Arthur Young.

The farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) online

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on long improving leafcs. What fortunes
are here to be made by fpirited improvers !

For the following account of the common
hufbandry around Moreton^ the feat of
William Frampton^ Efq. I am indebted to
that gentleman.

Farms rife from 40/. to 700/. a year;
but are in general about 250/.

The foil a loam, on red or black gravel ;

[lets from 5/. to 40J. the average 12J. It

'is very obfervable, that the inclofcd farms

•here let 80 years ago at a higher rent than

at prefent : this is owing to fo confiderable

a part of the country being watered mea-

idows, the product of which (hay) fold

jrfhen at a much higher price, than fince

:lover and fainfoine have rivalled it. It

• s evident in every field, that all the en-

■zlofures have been gained from the va(l

•:ract of wafte, over part of which I came ;

he colour and the foil itfelf are the fame,

only improved. The general courfe of

':rops is,

1. Wheat 4. Clover and ray-

2. Barley grafs 2 years.



3. Barley






T 2 And



276 THE FARMER'S TOUR

And in one field in a large farm they will
have,

1. Wheat 4. Clover and ray-;

2. Turnips grafs.

3. Barley

And it is to be hoped, that this fingle field
will by and by abforb the whole farm ; for
the other courfe is a moft vile one. All
the return the land gets for three fucceflive
crops of white corn, is to lie to clover and
ray, which, fo managed, muft be full of
twitch grafs, and all forts of trumpery.

For wheat they plough once, fow three
bufhels, and get two or two quarters and a
half in return. On their thinneft land
they fow fome rye on one earth, fow two
bufhels, and get one quarter and a half.
For barley they ftir thrice, fow four bufhels,
the crop four quarters the firft, and two and
a half the fecond : a ftrong proof of the
tendency of fucceflive crops. They give
but one earth for oats, fow four bufhels,
the crop three quarters. When they fow
peafe, they plough once for them, ule fou r
bufhels ked of the Marlbro* greys, or two
and a half of the white ; never hoe them ;
the crop two quarters. For turnips they

plough



i



THROUGH ENGLAND. 277

I plough thrice ; fcarcely any hoeing ; feed
I them all off with Iheep ; the value 40 s.
an acre.

Their artificial grafs hufbandiy is rather
that of ray-grafs than clover, fowing a

uch greater proportion of it : they mow
t the firft year for hay, get one or one ton
nd a quarter, and afterwards feed it.

Winter tares they low to eat off green
fheep, beginning them the end of

iy.

In their manuring they depend chiefly
the fold ; wethers all the year ; in wili-
er on the lands for barley : but their ewes
)nly in fummer ; at which feafon they
•eckon an ewe fold the beft. They
eckon that 100 wethers will fold ten acres
wice in a place. They do not keep the
iheep two nights together in the fame
old, but come over it again. This I
hould think a very bad practice ; for half
the virtue of manuring lies in the ferment-
ation raifed in the foil, by the application
)f large quantities at once.

They ufe fome chalk on new lands ; lay
>4 cart loads an acre.

No chopping of ftubbles, and moft of
T 3 the



278 THE FARMER'S TOUR
the hay flacked about the fields for the
cattle. This is a wretched fyftem ; but \
fhould obferve, that Mr. F ramp ton haa
endeavoured with great propriety to check
this evil practice, by building to many of
his farms very complete cow-houfes, in
regular flails, with racks, and contrn
vances to give them their hay from be-
hind, where the hay-flacks for that pur-»
pofe are made. This is mod excellent
management, faves the fields from being
trodden and poached in winter, and raifea
a vail quantity of manure. What a moft
ufcful fyftem this would be if the wheat
ftubbles were all chopped, raked, and
flacked againft thefe houfes, to enfure the
greatefl plenty of litter !

Aflies they ufe with fuccefs for their
meadows.

Flaming hedges is practifed.

There are few tracts of good grafs land,
but watered meadows ; their rent is 30 jr.
for the two firfl crops : thefe are, firfl a
crop of fpring feed, and then one of hay ;
the product a ton and half; and, if not
fed in the fpring, two tons.

The breed of cattle long horns : the

cows






THROUGH ENGLAND. 279

cows give from 3 to 7$. of butter in a
week. They are let at 3/. 3J. to 4/. ;
total product 5/. 5 J", or 6/. Two or
three fows are kept, and the pigs bred by
them, to 40 cows. They reckon a dairy-
maid can take care of ten or twelve cows :
the winter food in general is hay in the
fields, and ftraw when dry : they reckon
to each cow one acre of hay, and half an
acre of barley ftraw. Calves for rearing
fuck from 8 to 1 2 weeks : this is flrangely
prepofterous.

Swine fatten from five to twenty fcore ;
flocks of Iheep rile from 500 to 1000.

The profit reckoned by lamb and wool is,
Lamb, - - £. o 8 o

Wool, - - 020



Total, - o 10



And the fold of a ewe they reckon at 1 s.
which is very little : the winter food is

. grafs and hay. Five hundred fheep re-
quire 200 acres of grafs for their fummer
food, and 20 tons of hay for that of winter :
their fleeces are about 3$.

( In tillage they reckon five horfes necef-

fary for 100 acres of arable land ; ufe three

or four in a plough, and do an acre a day ;

T 4 the



280


THE FARMER


's '


TOUR




the


depth four


inches, :


ind


the price $s.


an


acre. The


expence


of


a horfe


they


reckon,












Keeping,


-




£■7







Shoeing,


-


-





8




Decline of


value,


-


7


12



Total, - 15 o o

They know nothing of cutting ftraw
into chaff.

They ufe fingle wheel ploughs. In thd

hiring and flocking farms, they calculate

1200/. or 1300/. neceffary for one of 300/.

a year, which fum they divide thus :

12 Horfes, - - - £. 100

200
150
150

5
? - 12

60

27

4

2

< 3

Carryover, » « 716



60 Cows,


50 Young cattle,


200 Sheep,


Swine, -


Harnefs,


3 Waggons,


3 Carts,


3 Ploughs,


6 Harrows,


1 Drag, i


Rollers,



THROUGH ENGLAND. 281

Brought over, - £.716



Sundry implements,


20


Half a year's rent,


118


Tythe and town charges,


20


Furniture,


15°


Seed wheat, 40 acres,


30


Barley, 60,


30


Oats, 30,


*5


Clover, 40,


16


Houfe-keeping,


40


Wages,


20


6 Labourers,


100


Total,


*-75



Land fells at 30 years purchafe ; land-tax
at 4 j. is 2J.

Tythes both gathered and compounded ;
if the Litter, 3 s. in the pound.

Poor rates 1 j". ; 20 years ago 6d.- y em-
ployment fpinning and knitting : all drink
tea.

The farmers all have leafes ; they carry
their corn fix or feven miles.

LABOUR.

In harveft, is. and beer.
In hay-time, 1 s. and ditto.

In



zSz THE FARMER'S TOUR

In winter, i s.

Reaping, 5/.

Mowing corn, 1 s.

Grafs, is. Sd.

Planting a hedge ; the ditch, and making
two dead hedges, is. 3 d. ; value of the
wood 4*/. more; the dead hedge muft
be twice renewed to rear the quick.

Head-man's wages, 8/. 8/.

Next ditto, 5 /. 5 s.

Lad's, 3/.

Dairy-maid's, 3/.

Other ditto, 2/. ioj\

Rife of labour in 20 years one fixth.

PROVISION S.



Bread,




id. 1


Cheefe,




2,


Butter,




7 for


Beef,




n 1


Mutton,




3 1


Veal,




2 |


Pork,




3


Bacon,




7


Milk per


pint,


U



Labourer's houfe-rent, 1 /. 10 s.
Their firing from the commons.



THROUGH ENGLAND. 283

Particulars rf a farm.
j 000 Acres 60 Cows

400 Wafte heath 40 Young cattle

224 Grafs 300 Sheep

76 Woods 10 Horfes

296 Arable 5 Men

260/. Rent. N. B. 2 Boys
The 400 wafte, 2 Maids
and 76 wood, 6 Labourers,
are reckoned
only at 20/. rent.
Mr. Frampton is himielf a considerable
farmer, which will appear from the follow-
ing particulars of his farm.

800 Acres in all 100 Clover and ray
202 Watered mca- 30 Turnips

dow$ 8 Horfes

160 Meadow and 60 Cows

paftures 40 Young cattle

268 Arable 500 Sheep

170 Plantations 6 Sows

400/. Rent 3 Men

40 Wheat 1 Boy

80 Barley 8 Labourers.
20 Oats

The particular in which he is moll cu-
rious is the watered meadows. It appears

J from



z$4 THE FARMER'S TOUR

from ancient records of the eftate, that
thefe rich tracts were once black bogs,
reclaimed by watering : in this ftate they
have been for many years : 120 years ago
they let at 40 s. an acre for the mowing
alone ; but now at only 30 j.

Their whole value is quite artificial ;
they begin to water the firft autumnal
rains : all they can throw over the land
before Chrijlmas they reckon the beft, from
the warning new-dunged fields, &c. They
obferve to lay it as thin under water as
poffible, fo that the field retains its green
colour : they leave it thus for three weeks
or a month, and then draw it off, keeping
the field dry for a month. After this they
water it again feveral times during the reft
of the winter : they begin to feed them
with fheep at Candlemas ', and continue it
till May-day : at that time they water
for about a week or ten days, after which
they are left for hay ; the crop 1 \ or 2
tons. Immediately on clearing the field,
the water is let on to it again for a week,
which brings a growth for feeding, worth
10 j. an acre. 1

The hay from thefe meadows is coarfer

than



THROUGH ENGLAND. 2S5

than from up-land paftures ; but it is
worth from 25 s. to 30 s. a ton dry : yet
it is aflerted, that horfes prefer it to the
beft, and it does excellently for cattle, &c.
The beft of it is appropriated to the fheep.

There are fome fields adjoining the wa-
tered meadows that let only for js. 6d. an
acre, which would be advanced to the
value of 30 s. if the tenants had fpiri t
e nough to bring the water over them. The
foil of thefe trails is clay, marie, loam,
gravel, and black moory boggy land, and
the laft is as good as any ; indeed, fome of.
the beft meadows have been peat-bogs
within the memory of man. I muft beg
to obferve on this circumftance, that the
improvement of thefe tracts reputed fo
oarren, by watering alone, is one of the
molt important points in hufbandry that
has been difcovered. There are vaft traits
of fuch lands, which I have viewed in many
parts of the kingdom, quite flat, with
rivulets running through them, which
might with a little attention be improved
in this manner, to the rent of from 2.0s.
to f 30 j. an acre; but in countries, where
the hufbandry of watering is unknown*

fuch



286 THE FARMER'S TOUR
fuch fads are either treated as chimeras,
or if allowed, none have fpirit enough for
the practice. The proper way of proceeding
in fuch a cafe is, to fend to fome of thefe
countries for a man ufed to the taking
water-levels, and the diftribution of if
over water meadows : fuch an one in a
fmgle feafon, would teach the people of the
country how to perform every operation,
and the value of the lands would in thia
manner be advanced cent, per cent.

It is a maxim here, and probably a very
juft one, that water which comes from
cultivated lands is much more enriching,
than that which runs over only wafte
traces, and white water from chalk the
beft of all. Quere, If this does not depend
on the fame principle, as the qualities of
lime being communicated to fo vaft a
quantity of water. And they reckon, that
the black water from ling heaths does
no good.

They never manure thefe meadows
with any thing but water, except now
and then fpreading a little peat afhes on
ruftiy fpots.

Mr.



id
n

i

4



THROUGH ENGLAND. 287
Mr. Frampton, from this long experi-
ence of watering meadows, allured me,
that Walter BfytJbe, in his Improver Im-
provd, printed in the middle of the iaft
century, has (hewn himfelf to be perfectly
well acquainted with the whole theory and
practice of this part of hufbandry, and re-
commends the perufal of his book to all
perfons who have an opportunity to water,
but have not yet made ufe of it.

Refpe&ing the improvement of the
heaths or moors, of which Mr. Frampton
has vaft tracts, (fome of them purchafed
by him at a guinea an acre fee fimple)
he has made no flight progrefs in it.
He has encouraged his tenants to break
up, inclofe and improve, upwards of
eight hundred acres, which from yielding-
no rent at all, now let at 10/. an acre.
This fhews the real fact of the improveable
nature of thefe waftes, and the vail profit
that attends the execution ; for the rife
from nothing to I or. is a clear profit of
fome hundreds per cent, on the money laid
out; and thefe lands pay this rent from
being thrown into the common arable ma-
nagement of the country, which I need

not



288 THE FARMER'S TOUR

not tell the reader is vile enough. If thefc
lands will pay ioj. an acre, by fuch a
courfe of crops, inftead of being laid down
to grafs, they would undoubtedly bear a
much higher rent, if laid down in the
manner they ought.

But this gentleman has tried the im-
provement of fome of the worft. of his
waftes himfelf, and that he might be able
to know exactly in what degree the work
was profitable, he ordered various pieces
of the worft, he had to be inclofed for im-
provement. It was covered with furze and
ling, which were firft grubbed at Michael-
mas ; then the roots and clods were picked
and thrown into rows, to make way for the
plough in fpring. After the ploughing, i
the clods, &c. were turned to dry and t
burn. In March it was dragged, and in I
May crofs ploughed ; after which dragged i
again and harrowed. The clods were then I
again picked and burnt, and the allies fpread;
after this it was again dragged and har-^
rowed, covering turnip feed. The crops
have arifen from 5 s. to 40 s. in value.
Thefe are fed off before Chrtftmas, and the
land ploughed as faft as fed. In May it is

again



t



THROUGH ENGLAND. z3 9

igain ploughed, and then chalked; 15
vaggon loads an acre ; the chalk is dragged
n, and turnip feed, for a crop, at the fame
ime. This crop rifes in value from 20;.

40 j. an acre. After the turnips, oats are
Dwn ; the crop 25 bufhels an acre; and
rith the oats, clover and ray-grafs, which
> left 2 years ; this is applied to feeding
.ieep, and they reckon the value of it, in
lent, would be 8 /. an acre : on this they
->ld; and fow wheat or rye; the crop 14
I) 20 buihels an acre. If the clover and
Ky-grafs is left 3 years, the furze comes
|>ain, and would cover the land if left,
tfter this courfe of improvement, the
[nants would give 8 s. an acre for it on any
^afe.

1 The account of this improvement is to be
lited as follows ; the prices were given me
1ith the preceding particulars,

Expences per acre*

?.clofmg, - - 050

'rubbing, - - - 13 o

Icking and throwing into rows, 006

'oughing, - - o 15 o



Carry over, - ! 1

Vol. III. U



,



290 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Brought over, - jT.i i
Turning clods, drying, and burn-



6



ing,


o


2





Dragging,


o


5





Crofs ploughing,





6





Dragging and harrowing,,


o


4




Picking and burning,


o


2


a


Spreading aflies,


o


o


9


Dragging and harrowing,


o


3





Turnip feed and fowing,


o


I


3



*5



Turnips.

Ploughing, o

Second ditto, o
Chalking, 15 loads, total expence, 2

Spreading, o

Dragging, b

Seed and lowing, - o



Oafs.
Ploughing,
Harrowing,
Seed and fowing,
Mowing and har veiling,
Thraihing*
1



THROUGH ENGLAND. 291

Clover, &c.

Seed and fowing, - 070

Wheat.

Ploughing, - - 060

Harrowing, - - 026

Seed and fowing, - - 0120

leaping and harvefting, - 090

Thrafhing, - - - 043

1 13 3



Recapitulation.

■: ft Year, turnips, - 2 15 6

id Ditto, ditto* - - 2183

»d Ditto, oats, - - 135

|th, 5th, Grafs, - - .070

tith, Wheat, - - 1 13 3

Total expence, ■«■ 8175

Product.
[ft, Turnips, from 5 s. to /fox.

average, - - - 126

id, Ditto, 201. to 40 s. ; average, 1 10 o
}d, Oats, 25 bufhels, 326
Straw, o 15 o

3 17 6

|th, arid 5 th, Clover 2 years ;

rent 16 s. ; but as it would let



Garry over, - 6 10



2Q2 THE FARMERS TOUR

Brought over, - ^.6 io o
for that, the product muft
certainly be, - - 200

6 th, Wheat, 17



bufhels, at 6 j - .
Straw,


5 *

12





■ f * 1 rv




-


5 14


Total product,
Ditto expences,


14 4
8 17 5J


Clear profit


5 6 |



It then lets at 8 s. an acre ; this is clear
profit, and muft be valued at 30 years pur-I^
chafe, which is 12/. : the whole profit ^«jJ°P
acre is, therefore, - £. 1 7 6

On 100 acres it is - J 73- 18

On 1000 ditto, - 17*329 3

This is the fyftem which has been ex(
CUted over feveral fields : fome of them a
bad as any in the country; and it ha
anfwered in this manner. Now, I mill
beg leave to obierve, that the land turnin
out profitable on this method of conductin
the improvement, is the cleareft proof i
the world of its excellence. The methfi
taken to break it up is very expcnfive,



THROUGH ENGLAND. 293

the fame time that it is ineffectually done,

is appears by the furze (whins) coming

. igain if the land is left in grals longer than

( ;wo years. And the fyftem of keeping

:hefe foils in tillage is by no means advif-

ible ; they are much more adapted to being

Toermanent paftures ; not after laying down

; vrith ray-grafs ; for I would not ufe a grain

I of that feed ; none but white clover, tre-

j bile and rib-grafs ; the field would then be

A':or many years in a conftant ffcate of improve-

iJaaent.

J, Paring and burning is undoubtedly the
Joroper method of breaking up all wafte
lands that are over-run with any fort of
1 pontaneous rubbifh, for it is the only way
jibat kills it effectually ; unlefs lime is to be
« :iad, in great quantities, cheap, which is
;iot the cafe here. That this idea is juft here
I ;is well as elfewhere, Mr. Frampton has
: : ully experienced ; for iince the above im-
provements he has broken up fome wafte
i;' ; nthis manner, firft grubbing, and then
wring and burning, at 25 s. per acre ; after
vhich, one ploughing was given for tur-
- lips ; the crop, without hoeing, worth
50 s, an acre ; then the land was chalked,
U 3 and






m;



294 THE FARMER'S TOUR

and a fecond crop taken worth 3 /. an acre :
thefe prices fhew fufficiently that the land,
with proper management, is admirably
adapted to this hufbandry : Thus far the
courfe was good, but then vetches and peafe
were fown, which did not yield more than
40 s. an acre ; whereas oats, undoubtedly,
fhould have been the crop, which would
have been 5 or 6 quarters ; and with thefe
oats the grafs feeds; inftead of which
wheat was fown ; the crop 2 § quarters.
In a word, the whole courfe fhews, evi-
dently, that there is no fault in the foil,
but that with proper management, the pro-
fit of improving it is very great ; nay, it is
confiderable with improper management^
the goodnefs is fuch, that any conduct will
prove advantageous. — This defpifed, neg*-
letted land — the fee-fimple of which is
bought for a guinea an acre !

Mr. Frampton has improved confidera-
ble tracts by planting ; and the profit oi
that method will certainly be very great
He has a plantation of Scotch firs 1 1 years
old, againft one of the above new broken iff
fields, which are now worth is. 3*/. each.

I fhai:



I r/.TU.fw .zgj. JJnte.:fi.



/ ni j .



Saloon/
34 by Z4-


Dining Room,
Z4by zj.


'


1

1






r


U U

Breakfast R/wm

ziiyjo
























HaU












zpbi/zr
































THROUGH ENGLAND. 295

I mall here beg leave to calculate the
profit of improving thefe wafles, and in-
clude in the account both hufbandry and
planting, taking the above prices, &c. for
the foundation of the elKmates.

Plate XXVI. Fig. 1. reprefents a fquare
mile, or 640 acres.

It is divided into 130 acres of plantation,
and 5 1 o of fields for cultivation. The trees
I ihall fuppofe to be fpruce, Scotch, and fil-
ver firs, and larches, fet at two years old m
fquares of 3 feet, after the land is pared
and burnt.

Relative to the buildings I enquired par-
ticularly of Mr. Frampton (who has built
feveral new farm-houfes, &c.) concerning
the neceflary ones, and the expence ; and
thofe minuted below, are fuch as he pro-
nounced neceffary.

I lhall not fuppofe any grubbing, becaufe,
in the firft place, it is well known in the
north to be quite unneceffary on land
covered with whins 4 or 5 feet high ; and
in the next place, fuppofmg it done, the
value of the whin faggots, in this country,
would much more than pay the expence ;
U 4 but



296 THE "FARMER'S TOUR

but I fliould prefer burning the whole amount
of all the rubbifh.

One ploughing to be given for turnips,
which are undoubtedly to be well hand-
hoed twice ; the crop fed on the land by
fheep ; and in compliance with the preced-
ing trials, I (hall fuppofe a fecond crop of
turnips managed totally in the fame way*
except the circumftance, as above, of being
chalked ; which moft certainly is good huf.
bandry. After the turnips I fuppofe oats,
which mould not, on any account, be de-
viated from ; becaufe after pared and burnt
turnips, and a fecond crop of turnips, both
fed on the land by fheep, the product will
undoubtedly be immenfe ; and at the fame
time will not hurt the graffes,

Thefe I mould recommend to be i$lb*
white clover, 8/3. of rib-grafs, $lb. of bur-
net, and 5 lb. of trefoile j a ft er which the.
improvement is completed.

As to tilling the land, I fuppofe the whole
laid to grafs, and what arable may be
wanted, mould, on thefe foils, be gained
t>y paring and burning one old pafture

every



THROUGH ENGLAND. 2 97

every year, and laying one down in the
manner above-mentioned ; but this mould,
in quantity, be no more than diffident to
yield a field of turnips every year.

Expences.

In the fquare there are i o miles,
or 3200 rods of fencing.
The method propofed here,
is, to make a 6 foot bank,
and fow furze on the top;
the total expence of which
is is. ; but I fhall fuppofe
double ones, and a fpace
between planted with quick
double rows ; banks, 2 s.
quick, 1 s. in all 3/. £-4$o O

£leven gates, pofts, irons, &c.

complete, at 2 1 s. - 1 1 1 1 o

Buildings. — The houfe, jC- 2 5°
A barn, 100

A ftable, 40

A cowfhed, 50
Hogflies, &c. 20
Walling, 40

— 500 o o



Carry over, - 99 1 1 1 9



=98 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Brought over, - £.991 n 9
Planting 130 acres, the raifing

the trees and fetting, 40/.

an acre, - - 260 o o

Paring and burning, at 25 s. 800 o o
Chalking, which is entered

here though not done till

lecond crop, at 46/. 510

acres, - - 1173 o o

Total, - - 3224 11 o

■ 1 m

Firjl. Turnips.
Ploughing, at ioj-. This is a

monftrous price, but I allow

it to obviate objections, 255 o o

Harrowing feed and fowing,

2s. 6d. - - 63 12 6

Twice hoeing, 1 o s. - 255 o

Suppofe we allow rent of land,

tythe, and town charges,

2s. 6d.; plantation I s. 7026

Expence on Turnip crop, 643 15 o



Second. Turnips.
Ploughing thrice, at 5-r. 382 10 O

Harrowing feed, &c. - 63 12 6

M ^ ' »W

Carry over, - 446 2 6






THROUGH ENGLAND. -99

Brought over, - £«44° 2 6

Twice hoeing, - 255 o o

Rent, &c. - - 70 2 6

Second crop Turnips, 771 5 o

Oats.

Three ploughings, - 382 10 o

Harrowing and fowing, 63 12 6

Seed, at 10 j. - 255 o o

Mowing and harvefting, at 5 s. 127 10 o
Thrafhing, 6 quarters per acre,

3060 quarters, at 1 s. 153 o o
Carrying to market, fuppofe 6d.

a quarter, - - 76 10 o

Rent, - - 70 2 6

Expence on Oat crop, 1128 5 o



FirJl year of grafs.
Seeds fown with the preceding oats.
15 lb. Clover, 6d. 076
5 lb. Trefoile, 3 d. 013
$lb, Burnet, 3*/. 013
Slb f Rib-grafs, 6d. 4




Sowing, at 1 s.


14 357
2 5


©
10


Carry over,


382


jo



300 THE FARMER'S TOUR

Brought over, - £.382 10 o
Mowing, making, carting, and

flacking the hay, ioj. 255 o o

Rent, - - 70 2 6



Firfl year of grafs,


707


12


6


Firft improvement,


3224


11





Firfl turnips,


643


15





Second ditto,


771


5





Oats, -


1 128


5





Firft year grafs,


707


12


6


Total expence,


6475


8


6


ProduB,








Firft turnips, at 3 /.


1530








Second ditto,


1530








Oats, 6 quarters, at 20J.


3060








Firft year's grafs, 1 ton per








acre, at 30 s. and after-








grafs 5 j.


892


10





Total product,


7012


10





Expences,


6475


8


6


Profit,


537


1


6



Here



THROUGH ENGLAND. 301

Here we find that the improver enters to
pofleflion of a new created eftate, confiding
of 640 acres; 130 of young plantation,


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Online LibraryArthur YoungThe farmer's tour through the east of England : being the register of a journey through various counties of this kingdom, to enquire into the state of agriculture, &c. ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 12 of 19)