ;

1. Turnips 3. Clover

2. Barley 4. Wheat.

The wheat crops three quarters per acre,
on a medium ; the barley five, and oats
five or fix ; turnips are worth 40 s. or 50 j.
and clover, at two mowings, yields three
loads of hay. Peafe they drill in equally-
diftant rows, two feet afunder, gather the
pods, and then fow turnips, of which they
get in this manner fine crops. When their
peafe are for feed, they fow them broad-
caft : they ufe chalk as a manure, and
find it anfwers greatly.

Here I firft obferVed turnwreft ploughs in-
general ufe.

Three miles from Dart for J, in Mr.
Calcrqft'& * neighbourhood) both the foil


* This gentleman's villa here is in a beautiful
fituation : his lawn fkirts the Thames, on a bold
fhore, and the view cf the mips failing, through
the ftems of the fcattered trees, very pi&urefque.


and culture are extraordinarily £ood : the
land is a very fine loam on chalk, and a
frefh inftance of the excellency of that foil.
It lets from ioj-. to 30 s. average 20s.
Their courfes ;

1. Turnips 4. Wheat.

2. Barley And fome add,

3. Clover 5. Peafe.


1. Turnips 4. Clover

2. Barley 5. Peafe

3. Oats 6. Barley.

Which is not equal to the firft : the greateft
objection to it is the oats and barley
coming together, and clover with the fe-
cond. Their crops are very confiderable.

Wheat fo high as five quarters ; the
average four.

Barley up to ten ; the average eight.

Oats fix or feven quarters.

This is not equal to the others ; but is
owrng to their b eing a fecond crop : a
proof, by the way, of the bad hufbandry
of making them fo.

Peafe and Beans, from four to fix quar-
ters : both are always drilled and hand-
hoed once or twice.

C 2 Sainfoine


Sainfoine lafts fixteen or feventeen
years, and yields, on their pooreft lands,
two load6 of hay an acre, and an after-
grafs worth ioj". : their clover they mow
once for hay, and get one and a half or
two loads an acre.

Chalk they ufe on their heavy lands
with great fuccefs.

About Nortbfleet, which is a little fur-
ther eaft, the foil continues equally good :
lets at 20J-.

Wheat yields, on an average, four

Barley fix.

Oats ieven or eight.

Peafe four to ieven.

Beans four to eight.

Both the latter are drilled, horfe and
hand-hoed, and wheat generally fown after
them : a ftrong inftance of the excellence
of the hufbandry, to gain fuch noble crops,
and fubftitute them at the fame time for a
fallow. But little fainfoine here.

At Chalk I had the fatisfaction of feeing-
the piece of broad-cafl: lucerne, (one acre
and a half) which I mentioned four years
ago in my Six Weeks Tour, It belongs to



Mr. Butcher, is feven years old, regu-
larly mown for foiling horfes, and keeps
fix from May-day till Michaelmas.

Four horfes per acre, at 5 /. per

horfe per week, 18 weeks, £. rS o o

Mr. Bannijier y of the fame place, has
juft ploughed up fix acres, that were worn
out: the age 16 or 17 years. He gene-
rally mowed it thrice a year for hay, and
got two loads an acre at each cutting : the
value 3/. a load: this produce Iikewife is
18/. per acre. He has taken a crop of tur-
nips on the land, and defigns fowing it
down again to lucerne.

The foil here is all a fine black loam


with fome flones in it: lets at 17/. an

Obferving feveral turnwreft ploughs at
work, I walked fome bouts by thern, and
remarked, that the moveable mould-board
is fo narrow, that it lets the earth con-
flantly fall over it ; nor does it cut a level
furrow : they had four horfes and a driver
for working a field, fo light and fine, that
a Minorca draught of a jack-afs, and a
C 3 boar-pig,


boar-pig, would have been highly fufncient
for ftirring it.

From Shorn to Rochejler many beans,
and all drilled in rows equally diftant, 18
inches afunder, and many of them, for
feveral miles, with turnips between ; but
not promifing ones.

In the dock-yard at Chatham there is a
fmall field of lucerne, belonging to com-
mixTicner Hanway, in equally-diftant rows,
two feet afunder : the whole, I with plea-
fure remarked, was as clean as a garden ;
and yet, on examining a heap ready mown
for the horfes, I could not obferve it the
leaft gritty. — An obje&ion I have heard
offered againft thorough tilling the inter-*
vals of drilled lucerne, is the earth and
duft hanging to it as it falls from the
fey the ; but I apprehend the furface har-
dens fufheiently, during the growth of
the crop, to prevent that evil : for hoeing
can only be done while the crop is quite

Within two miles of Sittingbourn, • lane]
lets at 1 5 s. an acre : their crops ;

Wheat, three quarters and a half.

Barley, five.

j Peaie,


Peafe, three and a half.

Beans, five to eight.

Both peafe and beans are all drilled,
hand-hoed twice, and horfe-hoed as often.

All the horfe-hoeing, I have mentioned
in Kent, is done with the well-known im-
plement, the fhim.

Very little fainfoine here.

About Fever/ham, the foil is a rich*
black, deep loam: lets in general at 20;,
an acre; but hop-grounds 3/. 10s. ; at a
diftance it brings only 12/. Farms rife
from 20/. t0 2Co/. 70/.

To Maidjione twenty miles, fix good
land, fourteen hilly, either chalky or flones :
5/. an acre ; but much fainfoine on them.

From hence to Sittingbourn, rents are 20J.
an acre ; to Br ought on-hill, on the left fide of
the road, 20 j. on the right 12 s.\ but the woods
to Canterbury would not let for more than
5/. an acre ; the whole IJle of Sheepy, on
an average, lis. It is a flrong, clay foil,
full of pyrites ; marfhy, moftly grazing
land, applied to breeding and fattening
fheep they buy from Romney-Marfo.

The courfes of crops around FeverJIjam

C 4 1. Turnips


1. Turnips 4. Wheat

2. Barley 5. Barley or oat?.

3. Beans


1. Turnips 5. Barley

2. Barley 6. Beans

3. Clover, 1 year 7. Wheat.

4. Wheat

On the rich lands about Feverjham y

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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 19)